United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara
The United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara is the United Nations peacekeeping mission in Western Sahara, established in 1991 under United Nations Security Council Resolution 690 as part of the Settlement Plan, which had paved way for a cease-fire in the conflict between Morocco and the Polisario Front over the contested territory of Western Sahara. MINURSO's mission was to monitor the cease-fire and to organize and conduct a referendum in accordance with the Settlement Plan, which would enable the Sahrawi people of Western Sahara to choose between integration with Morocco and independence; this was intended to constitute a Sahrawi exercise of self-determination, thus complete Western Sahara's still-unfinished process of decolonization To this end, MINURSO has been given the following mandates: Monitor the ceasefire Verify the reduction of Moroccan troops in the territory Monitor the confinement of Moroccan and Polisario troops to designated locations Take steps with the parties to ensure the release of all Western Saharan political prisoners or detainees Oversee the exchange of prisoners of war Implement the repatriation programme Identify and register qualified voters Organize and ensure a free and fair referendum and proclaim the results The independence referendum was scheduled for 1992, but conflicts over voter eligibility prevented it from being held.
Both sides blamed each other for stalling the process. In 1997, the Houston Agreement was supposed to restart the process, but again failed. In 2003, the Baker Plan was launched to replace the Settlement Plan, but while accepted by the Polisario and unanimously endorsed by the United Nations Security Council, it was rejected by Morocco. Morocco insisted. Following the 1975 Green March, the Moroccan state has sponsored settlement schemes enticing thousands of Moroccans to move into the Moroccan-occupied part of Western Sahara. By 2015, it was estimated that Moroccan settlers made up at least two thirds of the 500,000 inhabitants. Presently, there is no plan for holding the referendum, the viability of the cease-fire is coming into question; the MINURSO mandate has been extended 41 times since 1991. In October 2006 the Security Council passed a resolution extending the mandate of MINURSO to April 2007. A provision decrying human rights abuses by Morocco in Western Sahara had the backing of 14 members of the Security Council, but was deleted due to French objections.
In April 2007 the resolution extending the mandate to October took "note of the Moroccan proposal presented on 11 April 2007 to the Secretary-General and welcoming serious and credible Moroccan efforts to move the process forward towards resolution" and took "note of the Polisario Front proposal presented on 10 April 2007 to the Secretary-General". The representative of South Africa took exception to the way that one proposal was held more worthy than the other as well as the lack of participation outside the Group of Friends in the drafting of the resolution; the October 2007 resolution extending the mandate to April 2008 contained the same preferential wording in its description of the two proposals. The representative of South Africa commented on this again, regretted the fact that the resolution "considered" rather than "welcomed" the report on the situation by the Secretary-General—"presumably because dared to raise the issue of the human rights violations against the Saharawi people", quoted the warning in the report about there being no mandate to address the issue of human rights.
The April 2008 resolution extended the mandate for a full year to April 2009. Before the vote, the representative of Costa Rica expressed his "concern at the manner in which the draft resolution on which we are about to vote was negotiated" and a "difficulty in understanding the absolute refusal to include" references to human rights. MINURSO's budget is 60 million dollars per year. There are two sets of teams, those in the Moroccan-controlled portion west of the berm and those in the Sahrawi-controlled region and refugee camps to the east and in Algeria; the camps west of the berm are located in Mahbes, Umm Dreiga and Auserd. The eastern camps include Bir Lehlou, Mehaires and Agwanit. There is a liaison office in Tindouf which serves as a communication channel with POLISARIO leadership; as of 30 June 2018, MINURSO had a total of 220 uniformed personnel, including 19 contingent troops, 193 experts on mission, 7 staff officers, 1 police officer, supported by 227 civilian personnel, 16 UN Volunteers.
