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International human rights instruments

International human rights instruments are the treaties and other international texts that serve as legal sources for international human rights law and the protection of human rights in general. There are many varying types, but most can be classified into two broad categories: declarations, adopted by bodies such as the United Nations General Assembly, which are by nature declaratory, so not legally-binding although they may be politically authoritative and well-respected soft law. Lesser known are some "recommendations" which are similar to conventions in being multilaterally agreed, yet cannot be ratified, serve to set common standards. There may be administrative guidelines that are agreed multilaterally by states, as well as the statutes of tribunals or other institutions. A specific prescription or principle from any of these various international instruments can, over time, attain the status of customary international law whether it is accepted by a state or not, just because it is well-recognized and followed over a sufficiently long time.

International human rights instruments can be divided further into global instruments, to which any state in the world can be a party, regional instruments, which are restricted to states in a particular region of the world. Most conventions and recommendations establish mechanisms for monitoring and establish bodies to oversee their implementation. In some cases these bodies that may have little political authority or legal means, may be ignored by member states. A good example of the latter is the European Court of Human Rights. Monitoring mechanisms vary as to the degree of individual access to expose cases of abuse and plea for remedies. Under some conventions or recommendations – e.g. the European Convention on Human Rights – individuals or states are permitted, subject to certain conditions, to take individual cases to a full-fledged tribunal at international level. Sometimes, this can be done in national courts because of universal jurisdiction; the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the International Covenant on Economic and Cultural Rights together with other international human rights instruments are sometimes referred to as the international bill of rights.

International human rights instruments are identified by the OHCHR and most are referenced on the OHCHR website. Declaration of the Rights of the Child 1923 Universal Declaration of Human Rights Declaration on the Rights of Disabled Persons Declaration on the Right to Development Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action Declaration of Human Duties and Responsibilities Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples UN declaration on sexual orientation and gender identity American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man ASEAN Human Rights Declaration Cairo Declaration of Human Rights in Islam According to OHCHR, there are 9 core international human rights instruments and several optional protocols; the core instruments are: Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights International Covenant on Economic and Cultural Rights Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment Convention on the Rights of the Child International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Several more human rights instruments exist.

A few examples: International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989 African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child Maputo Protocol American Convention on Human Rights Inter-American Convention to Prevent and Punish Torture Inter-American Convention on Forced Disappearance of Persons Inter-American Convention on the Prevention and Eradication of Violence against Women Inter-American Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Persons with Disabilities Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings European Convention on Nationality European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages European Convention on Human Rights European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment European Social Charter, Revised Social Charter Framework Conventio

Here to Stay (Schon & Hammer album)

Here to Stay is the second album by the duo of composer Jan Hammer and guitarist Neal Schon. This album featured contributions from Schon's bandmates in Journey including songwriting and background vocals from Steve Perry; the lead single "No More Lies" featured Schon on vocals and had a music video, played on MTV. The album cover is a play on the well known Arm & Hammer brand baking soda. "Self Defense" would be re-recorded for Journey's 2005 album Generations, with Schon taking lead vocal duties once again. Side one"No More Lies" – 3:29 "Don't Stay Away" – 3:35 " So Hot" – 3:54 "Turnaround" – 4:48 "Self Defense" – 3:13Side two"Long Time" – 3:50 "Time Again" – 4:55 "Sticks and Stones" – 3:15 "Peace of Mind" – 2:10 "Covered by Midnight" – 5:27 Jan Hammer – drums, percussion Neal Schon – guitars, vocals Glen Burtnik – vocals Colin Hodgkinsonbass guitar Steve Smith – drums on track 5 Ross Valory – bass guitar on track 5 Steve Perry – vocals on track 5 Arranged and produced by Neal Schon and Jan Hammer Track 5 produced by Mike "Clay" Stone and Kevin Elson Recorded by Jan Hammer Mixed by Jan Hammer and Kevin Elson Bob Ludwigmastering at Masterdisk, New York

Signing of the United States Declaration of Independence

The signing of the United States Declaration of Independence occurred on August 2, 1776 at the Pennsylvania State House, Independence Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The 56 delegates to the Second Continental Congress represented the 13 former colonies which had declared themselves the "United States of America," and they endorsed the Declaration of Independence which the Congress had approved on July 4, 1776; the Declaration proclaimed that the former Thirteen Colonies at war with Great Britain were now a sovereign, independent nation and thus no longer a part of the British Empire. The signers’ names are grouped by state, with the exception of President of the Continental Congress John Hancock; the final draft of the Declaration was approved by the Continental Congress on July 4, although the date of its signing has long been disputed. Most historians have concluded that it was signed on August 2, 1776, nearly a month after its adoption, not on July 4 as is believed; the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776, with 12 of the 13 colonies voting in favor and New York abstaining.

