The Society of the Muslim Brothers, better known as the Muslim Brotherhood, is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassan al-Banna in 1928. The organization gained supporters throughout the Arab world and influenced other Islamist groups such as Hamas with its "model of political activism combined with Islamic charity work", in 2012 sponsored the elected political party in Egypt after the January Revolution in 2011. However, it faced periodic government crackdowns for alleged terrorist activities, as of 2015 is considered a terrorist organization by the governments of Bahrain, Russia, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates; the Brotherhood's stated goal is to instill the Quran and the Sunnah as the "sole reference point for... ordering the life of the Muslim family, community... and state". For many years the movement was supported by Saudi Arabia, with which it shared some enemies and some points of doctrine. Today, the primary state backers of the Muslim Brotherhood are Turkey.
As a Pan-Islamic and social movement, it preached Islam, taught the illiterate, set up hospitals and business enterprises. The group spread to other Muslim countries but has its largest, or one of its largest, organizations in Egypt despite a succession of government crackdowns in 1948, 1954, 1965, 2013 after plots, or alleged plots, of assassination and overthrow were uncovered; the Arab Spring brought it legalization and substantial political power at first, but as of 2013 it has suffered severe reversals. The Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood was legalized in 2011 and won several elections, including the 2012 presidential election when its candidate Mohamed Morsi became Egypt's first president to gain power through an election, though one year following massive demonstrations and unrest, he was overthrown by the military and placed under house arrest; the Brotherhood itself claims to be a peaceful, democratic organization, that its leader "condemns violence and violent acts". The Brotherhood's English-language website describes its principles as including firstly the introduction of the Islamic Sharia as "the basis for controlling the affairs of state and society" and secondly, working to unify "Islamic countries and states among the Arab states, liberate them from foreign imperialism".
According to a spokesman on its English-language website, the Muslim Brotherhood believes in reform, freedom of assembly, etc. We believe that the political reform is the natural gateway for all other kinds of reform. We have announced our acceptance of democracy that acknowledges political pluralism, the peaceful rotation of power and the fact that the nation is the source of all powers; as we see it, political reform includes the termination of the state of emergency, restoring public freedoms, including the right to establish political parties, whatever their tendencies may be, the freedom of the press, freedom of criticism and thought, freedom of peaceful demonstrations, freedom of assembly, etc. It includes the dismantling of all exceptional courts and the annulment of all exceptional laws, establishing the independence of the judiciary, enabling the judiciary to and supervise general elections so as to ensure that they authentically express people's will, removing all obstacles that restrict the functioning of civil society organizations, etc.
Its founder, Hassan Al-Banna, was influenced by Islamic modernist reformers Muhammad Abduh and Rashid Rida, with the group structure and approach being influenced by Sufism. Al-Banna avoided controversies over doctrine, it downplayed doctrinal differences between schools emphasizing the political importance of worldwide unity of the Muslim Nation. As Islamic Modernist beliefs were co-opted by secularist rulers and official `ulama, the Brotherhood has become traditionalist and conservative, "being the only available outlet for those whose religious and cultural sensibilities had been outraged by the impact of Westernization". Al-Banna believed the Quran and Sunnah constitute a perfect way of life and social and political organization that God has set out for man. Islamic governments must be based on this system and unified in a Caliphate; the Muslim Brotherhood's goal, as stated by its founder al-Banna was to drive out British colonial and other Western influences, reclaim Islam's manifest destiny—an empire, stretching from Spain to Indonesia.
The Brotherhood preaches that Islam will bring social justice, the eradication of poverty and sinful behavior, political freedom. Blended with methods of modern social sciences, some key thinkers of Brotherhood have contemplated the Islamic perspective on bureaucratic effectiveness, mapping out solutions to problems of formalism and irresponsiveness to public concerns in public administration, which pertains to the pro-democratic tenets of Muslim Brotherhood; such variations of thoughts have purportedly negated the realities of contemporary Muslim countries as their authors have proclaimed. On the issue of women and gender the Muslim Brotherhood interprets Islam conservatively, its founder called for "a campaign against ostentation in dress and loose behavior", "segregation of male and female students", a separate curriculum for girls, "the prohibition of dancing and other such pastimes... "There have been breakaway groups from the movement, including the Al-Gama'a al-Isla
International Working People's Association
The International Working People's Association, sometimes known as the "Black International," was an international anarchist political organization established in 1881 at a convention held in London, England. In America the group is best remembered as the political organization uniting Albert Parsons, August Spies, other anarchist leaders prosecuted in the wake of the 1886 Haymarket bombing in Chicago; the slow pace of progress and limited results managed by the Socialist Labor Party of America during its first years proved frustrating and demoralizing for many Sections of the organization. Absent of significant electoral success, many Sections of the SLP began to debate the question of armed struggle and to organize paramilitary Lehr-und-Wehr Vereine; this movement was strong in the tough industrial center of Chicago, populated by a large number of German-speaking immigrants cognizant of the European revolutionary movement and its German-based propaganda literature. Anarchists and revolutionary socialists were united by their disdain with electoral politics and piecemeal ameliorative reform.