Major troop contributors are Bangladesh and Pakistan. Armed contingents patrol the no man's land that borders the Moroccan Wall, to safeguard the cease-fire. Special Representative of the Secretary-General and Chief of Mission: Colin Stewart Force Commander: Major General Wang Xiaojun Chief of Mission Support: Veneranda Mukandoli-Jefferson Chief of Staff: Alexander Ivanko Head of Liaison Office, Tindouf: Yusef Jedian Other personnel: There have been a total of 16 fatalities in MINURSO: six military personnel, a police officer, a military observer, three international civilian p
United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus
The United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus is a United Nations peacekeeping force, established under United Nations Security Council Resolution 186 in 1964 to prevent a recurrence of fighting following intercommunal violence between the Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots, to contribute to the maintenance and restoration of law and order and to facilitate a return to normal conditions. The current force commander is Major General Mohammad Humayun Kabir, Force Commander of United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus. Following the 1974 Greek Cypriot coup d'état and the Turkish invasion of Cyprus, the United Nations Security Council extended and expanded the mission to prevent the dispute turning into war, UNFICYP was redeployed to patrol the United Nations Buffer Zone in Cyprus and assist in the maintenance of the military status quo. Since its establishment, the force has worked in concert with the Special Representative of the Secretary-General and representatives of the two communities to seek an amicable diplomatic solution to the Cyprus dispute.
UNFICYP consisted of military and civilian contingents drawn from Australia, Denmark, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, the United Kingdom. However, over its long history the force has been the subject of various UNSC resolutions and reorganisations, comprises contingents from Argentina, Austria, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, El Salvador, India, Italy, the Netherlands, Serbia, Slovakia and the United Kingdom; the mandate for UNFICYP was last renewed on 30 January 2019 and extends until 31 July 2019. United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus is a United Nations peacekeeping force, established under United Nations Security Council Resolution 186 in 1964 to prevent a recurrence of fighting following intercommunal violence between the Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots, to contribute to the maintenance and restoration of law and order and to facilitate a return to normal conditions. Following the 1974 Greek Cypriot coup d'état and the Turkish invasion of Cyprus, the United Nations Security Council extended and expanded the mission to prevent the dispute turning into war, UNFICYP was redeployed to patrol the United Nations Buffer Zone in Cyprus and assist in the maintenance of the military status quo.
Since its establishment, the force has worked in concert with the Special Representative of the Secretary-General and representatives of the two communities to seek an amicable diplomatic solution to the Cyprus dispute. On 5 December 2006, the United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan recommended a further six-month extension in the mandate of the UN mission, deployed on the island for over four decades. Mr. Annan said that while the situation remained "calm and stable with no major violations of the ceasefire lines," he regretted the continued stalemate in the political process and the "missed opportunities" over the past 10 years. Up to and including 30 June 2017, UNFICYP has suffered 183 fatalities: Accidents: 99 Illnesses: 45 Malicious Acts: 15 Other: 24 UNFICYP is headquartered from the Blue Beret Camp next to the abandoned airport of Nicosia; the current force commander is Major General Mohammad Humayun Kabir, Force Commander of United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus. Upon UNFICYP's arrival on the island, the national contingents were each assigned a sector, which coincided with the boundaries of the civil districts: Paphos District – Austrian contingent Lefka District – Danish contingent Limassol Zone – British contingent Nicosia District – British contingent Larnaca Sector – Irish contingent Kyrenia District – Finnish contingent Famagusta District – Swedish contingentWhen, in October 1973, the Irish contingent was withdrawn from Cyprus in support of the United Nations Emergency Force during the Yom Kippur War, the Austrian contingent was relocated from Paphos District to Larnaca District to replace them, with the Western half, patrolled by the British contingent, absorbed into the Austrian sector.
Canada in UNFICYP – From 15 March 1964 to 15 June 1993, Canada maintained a battalion-sized contingent of peace-support troops in UNFICYP. During this period, the Canadian contingent went through 59 rotations and some 25,000 CAF personnel completed six-month tours on the island. With Denmark and Finland, Canada was one of the four original contributors of troops to UNFICYP, committed by the government of Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson on 12 March 1964; the lead elements of the initial rotation of the Canadian contingent arrived on 15 March 1964, followed by a brigade headquarters, the 1st Battalion, Royal 22e Régiment, a Reconnaissance Squadron from The Royal Canadian Dragoons mounted in Ferret scout cars that were transported to Cyprus by HMCS Bonaventure. By 1993, when Canada withdrew its combat arms contingent from UNFICYP, every infantry battalion of the Regular Force had deployed to Cyprus at least once, Regular Force artillery and armoured regiments had reorganized for infantry duties to take their turns.
