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International cricket

International cricket matches are played between teams representing their nations organised by the International Cricket Council. The main forms are Test matches, One-Day matches and Twenty20 matches. Most games are played as parts of ‘tours’, when one nation travels to another for a number of weeks or months, plays a number of matches of various sorts against the host nation; the ICC organises competitions that are for several countries at once, including the Cricket World Cup & ICC T20 World Cup. There was no formal structure for international cricket until the early twenty-first century, it had long been traditional for countries, without any intervention from a body such as the ICC, to organise for themselves the various cricket matches. The ICC committed the Test-playing nations to play each other in a programme of matches over a period of 10 years known as the ICC Future Tours Programme; this system was set up to encourage some of the better-established countries to play the lesser nations more frequently.

Most Test, One-Day and Twenty20 matches take place in the form of "tours". In a tour, one nation travels to another and plays warm-up matches, which may be first-class matches, against domestic teams such as county or state teams, a series of Test matches against the host nation, either a series of One-Day and T20 matches against the host nation or a tournament involving the host nation and another touring nation. Tours may include just one or two of these formats. Test series can last from two to six matches. Six-match series were common in the 1970s and early 1980s, with the last six-match series to date taking place in 1997–98 between the West Indies and England. Ashes Test series in England were six-match affairs between 1981 and 1997, but Australia reverted to five matches in its home series from 1982–83; the most important series last four or five matches, while the less important ones last two to three matches. Sometimes, a perpetual trophy is awarded to the winning team. Perpetual trophies include: The Ashes is the most famous perpetual trophy.

Frank Worrell Trophy Trans-Tasman Trophy Chappell–Hadlee Trophy Border-Gavaskar Trophy Wisden Trophy Warne–Muralidaran Trophy Basil D'Oliveira Trophy Pataudi Trophy Sobers–Tissera Trophy Anthony de Mello Trophy Freedom Trophy One-day series last from three to seven matches. T20 series last from one to three matches. Tours may include a multi-team one-day tournament referred to as a "triangular" or "quadrangular" tournament. Teams play a round-robin format with teams playing each other twice. Points are awarded for wins, ties and no results, some tournaments award bonus points based on the margin of victory. There may be a final match played between the two teams with the most points from the round-robin stage. In 2001 the ICC decided to create a plan designed to make all ICC full member countries play each other for Test cricket over a period of ten years; this was approved in February 2001 by the ICC member countries. Starting from 2002 and running until 2011, it ensured that each Test country played the other nine home and away over a period of ten years, in addition to any matches the individual cricket boards organised on their own.

Thus and Pakistan played 12 ODIs and 6 Tests against each other in their respective countries from 2004 to April 2005, played a further series of 3 Tests and 5 ODIs in the winter of 2006. However, because of the rigorous schedule of the Ten Year Plan, there was hardly any time left over to schedule other series, there were voices criticising the amount of international cricket, played, with the risk of injury and player burnout as reasons for why this amount should be reduced; the ICC defended their policy, citing the number of international players in English county cricket as a sign that there was not too much cricket for the players. Despite criticism of its original Ten Year Plan, the ICC created an ICC Future Tours Programme. In the same way as for the Ten Year Plan, this is a schedule of international cricket tours which structure the programme of cricket for ICC full members, with an objective of each team playing each other at least once at home and once away over a period of 10 years.

If the cricket boards of two individual countries reach an agreement, they can play more than two series. If a team doesn't want to travel to a particular country for a bilateral series due to security reasons by the mutual agreement of the respective boards, that series can be shifted to a neutral venue or another country with appropriate facilities, such as in the United Arab Emirates; the Pakistan Cricket Team has played many of their home bilateral series on Emirati soil. In addition to tours, nations may organise one-day matches at neutral venues; the Sahara Cup was a one-day series played annually between India and Pakistan in Toronto, until the Indian government ordered the suspension of all cricketing ties with Pakistan due to repeated ceasefire violations and failure to maintain the peace agreement. The BCCI revived ties in 2004. A semiannual Triangular Tournament was organised at Sharjah, in the United Arab Emirates. However, the tournament has lost its lustre because the overwhelming number of cricket matches has spoiled the pitch.

In contrast

Anders Baasmo Christiansen

Anders Baasmo is a Norwegian actor from Hamar. Baasmo graduated from the Norwegian Acting Academy in 2000, he started his professional career at the Trøndelag Teater in Norway. He joined the Det Norske Teatret in Oslo. Baasmo earned his breakthrough in 2003 when he received the Amanda award for his performance in the Norwegian picture Buddy, he won the TV award Gullruten in 2007 for his portrait of Henrik Ibsen in the TV-series An Immortal Man on NRK. Baasmo starred in the Swedish 2008 film Arn – The Kingdom at Road's End; that same year he won Norway's most prestigious actor's award, the Heddaprisen, for his interpretation of Hamlet. He became the first actor to collect an Amanda, a Gullruten and a Hedda award, he received the Shooting Stars Award, the annual acting award for up-and-coming actors by European Film Promotion, at the Berlin International Film Festival 2010. Baasmo voiced Hans in the Norwegian dub of the Disney animated film Frozen and played Herman Watzinger in the 2012 adaptation of Thor Heyerdahl's Kon-Tiki.