Such tepid changes such as currency reform, civil service reform, state ownership of public works, reduction of the tariff were dismissed as inconsequential. Only through the application of armed force would revolutionary transformation of American society and economy be possible, some believed. Various independent revolutionary clubs were formed. In 1881, a congress of anarchist and social revolutionary clubs was held in London, England aiming to establish a new international organization to succeed the International Workingmen's Association, the so-called "First International" dominated by supporters of socialism and from which anarchists headed by Mikhail Bakunin had been expelled; this new organization, the International Working People's Association was intended to provide rallying point around which various national groups could organize themselves. The London gathering was attended by a New York social revolutionary group, which upon returning to America called for a gathering of American revolutionary groups in Chicago.
The 1881 Chicago convention which followed adopted for itself the name Revolutionary Socialist Party and approved a platform urging the formation of trade unions on "communistic" principles and urging that support only be lent to unions of a "progressive" character. The platform denounced use of the ballot as a vehicle for revolutionary social change, declaring instead that elections were "an invention of the bourgeoisie to fool the workers." Instead, it would be "armed organizations of workingmen who stand ready with the gun to resist encroachment upon their rights" which were pivotal, the platform declared. A key turning-point came in December 1882 with the arrival in America of Johann Most, a former parliamentary representative of the Social Democratic Party of Germany who had turned to anarchism. Most had just finished up a 16-month term of imprisonment for having glorified the assassination of Russian Tsar Alexander II and urged its emulation in his newspaper, Freiheit. A popular orator and brilliant journalist in the German language, Most's arrival was celebrated by an enthusiastic crowd in the great hall of the Cooper Union Institute in New York City.
A tour of the principal industrial cities of America by Most followed in early 1883, a successful venture which led to the formation of a number of new local anarchist "groups". Further aiding the anarchist cause, Most brought with him to New York City his newspaper, which uncompromisingly advocated struggle against state authority, widening the gap between the electorally oriented socialists of the Socialist Labor Party and the burgeoning movement of "Social Revolutionists"; the split between the SLP and the social revolutionists and anarchist was formalized in 1883, when the groups held separate conventions, in Baltimore and Pittsburgh, respectively. The October 1883 convention of the anarchists and revolutionary socialists held in Pittsburgh was attended by representatives of groups in 26 cities, including among them Johann Most, August Spies, Albert R. Parsons, it was the Pittsburgh conclave which formally launched the International Working People's Association in America. The convention adopted a manifesto known as the Pittsburgh Proclamation, declaring the organization for "destruction of the existing class rule by all means" and for the establishment of an economic system based upon "free contracts between the autonomous communes and associations, resting upon a federalistic basis."
An "Information Bureau" in Chicago was established to coordinate the activity of the "loose-knit federation of autonomous groups" declaring allegiance to the organization. Delegates to the Pittsburgh convention agreed in the efficacy of armed force, but differed as to its function. Eastern delegates surrounding Johann Most argued in favor of the "propaganda of the deed"—individualistic acts of terrorism which would win alienated workers to the anarchist cause through the power of example. Western-based delegates such as Spies and Parsons argued instead for a primary emphasis on work in trade unions as the vehicle for revolutionary change, dismissing the labor movement's obsessive concern with immediate demands but insisting that the direct action of unions would be key in establishing the embryonic production groups of the new society; this mixture of anarchism and syndicalism would be known as the "Chicago Idea". The IWPA grew in America from the time of its launch in the fall of 1883, reaching a peak of about 5,000 members.