The current contribution are small numbers of staff officers on one-year rotations. The operation name “Snowgoose” dates from July 1974, when the Canadian contingent in UNFICYP — made up of 1 Commando, Canadian Airborne Regiment, the Airborne Field Squadron — was augmented by 2 Commando and 3
United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor
The United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor provided an interim civil administration and a peacekeeping mission in the territory of East Timor, from its establishment on 25 October 1999, until its independence on 20 May 2002, following the outcome of the East Timor Special Autonomy Referendum. Security Council Resolution 1272 established the transitional administration in 1999, its responsibilities included providing a peacekeeping force to maintain security and order, it was led by Sérgio Vieira de Mello of Brazil and the Lieutenant General Jaime de los Santos of the Philippines. A coalition of nations sent troops to support the peace keeping mission; the forces were led by Australia, which provided the largest contingent and the out of theatre base for operations, supported by New Zealand, who sent the second largest contingent, took responsibility for the more volatile southern half of the main border, whose special forces joined the ANZACs on the first day, as well as contingents from Brazil, Denmark, Kenya, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, the Philippines, Portugal and the United Kingdom.
While the United States supported the transition authority, it did so by underwriting contracts to replace destroyed infrastructure and thus avoided a direct military involvement, allowing the ANZAC led force to take the lead. The United States did, deploy a contingent of American police officers to serve with the International Police. UNTAET was established on 25 October 1999, was abolished on 20 May 2002, with most functions passed to the East Timor government; the military and police forces were transferred to the newly created United Nations Mission of Support to East Timor. A National Consultative Council was established in December 1999 by UNTAET REG 1999/2, served as a forum for East Timorese political and community leaders to advise the Transitional Administrator and discuss policy issues; the Council had four international members. A Transitional Judicial Service Commission was established to ensure representation of East Timorese leaders in decisions affecting the judiciary in East Timor.
The Commission was made up of two international experts. Security was provided by the International Force for East Timor but was assumed by UNTAET Peace-Keeping Force in February 2000. Law and order was maintained by a United Nations Civilian Police Force until an East Timorese Police Service was established in April 2000. In July 2000 the membership of the National Consultative Council was expanded to 36 members including, one representative from each of the 13 districts of East Timor, the body was renamed the National Council. All the members were now Timorese and represented the main political parties and religious communities of East Timor; the National Council became a legislature style body and had the right to debate any future regulations issued by UNTAET. The following month an executive body, the Transitional Cabinet of East Timor, was formed comprising four Timorese members and four international members. Progress was made in the development of a judicial system with a Prosecutor General's Office and a Defender Service established.
District Courts and Court of Appeal were established. In September 2000, the Transitional Cabinet approves the establishment of an East Timor Defence Force; the force was formally established in February 2001 and the guerrilla movement FALINTIL was disbanded with many of its members joining the new force. A voter registration process was completed during this period and preparations were made for elections to a Constituent Assembly that would prepare East Timor for independence expected in 2002. Elections for an 88-member Constituent Assembly were held on 30 August 2001, the second anniversary of the autonomy referendum, which resulted in a plurality of seats for the FRETALIN party; the Assembly nominated a transitional Council of Ministers the following month. The Council of Ministers was led by transitional Chief Minister Mari Alkatiri; the Constituent Assembly completed work on a draft constitution and this was promulgated in March 2002, the Assembly would serve as the parliament of East Timor following independence.