The date that the Declaration was signed has long been the subject of debate. Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams all wrote that it was signed by Congress on the day when it was adopted on July 4, 1776; that assertion is confirmed by the signed copy of the Declaration, dated July 4. Additional support for the July 4 date is provided by the Journals of Congress, the official public record of the Continental Congress; the proceedings for 1776 were first published in 1777, the entry for July 4 states that the Declaration was engrossed and signed on that date. In 1796, signer Thomas McKean disputed that the Declaration had been signed on July 4, pointing out that some signers were not present, including several who were not elected to Congress until after that date. "No person signed it on that day nor for many days after", he wrote. His claim gained support when the Secret Journals of Congress were published in 1821; the Secret Journals contained two unpublished entries about the Declaration.

On July 15, New York's delegates got permission from their convention to agree to the Declaration. The Secret Journals entry for July 19 reads: Resolved That the Declaration passed on the 4th be engrossed on parchment with the title and stile of "The unanimous declaration of the thirteen united states of America" & that the same when engrossed be signed by every member of Congress; the entry for August 2 states: The declaration of Independence being engrossed & compared at the table was signed by the Members. In 1884, historian Mellen Chamberlain argued that these entries indicated that the famous signed version of the Declaration had been created following the July 19 resolution, had not been signed by Congress until August 2. Subsequent research has confirmed that many of the signers had not been present in Congress on July 4, that some delegates may have added their signatures after August 2. Neither Jefferson nor Adams wavered from their belief that the signing ceremony took place on July 4, yet most historians have accepted the argument which David McCullough articulates in his biography of John Adams: "No such scene, with all the delegates present occurred at Philadelphia."

Legal historian Wilfred Ritz concluded in 1986 that about 34 delegates signed the Declaration on July 4, that the others signed on or after August 2. Ritz argues that the engrossed copy of the Declaration was signed by Congress on July 4, as Jefferson and Franklin had stated, that it was implausible that all three men had been mistaken, he believes that McKean's testimony was questionable, that historians had misinterpreted the July 19 resolution. According to Ritz, this resolution did not call for a new document to be created, but rather for the existing one to be given a new title, necessary after New York had joined the other 12 states in declaring independence, he reasons that the phrase "signed by every member of Congress" in the July 19 resolution meant that delegates who had not signed the Declaration on the 4th were now required to do so. Fifty-six delegates signed the Declaration of Independence: Eight delegates never signed the Declaration, out of about 50 who are thought to have been present in Congress during the voting on independence in early July 1776: John Alsop, George Clinton, John Dickinson, Charles Humphreys, Robert R. Livingston, John Rogers, Thomas Willing, Henry Wisner.

Clinton and Wisner were attending to duties away from Congress when the signing took place. Willing and Humphreys voted against the resolution of independence and were replaced in the Pennsylvania delegation before the August 2 signing. Rogers had voted for the resolution of independence but was no longer a delegate on August 2. Alsop favored reconciliation with Great Britain and so resigned rather than add his name to the document. Dickinson refused to sign, believing the Declaration premature. George Read had voted against the resolution of independence, Robert Morris had abstained—yet they both signed the Declaration; the most famous signature on the engrossed copy is that of John Hancock, who signed first as President of Congress. Hancock's large, flamboyant signature became iconic, John Hancock emerged in the United States as an informal synonym for "signature". Future presidents Thomas Jefferson and John Adams were among the signatories. Edward Rutledge was the youngest signer and Benjamin Franklin

Cruel to Be Kind

"Cruel to Be Kind" is a song by Nick Lowe, co-written by Lowe and his former Brinsley Schwarz bandmate Ian Gomm. Written by Lowe and Gomm while the pair were in Brinsley Schwarz, the song was saved on a demo until Columbia Records convinced Lowe to release it. Musically the song was inspired by "The Love I Lost" by Harold Melvin & the Blue Notes, an influence reflected in more recent performances of the song. Released as a single in 1979, cover art by Antoinette Laumer Sales, the song peaked at number 12 on both the UK and US charts that summer, it peaked at No. 12 in Canada and Australia. In the US, where it is one of Lowe's most well-known works, it remains his only single to hit the top 40, whereas in the UK "I Love the Sound of Breaking Glass" remains his biggest hit after reaching number 7 a year earlier; the song was accompanied by a music video featuring Lowe's marriage to Carlene Carter. "Cruel to Be Kind" was written by Nick Lowe and Ian Gomm while in Brinsley Schwarz, having been recorded as a demo during this period.