Liberal International is the political international federation for liberal political parties. Its headquarters is located at 1 Whitehall London, SW1A 2HD within the National Liberal Club, it was founded in Oxford in 1947, has become the pre-eminent network for liberal parties and for the strengthening of liberalism around the world. The Oxford Manifesto describes the basic political principles of the Liberal International; the Liberal International Constitution gives its purposes as to win general acceptance of Liberal principles which are international in their nature throughout the world, to foster the growth of a free society based on personal liberty, personal responsibility and social justice, to provide the means of co-operation and interchange of information between the member organisations, between men and women of all countries who accept these principles. The principles that unite member parties from Africa, the Americas and Europe are: respect for human rights and fair elections and multi-party democracy, social justice, market economy, free trade, environmental sustainability and a strong sense of international solidarity.
The aims of Liberal International are set out in a series of seven manifestos, written between 1946 and 1997 and are furthered by a variety of bodies including a near yearly conference for liberal parties and individuals from around the world. The bureau of Liberal International is elected every 18 months by the delegates of the congress; the 14th president of Liberal International is Hakima el Haite of the Mouvement Populaire, is former a Minister of Environment, UN climate champion, climate scientist. Madam El Haite succeeded Dr Juli Minoves Andorra's foreign minister and representative to the United Nations. Former Presidents include Hans Van Baalen MEP, Lord John Alderdice, Dutch politician and former European Commissioner Frits Bolkestein, German politician Otto Graf Lambsdorff, Spain's first democratically elected prime minister after Francoist Spain, Adolfo Suárez. Other members of the bureau include Deputy President Prof. Karl-Heinz Paque, Vice Presidents Cellou Dalein Diallo. There are Judith Pallares MP and Minister Omar Youm.
The secretary general is a former Member of Parliament from South Africa. Liberal International awards prizes to worthy individuals in the fields of human rights and liberalism. Prize for Freedom: The Liberal International Prize for Freedom is LI’s most prestigious human rights award. Conveyed annually since 1984 to an individual who of liberal conviction who has made outstanding efforts for the defence of freedom and human rights, recipients include Maria Corina Machado, Senator Leila de Lima, Raif Badawi, Waris Dirie, Vaclav Havel. Medal of Liberalism: The Liberal International Medal of Liberalism is awarded to individuals who have worked to advance liberal values on a local and international level. Recipients include President Alassane Ouattara; the LI Human Rights Bulletin is published three times per year and consists of opinion articles, video interviews and digest of the work of the LI human rights committee. Thematic publications are in print on an ad-hoc basis. Recent texts have offered a liberal perspective on issues ranging from freedom of belief to the responsibility to protect.
The Oxford Manifesto, drawn up in April 1947 at Wadham College in Oxford by representatives from 19 liberal political parties, led by Salvador de Madariaga, is a document describing the basic political principles of the Liberal International. The Oxford Manifesto was inspired by the ideas of William Beveridge and is regarded as one of the defining political documents of the 20 century. Fifty years on, in 1997, Liberal International returned to Oxford and issued a supplement to the original manifesto, The Liberal Agenda for the 21st century, describing Liberal policies in greater detail; the second Oxford Manifesto was adopted by the 48th Congress of Liberal International, held on 27–30 November 1997 in the Oxford Town Hall. In 2017, the global federation marked its 70th anniversary with the adoption of the Andorra Liberal Manifesto for the twenty-first century. A three-year project across numerous continents initiated by president Juli Minoves, the ALM embodied the widest consultation of views undertaken by Liberal International in order to compile a policy document.