He starred in the hit sitcom Dag between 2010 and 2015. Anders Baasmo Christiansen on IMDb Anders Baasmo Christiansen at EFP - Shooting Stars

Sir John Stonhouse, 2nd Baronet (creation of 1670)

Sir John Stonhouse, 2nd Baronet was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1675 and 1690. Stonhouse was the second son of Sir George Stonhouse, 3rd Baronet and his wife Margaret Lovelace, daughter of Richard Lovelace, 1st Baron Lovelace, he subscribed at Queen's College, Oxford on 7 November 1655 and was admitted to Gray's Inn on 28 November 1656. In 1670, Stonhouse's father tried to surrender the patent of creation of the existing baronetcy and have a new one granted by King Charles II in order to disinherit his eldest son George from the baronetcy; this gave the succession to John, his second son instead. However it was concluded that a new creation could not displace a former creation and so on the death of his father in 1675 Stonhouse succeeded to the 1670 creation, while his brother George was able to claim the original title. In 1675, Stonhouse was elected Member of Parliament for Abingdon in the Cavalier Parliament, he was re-elected in the two elections of 1679, in 1681 and in 1685.

In the 1689 election, he was defeated by the Whig Thomas Medlycott, but the poll was voided after a riot. When the poll was held again in May, John Southby was elected, but Stonhouse raised an election petition to contest the result, he was successful, with the Commons ruling in his favour on 8 January 1690, but the Parliament was dissolved on 27 January and so Stonhouse never took his seat. Stonhouse died at the age of about 60. Stonhouse married by licence issued on 10 October 1668, Martha Spencer, widow of Richard Spencer, merchant of London and daughter of Robert Brigges and his wife Sarah Moreton, daughter of Thomas Moreton, of Shiffnal, Shropshire

Siege of Belgrade (1717)

The siege of Belgrade in 1717 occurred during the Austro-Venetian-Ottoman war, after the Austrian victory of Petrovaradin. The siege ended on August 17, 1717 with the conquest of the stronghold by Austrian troops under the command of Prince Eugene of Savoy. After the success of his 1716 campaign, Eugene of Savoy had one main objective: the conquest of the fortress of Belgrade; the city is located at the confluence of the Sava river and the Danube, its fortress, on an arm of the former river, could be attacked from the south. Its walls could resist both attacks from the south-east and those from the north-west, this made it a key to the Balkans for both the Austrians and the Ottoman Empire. In 1688, Belgrade was wrested from the Ottomans after a siege, but two years the Ottoman Empire recaptured it. Prince Eugene was wounded during the first siege and now supported the need for a river flotilla on the Danube as being essential for the conquest of Belgrade; the mission of the fleet was to provide support to the imperial army.

Eugene managed to enlist the Emperor's support, the crew for the ships was hastily recruited in the Netherlands. The allies of Austria were Russia, which limited itself to a prudent line of defense, Poland, both still militarily engaged in the Great Northern War against Sweden and Charles XII. Meanwhile, the states of the Holy Roman Empire provided only a modest cash contribution and Bavaria joined the side of Austria. On May 13, 1717 Prince Eugene left Vienna, with his troops from Futtak. Before the troops were assembled, on May 21, Prince Eugene began his march toward Belgrade with about 70,000 men, reinforced by 6,000 Bavarian and other Austrian troops stationed in the Banat for a total of about 100,000 men. In addition, he commanded the Danube flotilla, consisting of about fifty boats of various types and ten naval vessels armed with light artillery. Eugene wanted to reach the city and begin the siege as soon as possible before any Ottoman troops could reinforce the city; the biggest problem was that the fortress could not be attacked from the south, progress could only be made after crossing the Danube and the Sava.

He chose the direct route, by crossing the Sava river, although, on this side, the fortress offered its strongest side. On the advice of one of his generals, he chose to return across the Danube, surprising the Ottomans who did not expect the enemy to cross the river at that point; the Austrian army managed to cross intact between June 15 and 16. Eugene deployed his artillery while the Imperial troops began digging trenches, both in front of the fortress and at the rear of the army; the Ottoman defenders in Belgrade numbered 30,000 men. Prince Eugene was informed; this army arrived on July 28. However, instead of taking action against the besiegers, they began to dig trenches. Prince Eugene's troops were caught between the relief army; because of losses to cannon fire as well as malaria, the strength of the Austrian army was diminishing. The Ottomans wanted to let the enemy wear themselves down in a long siege. While the situation was rather worrying for the imperial troops, on August 14, Belgrade was shaken by a powerful explosion: a mortar shell struck the powder magazine inside the fortress and 3,000 defenders were killed in the explosion.