Presidential elections were held in April in which Xanana Gusmão was elected president of a future independent East Timor. East Timor became an independent state on 20 May 2002. UNTAET was wound up upon East Timorese independence but a United Nations presence in East Timor would continue through a newly established United Nations Mission of Support in East Timor. International Force for East Timor Timeline of UN peacekeeping missions UN protectorate United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo, a similar arrangement for Kosovo UNTAET Crime Scene Detachment Goldstone, Anthony. "UNTAET with Hindsight: The Peculiarities of Politics in an Incomplete State". Global Governance: 83–98. Martin, Ian. "The United Nations and East Timor: From Self-Determination to State-Building". International Peacekeeping. 12: 125–145. Doi:10.1080/1353331042000286595. Media related to UN-Missions in East Timor at Wikimedia Commons Archived official website The United Nations and East Timor - A Chronology
ONUCA and ONUSAL
ONUCA and ONUSAL were two United Nations peacekeeping missions deployed in Central America during the late 1980s and early 1990s. The United Nations Security Council formally created ONUCA when it approved Resolution 644 on 7 November 1989; the 625-person group, located in 33 regional bases, was responsible for halting cross-border infiltration and cutting support for rebels in the Central American region, consisted of 260 unarmed military observers along with supporting technicians. Hemisphere countries involved in ONUCA included Spain, Ireland, Venezuela, Argentina, Brazil and Colombia. ONUCA's initial mandate and operational concept reflected the UN reluctance to get involved in internal conflicts, it was to be a verification and peace-observing mission, not a full-scale peacekeeping interposition mission, not peace-enforcement, although as events unfolded there were brief periods when Contra reluctance to disband threatened to convert ONUCA's role to one of enforcement. The scope of the operation was moved up the conflict resolution spectrum for the period of Contra demobilization, but the UN defined ONUCA's mission as a verification one.
This limited definition of ONUCA's role was a reflection of the Latin American resistance to peacekeeping, their preference for smaller observation missions with the lowest possible military profile. The Canadians, who were used to larger peacekeeping missions called ONUCA a "minimalist" operation, noting that it would have difficulty verifying the Esquipulas Agreement in the large geographic area assigned to it. In early 1990 the Contras were showing considerable reluctance to disband; this was due in part to the lack of control on the part of the fragmented Contra leadership, as well as the real fears among the Contras that if they disbanded and gave up their weapons they would be at the mercy of the Sandinista military. Although diplomats on all sides pressured the Contras, the hard line being taken on the Contras was undermined by the reality that 260 unarmed UN observers were not going to force the Contras to do anything, and so, setting aside their historical aversion to peace-enforcement, the Security Council decided to expand ONUCA's mandate and temporarily give it some combat power: a battalion of paratroopers with their basic weapons.
On 15 March 1990 the UN Secretary-General asked the Security Council, on an urgent basis, that ONUCA be expanded from its 260 observers to add 116 more for observation plus an armed infantry battalion of at least four rifle companies for supervision of Contra demobilization. Venezuela, providing observers to ONUCA, had agreed to provide this battalion. Although the Secretary-General's Report did not say that the demobilization would be forced, there was a clear implication that adding armed paratroopers to the unarmed UN military observers would be a powerful message to the reluctant Contras; the demobilization process did not end until 5 July when the last elements of the Venezuelan Battalion returned home. Exact figures on the number demobilized were somewhat questionable, but there were 23,000 Contras processed, close to 17,000 weapons recovered and destroyed. With the demobilization of the Contras completed in early July, the ONUCA mandate reverted to the original rather limited one of concentrating on the borders and watching for violations of the Esquipulas II prohibition on cross-border support of irregular forces.
In November 1990 the Security Council accepted the Secretary-General's recommendation that because of its reduced mission, the size of ONUCA could be cut back somewhat. The Council extended the mandate for six months, agreed that its main focus would be to maintain a UN presence in the region as a confidence-building measure, in order to deter cross-border support for insurgencies. In effect, ONUCA was now becoming a token and "flag-showing" presence waiting for a possible expanded mandate if the situation in El Salvador should lead to an agreement requiring UN verification, it was terminated in Resolution 730 with effect on January 17, 1992, with some of the forces joining ONUSAL. The situation in El Salvador in 1990–1991 was characterized by a continuing civil war and hopes for peace that culminated in intense UN-sponsored talks; these achieved a cease-fire agreement in a December 1991 New Year's Eve "Act of New York" which expanded the original ONUSAL established Security Council Resolution 693, whose limited mission was restricted to monitoring human rights, converted it into a new major UN verification and observation mission.