Cooperating and regional organisations are groups with a recognised status in the constitution of Liberal International as bodies that share the values and objectives of LI but do not operate as a political party. Co-operating organisations have the right of representation but in no case the right to vote at statutory events; the International is in a loose association with the following organisations: Liberalism by country Prize For Freedom Alliance of Democrats European Democratic Party Liberal International official site The Liberal Agenda for the 21st century Former LI Vice President Bi-khim Hsiao
International Conference of Marxist–Leninist Parties and Organizations (Unity & Struggle)
The International Conference of Marxist–Leninist Parties and Organizations is an international network of Hoxhaist, Marxist-Leninist communist parties that uphold the line of Albanian leader Enver Hoxha and the Party of Labour of Albania. It is therefore part of the tendency within Marxist-Leninist politics known as anti-revisionism, it is known as the International Conference of Marxist–Leninist Parties and Organizations, or International Conference of Marxist-Leninist Parties and Organizations to distinguish it from the organization of the same name which espouses Maoism, the International Conference of Marxist–Leninist Parties and Organizations or International Conference of Marxist-Leninist Parties and Organizations. The ICMLPO holds a general conference once a year as well as holding regional meetings in Europe and Latin America; the latest conference took place in Mexico in November of 2018. The theoretical organ of the Conference, Unity & Struggle, is published every 6 months in many languages.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership of the means of production and workers' self-management, as well as the political theories and movements associated with them. Social ownership can be citizen ownership of equity. There are many varieties of socialism and there is no single definition encapsulating all of them, with social ownership being the common element shared by its various forms. Socialist systems are divided into market forms. Non-market socialism involves the substitution of factor markets and money with engineering and technical criteria based on calculation performed in-kind, thereby producing an economic mechanism that functions according to different economic laws from those of capitalism. Non-market socialism aims to circumvent the inefficiencies and crises traditionally associated with capital accumulation and the profit system. By contrast, market socialism retains the use of monetary prices, factor markets and in some cases the profit motive, with respect to the operation of owned enterprises and the allocation of capital goods between them.
Profits generated by these firms would be controlled directly by the workforce of each firm, or accrue to society at large in the form of a social dividend. The socialist calculation debate concerns the feasibility and methods of resource allocation for a socialist system. Socialist politics has been both nationalist in orientation. Originating within the socialist movement, social democracy has embraced a mixed economy with a market that includes substantial state intervention in the form of income redistribution, a welfare state. Economic democracy proposes a sort of market socialism where there is more decentralized control of companies, currencies and natural resources; the socialist political movement includes a set of political philosophies that originated in the revolutionary movements of the mid-to-late 18th century and out of concern for the social problems that were associated with capitalism. By the late 19th century, after the work of Karl Marx and his collaborator Friedrich Engels, socialism had come to signify opposition to capitalism and advocacy for a post-capitalist system based on some form of social ownership of the means of production.
By the 1920s, social democracy and communism had become the two dominant political tendencies within the international socialist movement. By this time, socialism emerged as "the most influential secular movement of the twentieth century, worldwide, it is a political ideology, a wide and divided political movement" and while the emergence of the Soviet Union as the world's first nominally socialist state led to socialism's widespread association with the Soviet economic model, some economists and intellectuals argued that in practice the model functioned as a form of state capitalism or a non-planned administrative or command economy. Socialist parties and ideas remain a political force with varying degrees of power and influence on all continents, heading national governments in many countries around the world. Today, some socialists have adopted the causes of other social movements, such as environmentalism and progressivism. In 21st century America, the term socialism, without clear definition, has become a pejorative used by conservatives to taint liberal and progressive policies and public figures.
For Andrew Vincent, "he word ‘socialism’ finds its root in the Latin sociare, which means to combine or to share. The related, more technical term in Roman and medieval law was societas; this latter word could mean companionship and fellowship as well as the more legalistic idea of a consensual contract between freemen". The term "socialism" was created by Henri de Saint-Simon, one of the founders of what would be labelled "utopian socialism". Simon coined the term as a contrast to the liberal doctrine of "individualism", which stressed that people act or should act as if they are in isolation from one another; the original "utopian" socialists condemned liberal individualism for failing to address social concerns during the industrial revolution, including poverty, social oppression and gross inequalities in wealth, thus viewing liberal individualism as degenerating society into supporting selfish egoism that harmed community life through promoting a society based on competition. They presented socialism as an alternative to liberal individualism based on the shared ownership of resources, although their proposals for socialism differed significantly.
Saint-Simon proposed economic planning, scientific administration and the application of modern scientific advancements to the organisation of society. By contrast, Robert Owen proposed the organisation of ownership in cooperatives; the term "socialism" is attributed to Pierre Leroux and to Marie Roch Louis Reybaud in France. The modern definition and usage of "socialism" settled by the 1860s, becoming the predominant term among the group of words "co-operative", "mutualist" and "associationist", used as synonyms; the term "communism" fell out of use during this period, despite earlier distinctions between socialism and communism from the 1840s. An early distinction between socialism and communism was that the former aimed to only socialise production while the latter aimed to socialise both production and consumption. However, M
International Workingmen's Association
The International Workingmen's Association called the First International, was an international organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing socialist and anarchist groups and trade unions that were based on the working class and class struggle. It was founded in 1864 in a workmen's meeting held in London, its first congress was held in 1866 in Geneva. In Europe, a period of harsh reaction followed the widespread Revolutions of 1848; the next major phase of revolutionary activity began twenty years with the founding of the IWA in 1864. At its peak, the IWA reported having 8 million members. In 1872, it split in two over conflicts between statist and anarchist factions and dissolved in 1876; the Second International was founded in 1889. Following the January Uprising in Poland in 1863, French and British workers started to discuss developing a closer working relationship. Henri Tolain, Joseph Perrachon and Charles Limousin visited London in July 1863, attending a meeting held in St. James's Hall in honour of the Polish uprising.