At this time, Eugene ordered an attack on the Ottomans for the next day: at midnight, on August 16, the attack began with infantry in the center and cavalry on the wings. Apart from those men necessary to defend the trenches facing the fortress, the entire army was involved in the attack; the night attack surprised the Ottomans. After 10 hours of fighting, the battle was won by the Austrians; the garrison of Belgrade surrendered after the defeat of the army in exchange for safe passage from the city. Ottoman losses were 20,000 men and a large amount of equipment and artillery. Belgrade fell into the hands of the Austrians, a year the Peace of Passarowitz was signed: Austria obtained at the expense of the Ottoman Empire the Banat, northern Serbia and other neighboring areas. Austria reached its maximum expansion in the Balkans. Belgrade remained a territory under the domination of Austria for over twenty years. On July 22, 1739, the Austrian army, commanded by the Field Marshal George Oliver Wallis was defeated near Belgrade, at the Battle of Grocka, by the Ottoman army led by İvaz Mehmet Pasha.

As a result of the Treaty of Belgrade, the city and all the territories acquired at the Treaty of Passarowitz except Banat were returned to Ottoman rule. Ottoman–Habsburg wars Herre, Franz. Eugenio di Savoia. Milan: Garzanti Editore. ISBN 88-11-69311-X

Gambela People's Liberation Movement

The Gambela People's Liberation Movement was a rebel group in the Gambela Region in Ethiopia. The GPLM was founded by Anuak dissidents during the Woyane regime; the organization remained dominated by Anuaks. Agwa Alemu was the chairman of the GPLM; the GPLM emerged from one faction of the erstwhile Gambela Liberation Front. The group that would form the GPLM were supported by the Sudanese government and linked to the Oromo Liberation Front; the faction took the name GPLM in 1985. GPLM guerillas operated out of bases in Sudan. At the time of its founding, the GPLM had the stated objective of liberating Gambela from domination by Highlanders. Moreover, the GPLM conceptualized Nuer territorial encroachments in Gambela as a national issue, i.e. as a conflict between Ethiopians and non-citizens. The GPLM labelled the Nuers as'foreigners', making reference to the 1902 border which had placed the majority of Nuers in Sudanese territory; the Derg regime labelled the GPLM as wonbede. This discourse, which insinuated that the Anuaks as a whole were outlaws and unreliable, had the effect of cementing collective Anuak resistance to the Derg.

In the second half of the 1980s, the GPLM began civil servants in Gambela. In the war against the Derg regime the GPLM would ally itself with the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front, joining the joint anti-Derg offensive in western Ethiopia in 1989. However, the alliance had an uneasy start; the GPLM discourse on'Highlanders' differed from the other ethno-nationalist movements, whose discourse focused on Amhara domination. On 16 May 1991, the EPRDF forces captured Gambela, routing the Derg and SPLA forces; the GPLM would dominate Gambela politics during the transitional period of 1991-1994. After the victory over the Derg regime, the regional government in Gambela was handed over to the GPLM. GPLM participated in the 1991 National Conference. During the transitional period, the GPLM had two delegates in the Council of Representatives. In July 1992, the GPLM leader Agwa Alemu was killed by his own troops; the transitional period in Gambela was marred by ethnic violence between Nuer.

The Anuak GPLM fighters are said to have worn a magic called kunjur making them bulletproof. It is said. Relations between the GPLM and the EPRDF remained complicated; the GPLM did not become an EPRDF associate. Its ambition was to become a hegemonic force in Gambela politics, an aspiration that the EPRDF would not accept; the EPRDF government ordered a forces demobilization of GPLM fighters in 1992, which led to clashes in the regional capital. The GPLM forces retreated to Pochalla, Sudan (now part of South Sudan, where they remained for months until a settlement was reached; as part of the settlement, GPLM fighters were integrated into the national army. In 1995, under pressure from the federal government, the GPLM was renamed as the Gambela People's Liberation Party. In 1998 the federal government pressured the GPLP to merge with the Nuer-dominated Gambela People's Democratic Unity Party, forming the Gambela People's Democratic Front. Anuaks unhappy with the GPLP-GPDUP merger formed the Gambela People's Democratic Congress

Rani Karnavati of Garhwal

Rani Karnavati of Garhwal Kingdom known as Tehri Garhwal, was the wife of Mahipat Shah, the Rajput king of Garhwal who use the title Shah. The capital of Garhwal Kingdom was shifted from Dewalgarh to Srinagar, Uttarakhand by him, who ascended to throne in 1622 and further consolidated his rule over most parts of Garhwal. Though King Mahipati Shah died young in 1631, after his death his Rani Karnavati, ruled the kingdom on the behalf of her young seven-year-old son, Prithvipati Shah, she ruled over for many years to come, during which she defend the kingdom against invaders and repelled an attack of Mughal army of Shah Jahan led by Najabat Khan in 1640, over the time she earned the nickname'Nakti Rani' as she had the habit of cutting the noses of the invaders, as the Mughal invaders of the period realised. Monuments erected by her still exist in Dehradun district at Nawada, she is credited with the construction of the Rajpur Canal, the earliest of all the Dun canals, which starts from the Rispana river and brings its waters till the city of Dehradun.

Rispana River is one of the tributary of Song river that drains the central and eastern part of the Doon Valley. Some years her grown up son Prithvipati came to the throne and ruled wisely under his mother’s influence