Contra demobilization in Nicaragua provided a useful precedent for FMLN demobilization in El Salvador. With the expanded ONUSAL came the end of the now much-diminished ONUCA, whose personnel and assets were moved to El Salvador in January 1992. ONUSAL differed from ONUCA in one key respect: the police function. A key element in the Salvadoran peace process was that demobilization of the FMLN would be accompanied by demobilization of certain military and police units, associated with some of the more brutal human rights violations of the ten-year civil war. To replace the old security and police forces there would be a new National Police which would include personnel from both the old police and the FMLN; these personnel had to be trained and this was the function of the "Police Division" of ONUSAL, which included officers from Chile and Guyana, as well as several European countries. ONUSAL military observers in the "Military Division" included officers from Spain, Canada, Ecuador, Ireland, S
United Nations Korea Medal
The United Nations Service Medal for Korea is an international military decoration established by the United Nations on December 12, 1950 as the United Nations Service Medal. The decoration was the first international award created by the United Nations and recognized the multi-national defense forces which participated in the Korean War; the United Nations Service Medal is awarded to any military service member, of an Armed Force allied with South Korea, who participated in the defense of South Korea from North Korea between the dates of June 27, 1950 and July 27, 1954. The military forces of the Netherlands are awarded the medal for service to January 1, 1955, while the armed forces of Thailand and Sweden grant the award to July 27, 1955. International Red Cross personnel engaged for service during the war with any United Nations relief team in Korea were not eligible for the medal; the ultimate award authority of the United Nations Service Medal is United Nations Commander-in-Chief of military forces in Korea.
Most countries consider the United Nations Service Medal an automatic decoration, if some other Korean service award was bestowed, award the medal without requesting permission through United Nations channels. For instance, in the United States Armed Forces, any service member awarded the Korean Service Medal is automatically granted the United Nations Service Medal. On November 22, 1961, the United Nations changed the name of the United Nations Service Medal to the United Nations Service Medal Korea; this was as a prelude to the creation of a large number of subsequent United Nations medals which are awarded for various operations around the world. The United States and some other countries continue to refer to the medal as the United Nations Service Medal in an effort to maintain consistency with past military files referring to the medal by its original name; the UN Korea Medal is a 36mm wide circular medal of bronze alloy. The obverse depicts the ‘World-in-a Wreath' emblem of the United Nations.
The reverse has the inscription: FOR SERVICE IN DEFENCE OF THE PRINCIPLES OF THE CHARTER OF THE UNITED NATIONS. Each participating country has the text in the most appropriate language, the inscription may be in any one of the following languages: Amharic, English, Greek, Korean, Tagalog, Thai or Turkish; the medal hangs from a claw attachment on a straight bar suspension. Each medal is worn with a medal bar bearing the inscription KOREA in the same language as the reverse inscription; the medal's ribbon made up of 17 equal stripes of United Nations Blue and white, 9 blue and 8 white, each 5⁄64 inch wide. Awards and decorations of the Armed Forces of the Philippines United Nations Medal Korean War Service Medal, South Korea Korea Medal and Commonwealth Forces. Korean Service Medal, United States Korea Defense Service Medal, United States NZDF Medals site British regulations for award of medal - from NZDF site
United Nations Medal
A United Nations Medal is an international decoration awarded by the United Nations to the various world countries militaries for participation in joint international military and police operations such as peacekeeping, humanitarian efforts, disaster relief. The medal is ranked in militaries and police forces as a service medal; the United Nations awarded its first medal during the Korean War. Since 1955, many additional United Nations medals have been created and awarded for participation in various United Nations missions and actions around the world; the most common United Nations medal is the standard UN decoration known as the United Nations Medal. Most countries bestow this award for any action in which a member of the military participated in a joint UN activity. In situations where a service member participated in multiple UN operations, service stars, campaign clasps, or award numbers are authorized as attachments to the United Nations Medal; these devices vary depending on the regulations of the various armed forces.