Here, there was discussion of the need for an international organization, which would amongst other things prevent the import of foreign workers to break strikes. In September 1864, some French delegates again visited London with the concrete aim of setting up a special committee for the exchange of information upon matters of interest to the workers of all lands. On 28 September, a great international meeting for the reception of the French delegates took place in St. Martin’s Hall in London; the meeting was attended by a wide array of European radicals, including English Owenites, followers of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon and Louis Auguste Blanqui and Polish nationalists, Italian republicans and German socialists. Included among the last-mentioned of this eclectic band was a somewhat obscure 46-year-old émigré journalist Karl Marx, who would soon come to play a decisive role in the organisation; the positivist historian Edward Spencer Beesly, a professor at London University, was in the chair. His speech pilloried the violent proceedings of the governments and referred to their flagrant breaches of international law and advocated a union of the workers of the world for the realisation of justice on earth.
George Odger, Secretary of the London Trades Council, read a speech calling for international co-operation. The meeting unanimously decided to found an international organisation of workers; the centre was to be in London, directed by a committee of 21, instructed to draft a programme and constitution. Most of the British members of the committee were drawn from the Universal League for the Material Elevation of the Industrious Classes and were noted trade-union leaders like Odger, George Howell, Cyrenus Osborne Ward and Benjamin Lucraft and included Owenites and Chartists; the French members were Victor Le Lubez and Bosquet. Italy was represented by Fontana. Other members were Louis Wolff, Johann Eccarius and at the foot of the list Marx, who participated in his individual capacity and did not speak during the meeting; this executive committee in turn selected a subcommittee to do the actual writing of the organisational programme—a group which included Marx and which met at his home about a week after the conclusion of the St. Martin's Hall assembly.
This subcommittee deferred the task of collective writing in favor of sole authorship by Marx and it was he who drew up the fundamental documents of the new organisation. On 5 October, the General Council was formed with co-opted additional members representing other nationalities, it was based at the headquarters of the Universal League for the Material Elevation of the Industrious Classes at 18 Greek Street. Different groups offered proposals for the organisation. Louis Wolff offered a proposal based on the rules and constitution of the Italian Workingmen’s Association and John Weston, an Owenite tabled a programme. Wolff left for Lubez rewrote it in a way which appalled Marx. Through deft manipulation of the sub-committee, Marx was left with all the papers and set about writing the Address to the Working Classes to, attached a simplified set of rules. At first, the IWA had male membership, although in April 1865 it was agreed that women could become members; the initial leadership was male.
At the IWA General Council meeting on 16 April 1867, a letter from the secularist speaker Harriet Law about women's rights was read and it was agreed to ask her if she would be willing to attend council meetings. On 25 June 1867, Law was admitted to the General Council and for the next five years was the only woman representative. Due to the wide variety of philosophies present in the First International, there was conflict from the start; the first objections to Marx's influence came from the mutualists, who opposed communism and statism. However, shortly after Mikhail Bakunin and his followers joined in 1868, the First International became polarised into two camps, with Marx and Bakunin as their respective figureheads; the clearest differences between the groups emerged over their proposed strategies for achieving their visions of socialism. The anarchists grouped around Bakunin favoured "direct economical struggle against capitalism, without interfering in the political parliamentary agitation".
Marxist thinking at that time focused on parliamentary activity. For example, when the new German Empire of 1871 introduced male suffrage, many German socialists became active in t
David Ben-Gurion was the primary national founder of the State of Israel and the first Prime Minister of Israel. Ben-Gurion's passion for Zionism, which began early in life, led him to become a major Zionist leader and Executive Head of the World Zionist Organization in 1946; as head of the Jewish Agency from 1935, president of the Jewish Agency Executive, he was the de facto leader of the Jewish community in Palestine, led its struggle for an independent Jewish state in Mandatory Palestine. On 14 May 1948, he formally proclaimed the establishment of the State of Israel, was the first to sign the Israeli Declaration of Independence, which he had helped to write. Ben-Gurion led Israel during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, united the various Jewish militias into the Israel Defense Forces. Subsequently, he became known as "Israel's founding father". Following the war, Ben-Gurion served as Minister of Defense; as Prime Minister, he helped build the state institutions, presiding over various national projects aimed at the development of the country.