Lowe stated, "I wrote that when I was with a band, Brinsley Schwarz, that I was with from the early'70s to about the mid-'70s.... We recorded it on a demo, it never came out, when I signed to Columbia Records the A&R man there at the time suggested I record it again, and I didn't think it would do anything, but he kind of bullied me into it."Musically, the song was closer to a soul style. Lowe said, “Initially... the inspiration was a song I loved by Harold Melvin & the Blue Notes called,'The Love I Lost', the bass line was the same... we loved that Philly disco stuff from the 70's, The O'Jays, all that stuff, we loved that... I can't remember much about recording it, it was just another tune that we did, you know, I sent it over to New York to Gregg and said, will this do?'" In more recent live versions, Lowe has performed the song closer to "The Love I Lost". In fact, it was on the radio the other day and I was quite amazed how differently I do it now"."Cruel to Be Kind" proved to be Lowe's most successful American single.

Lowe reflected on this, "When I had my couple of hits, I sort of felt like I was ticking a box more than,'Great, I'm off now on a chart-topping career.' I felt that in order to do what I wanted to do, I had to do certain things, one of them was to have a hit in my own right. At least one. I managed three, if you take in Europe, but in the United States, where it matters, I had one hit and people still remember it, it's a pretty good little song, you know?" Lowe continues to perform the song live and still looks favorably upon the song, saying, "I love it. It cheers people up.... If they're good songs, they will stand the test of time"; the song was written and recorded for the final Brinsley Schwarz album, It’s All Over Now, never released. This version was issued as the non-album B-side of Lowe's "Little Hitler" single, culled from his first solo album in 1978, Jesus of Cool; this is now known as the "original version," as compiled on Lowe’s 1999 box set The Doings: The Solo Years and the 2008 expanded reissue of Jesus of Cool, as well as a bootleg entitled It's All Over Now, based on the unreleased album of the same title.

The song was re-recorded with Rockpile and appeared on Lowe's second album Labour of Lust in 1979. It was released as a single on the Radar Records label in the UK and Columbia Records in the United States, charting at number 12 in both countries; the single was backed with the non-album Lowe solo song "Endless Grey Ribbon," which Lowe had composed for fellow Rockpile member Dave Edmunds, as referred to in the ITV documentary Born Fighters. Lowe included the Labour of Lust version of the song on both the 1984 12" single of "Half a Boy and Half a Man," from his album Nick Lowe and his Cowboy Outfit, as well as the EP version of his single "All Men Are Liars," from 1990’s Party of One, it appears on the 2010 "soundtrack" album "inspired" by the 2006 motion picture The Ant Bully. Live versions of the song appear on Lowe’s 1998 EP "You Inspire Me," from his Dig My Mood album, on the 2004 live album Untouched Takeaway; the Labour of Lust version of "Cruel to Be Kind" has been included on many compilations of Nick Lowe’s work, including 1985's 16 All Time Lowes, 1990's Basher: The Best of Nick Lowe, 1999's The Doings: The Solo Years, 2002's Anthology and 2009's Quiet Please...

The New Best of Nick Lowe. It has been included on many various artists compilations of hits of the 70s, such as Poptopia! 70's Power Pop Classics. The video to the song was one of the first music videos aired on MTV, is a combination of actual footage of Lowe's wedding to Carlene Carter, as well as a humorous re-enactment of the wedding, featuring Carter as herself, Dave Edmunds as their limo driver, Terry Williams as the photographer, Billy Bremner as the baker, Jake Riviera as the best man; the wedding took place on August 1979, at the Tropicana Motel in West Hollywood. All family stayed there for the reception. Filming for the video took so long that Lowe was late to the wedding; the track has been covered by many artists, notably including co-writer Ian Gomm, first on his own 1997 album Crazy for You again in 2005 for the various artists tribute album Lowe Profile: A Tribute to Nick Lowe. Japanese- and Greek-language versions have been released by various artists, as well as both instrumental versions and dance remixes.