The UN has authorised the award of numerals to be attached to the medal ribbon. The qualification for these numerals is not to indicate the number of campaigns served in, but rather the number of qualifying periods of service, which are counted as 180 consecutive days after the initial qualifying period of ninety days; the first United Nations medal to be created was the United Nations Service Medal known as the United Nations Service Medal Korea, was awarded to any military service member, of an Armed Force allied with South Korea, who participated in the defense of South Korea from North Korea between the dates of 27 June 1950 and 27 July 1953. The military forces of the Netherlands are awarded the medal for service to January 1, 1955, while the armed forces of Thailand and Sweden grant the award to July 27, 1955. In 1956, to maintain the peace which brought the end of the Suez Crisis the United Nations Emergency Force was established; this was the first Peacekeeping operation of the United Nations.
To reward the service of troops from Brazil, Colombia, India, Norway and Yugoslavia those troops who completed ninety days of service with the UNEF were awarded the United Nations Emergency Force Medal. The mission lasted from November 1956 until June 1967, it is unique from other United Nations Medals in that instead of saying UN on the obverse, it says UNEF. Subsequent missions did not use the missions abbreviation on its medals. In most nations, the standard United Nations Medal is awarded in lieu of a campaign specific medal. Most operations utilize a different ribbon for each mission, though there have been some notable exceptions. In some countries where the UN Security Council determines a mission in the same geographic region, but changes the mission mandate by way of Security Council Resolution, there may be a number of missions which have identical campaign ribbons and later will change the ribbon to reflect the changing environment; the United Nations Mission in Haiti was established by United Nations Security Council Resolution 867 on 23 September 1993 and lasted until in June 1996.
This mission was an effort to end the conflict and instability caused by the 1991 Haitian coup d'état. Subsequent missions to maintain stability and train the Haitian National Police were undertaken under UNSMIH, UNTMIH, MIPONUH, MICAH; these subsequent missions all used the same medal as UNMIH. In East Timor, the medals awarded for UNTAET and UNMISET all have the same ribbon. For 90 days of service with a United Nations mission or organization where there is no specific approved United Nations medal, personnel may be eligible for the United Nations Special Service Medal; some examples of qualifying service are the United Nations Assistance Mission in Iraq, or the United Nations Department of Humanitarian Affairs Accelerated De-Mining Programme in Mozambique. Some nations, such as France, the Commonwealth of Australia and New Zealand permit members of the military and police to receive and display multiple United Nations Medals as separate decorations. Other countries, in particular the United Kingdom, permit a service member to receive the relevant United Nations medal and authorization for it to be worn is given by the FCO, Numerals may be added to denote multiple tours to one mission, the medals are worn in order of award and take precedence alongside British campaign medals.
In the United States Armed Forces, prior to 13 October 1995, all US military personnel wore the blue and white United Nations Ribbon regardless of the ribbon awarded. On 13 October 1995, the Assistant Secretary of Defense approved a change to the wear policy of the United Nations Medal. Effective on that date, personnel who are awarded the United Nations Medal may wear the first medal and ribbon for which they qualify, adding a bronze service star for subsequent awards of the United Nations Medal for service in a different mission. No more than one UN medal or ribbon may be worn at a time. On US uniforms, the UN Medal is worn before the NATO Medal, except for the United Nations Korea Medal, worn as a campaign medal just before the Vietnam Campaign Medal. US military personnel are eligible to wear the medal from one of the following United Nations operations as their one approved medal: Members of the Argentinian Armed Forces are allowed to wear the different UN medals as separate decorations.