He oversaw the absorption of vast numbers of Jews from all over the world. A centerpiece of his foreign policy was improving relationships with the West Germans, he worked well with Konrad Adenauer's government in Bonn, West Germany provided large sums in compensation for Nazi Germany's confiscation of Jewish property during the Holocaust. In 1954 he resigned as both Prime Minister and Minister of Defense, although he remained a member of the Knesset. However, he returned as Minister of Defense in 1955 after the Lavon Affair resulted in the resignation of Pinhas Lavon. In the year he became Prime Minister again, following the 1955 elections. Under his leadership, Israel responded aggressively to Arab guerrilla attacks, in 1956, invaded Egypt along with British and French forces after Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal during what became known as the Suez Crisis, he stepped down from office in 1963, retired from political life in 1970. He moved to Sde Boker, a kibbutz in the Negev desert, where he lived until his death.
Posthumously, Ben-Gurion was named one of Time magazine's 100 Most Important People of the 20th century. David Ben-Gurion was born in Płońsk in Congress Poland – part of the Russian Empire, his father, Avigdor Grün, was a leader in the Hovevei Zion movement. His mother, died when he was 11 years old. Ben-Gurion's birth certificate, when rediscovered in Poland in 2003, indicated that he had a twin brother who died shortly after birth. At the age of 14 he and two friends formed a youth club, promoting Hebrew studies and emigration to the Holy Land. In 1905, as a student at the University of Warsaw, he joined the Social-Democratic Jewish Workers' Party – Poalei Zion, he was arrested twice during the Russian Revolution of 1905. Ben-Gurion discussed his hometown in his memoirs, saying: "For many of us, anti-Semitic feeling had little to do with our dedication. I never suffered anti-Semitic persecution. Płońsk was remarkably free of it... And I think this significant, it was Płońsk that sent the highest proportion of Jews to Eretz Israel from any town in Poland of comparable size.
We emigrated not for negative reasons of escape but for the positive purpose of rebuilding a homeland... Life in Płońsk was peaceful enough. There were three main communities: Russians and Poles.... The number of Jews and Poles in the city were equal, about five thousand each; the Jews, formed a compact, centralized group occupying the innermost districts whilst the Poles were more scattered, living in outlying areas and shading off into the peasantry. When a gang of Jewish boys met a Polish gang the latter would inevitably represent a single suburb and thus be poorer in fighting potential than the Jews who if their numbers were fewer could call on reinforcements from the entire quarter. Far from being afraid of them, they were rather afraid of us. In general, relations were amicable, though distant." In 1906 he immigrated to Ottoman Palestine. A month after his arrival, he was elected to the central committee of the newly formed branch of Poalei Zion in Jaffa, becoming chairman of the party's platform committee.
He advocated a more nationalist program than other more leftist or Marxist committee members. The following year he complained about the Russian domination of the group. At the time the Jewish population in Palestine was around 55,000 – of whom 40,000 held Russian citizenship. Ben-Gurion worked picking oranges in Petah Tikva, in 1907 he moved to the kibbutzim in Galilee, where he worked as an agricultural laborer and withdrew from politics; the following year, he joined an armed group acting as a watchmen. On 12 April 1909, following an attempted robbery in which an Arab from Kafr Kanna was killed, Ben-Gurion was involved in fighting during which one guard and a farmer from Sejera were killed. On 7 November 1911, Ben-Gurion arrived in Thessaloniki in order to learn Turkish for his law studies; the city, which had a large Jewish community, impressed Ben-Gurion, who called it "a Jewish city that has no equal in the world". He realized there that "the Jews were capable of all types of work"; some of the city's Jews were rich businessmen and professors, while others were merchants and porters.
In 1912, he moved to Constantinople, the Ottoman capital, to study law at Istanbul University together with Yitzhak Ben-Zvi, adopted the Hebrew name Ben-Gurion, after the Jewish leading figure Yose