A Wilco iTunes-only release in January 2012 features Lowe on vocals with the band backing. The original recording

United States Hotel Stakes

The United States Hotel Stakes was an American Thoroughbred horse race run annually in the late summer or early autumn until 1955 at Saratoga Race Course in Saratoga Springs, New York. It was run on dirt over a distance of six furlongs. Raced in the pre-grading era, for most of its existence the race was one of the premier shorter distance competitions for two-year-old horses in the United States; the first running of the United States Hotel Stakes took place in 1880 and was raced for three-year-olds until 1895 when it was changed to a competition for two-year-olds. The inaugural race was won by future U. S. Racing Hall of Fame inductee, Luke Blackburn, it was so successful that in 1901 the New York Times was reporting that it was a "rich" race because it offered a purse of $10,000. While Man o' War, who would be ranked No.1 in the Blood-Horse magazine List of the Top 100 U. S. Racehorses of the 20th Century, other great horses in the history of American Thoroughbred racing won this race, it is notable for two notable horses who did not.

In 1929, the ensuing year's U. S. Triple Crown champion and future U. S. Racing Hall of Fame inductee Gallant Fox finished second. Whirlaway, another U. S. Triple Crown champion and future U. S. Racing Hall of Fame inductee, suffered the same fate in 1940; the last horse to win the United States Hotel Stakes was Career Boy, a colt owned by prominent horseman Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney who went on to be voted the American Champion Male Turf Horse for 1956. The runner-up was Canadian Champ, the 1956 Canadian Horse of the Year and Canadian Horse Racing Hall of Fame inductee; the United States Hotel Stakes at Pedigree Query

Radiation material science

Radiation materials science describes the interaction of radiation with matter: a broad subject covering many forms of irradiation and of matter. Some of the most profound effects of irradiation on materials occur in the core of nuclear power reactors where atoms comprising the structural components are displaced numerous times over the course of their engineering lifetimes; the consequences of radiation to core components includes changes in shape and volume by tens of percent, increases in hardness by factors of five or more, severe reduction in ductility and increased embrittlement, susceptibility to environmentally induced cracking. For these structures to fulfill their purpose, a firm understanding of the effect of radiation on materials is required in order to account for irradiation effects in design, to mitigate its effect by changing operating conditions, or to serve as a guide for creating new, more radiation-tolerant materials that can better serve their purpose; the types of radiation that can alter structural materials consist of neutrons, ions and gamma rays.

All of these forms of radiation have the capability to displace atoms from their lattice sites, the fundamental process that drives the changes in structural metals. The inclusion of ions among the irradiating particles provides a tie-in to other fields and disciplines such as the use of accelerators for the transmutation of nuclear waste, or in the creation of new materials by ion implantation, ion beam mixing, plasma assisted ion implantation and ion beam assisted deposition; the effect of irradiation on materials is rooted in the initial event in which an energetic projectile strikes a target. While the event is made up of several steps or processes, the primary result is the displacement of an atom from its lattice site. Irradiation displaces an atom from its site, leaving a vacant site behind and the displaced atom comes to rest in a location, between lattice sites, becoming an interstitial atom; the vacancy-interstitial pair is central to radiation effects in crystalline solids and is known as a Frenkel pair.

The presence of the Frenkel pair and other consequences of irradiation damage determine the physical effects, with the application of stress, the mechanical effects of irradiation by the occurring of interstitial, such as swelling, phase transition, etc. will be effected. In addition to the atomic displacement, an energetic charged particle moving in a lattice gives energy to electrons in the system, via the electronic stopping power; this energy transfer can for high-energy particles produce damage in non-metallic materials, as so called ion tracks. The radiation damage event is defined as the transfer of energy from an incident projectile to the solid and the resulting distribution of target atoms after completion of the event; this event is composed of several distinct processes: The interaction of an energetic incident particle with a lattice atom The transfer of kinetic energy to the lattice atom giving birth to a primary knock-on atom The displacement of the atom from its lattice site The passage of the displaced atom through the lattice and the accompanying creation of additional knock-on atoms The production of a displacement cascade The termination of the primary knock-on atom as an interstitialThe result of a radiation damage event is, if the energy given to a lattice atom is above the threshold displacement energy, the creation of a collection of point defects and clusters of these defects in the crystal lattice.

The essence of the quantification of radiation damage in solids is the number of displacements per unit volume per unit time R: R = N ∫ E m i n E m a x ∫ T m i n T m a x ϕ σ υ d T d E i. where N is the atom number density, E m a x and E m i n are the maximum and minimum energies of the incoming particle, ϕ is the energy dependent particle flux, T m a x and T m i n are the maximum and minimum energies transferred in a collision of a particle of energy E i and a lattice atom, σ is the cross section for the collision of a particle of energy E i that results in a transfer of energy T to the struck atom, υ is the number of displacements per primary knock-on atom. The two key variables in this equation are σ