However, authorization for use must be formally requested for every single medal, is granted on an individual basis. Regulations for the use of either medals or ribbons apply for each uniform. In the Argentinian Army, a national-issued, maroon-and-white bar showing the number of tours of duty may be worn in lieu of
The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization, tasked to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international co-operation and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, is subject to extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi and The Hague; the organization is financed by voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development and upholding international law; the UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. In 24 October 1945, at the end of World War II, the organization was established with the aim of preventing future wars. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; the UN is the successor of the ineffective League of Nations.
On 25 April 1945, 50 governments met in San Francisco for a conference and started drafting the UN Charter, adopted on 25 June 1945 in the San Francisco Opera House, signed on 26 June 1945 in the Herbst Theatre auditorium in the Veterans War Memorial Building. This charter took effect on 24 October 1945; the UN's mission to preserve world peace was complicated in its early decades during the Cold War between the United States and Soviet Union and their respective allies. Its missions have consisted of unarmed military observers and armed troops with monitoring and confidence-building roles; the organization's membership grew following widespread decolonization which started in the 1960s. Since 80 former colonies had gained independence, including 11 trust territories, which were monitored by the Trusteeship Council. By the 1970s its budget for economic and social development programmes far outstripped its spending on peacekeeping. After the end of the Cold War, the UN shifted and expanded its field operations, undertaking a wide variety of complex tasks.
The UN has six principal organs: the General Assembly. The UN System agencies include the World Bank Group, the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, UNESCO, UNICEF; the UN's most prominent officer is the Secretary-General, an office held by Portuguese politician and diplomat António Guterres since 1 January 2017. Non-governmental organizations may be granted consultative status with ECOSOC and other agencies to participate in the UN's work; the organization, its officers and its agencies have won many Nobel Peace Prizes. Other evaluations of the UN's effectiveness have been mixed; some commentators believe the organization to be an important force for peace and human development, while others have called the organization ineffective, biased, or corrupt. In the century prior to the UN's creation, several international treaty organizations such as the International Committee of the Red Cross was formed to ensure protection and assistance for victims of armed conflict and strife.
In 1914, a political assassination in Sarajevo set off a chain of events that led to the outbreak of World War I. As more and more young men were sent down into the trenches, influential voices in the United States and Britain began calling for the establishment of a permanent international body to maintain peace in the postwar world. President Woodrow Wilson became a vocal advocate of this concept, in 1918 he included a sketch of the international body in his 14-point proposal to end the war. In November 1918, the Central Powers agreed to an armistice to halt the killing in World War I. Two months the Allies met with Germany and Austria-Hungary at Versailles to hammer out formal peace terms. President Wilson wanted peace, but the United Kingdom and France disagreed, forcing harsh war reparations on their former enemies; the League of Nations was approved, in the summer of 1919 Wilson presented the Treaty of Versailles and the Covenant of the League of Nations to the US Senate for ratification.
On January 10, 1920, the League of Nations formally comes into being when the Covenant of the League of Nations, ratified by 42 nations in 1919, takes effect. However, at some point the League became ineffective when it failed to act against the Japanese invasion of Manchuria as in February 1933, 40 nations voted for Japan to withdraw from Manchuria but Japan voted against it and walked out of the League instead of withdrawing from Manchuria, it failed against the Second Italo-Ethiopian War despite trying to talk to Benito Mussolini as he used the time to send an army to Africa, so the League had a plan for Mussolini to just take a part of Ethiopia, but he ignored the League and invaded Ethiopia, the League tried putting sanctions on Italy, but Italy had conquered Ethiopia and the League had failed. After Italy conquered Ethiopia and other nations left the league, but all of them realised that they began to re-arm as fast as possible. During 1938, Britain and France tried negotiating directly with Hitler but this failed in 1939 when Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia.
When war broke out in 1939, the League closed down and its headquarters in Geneva remained empty throughout the war. The earliest concrete plan for a new world organization began under the aegis of the U. S. State Department in 1939; the text of the "Declaration by United Nations" was drafted at the White House on December 29, 1941, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Roosevelt aide Harry Hopkins