Internationalist is the third studio album by Australian alternative rock band Powderfinger. The album was released on 7 September 1998 and was labelled Powderfinger's most adventurous work, with greater experimentation than in previous works. Internationalist followed in the success of its predecessor, Double Allergic, was certified five times platinum in Australia. Internationalist received four ARIA Music Awards, including "Album of the Year"; the album produced four singles for the band. Internationalist received positive reviewers in the Australian press, cemented Powderfinger's position on the local music scene. Powderfinger spent much of early 1997 touring, after the success of Double Allergic. Songwriter Bernard Fanning spent much of 1997 writing songs for Internationalist in Brisbane, drawing on inspiration from a mid-1997 band trip to the United States; the album's title refers to escapism—namely, the ability that an "internationalist" has to escape from racial and social tension. When asked in a Juice interview, Bernard Fanning summarised the title of the album by stating.
As the band had prepared "about 30 or 40" songs when they entered the studio, DiDia's task was minor. Bassist John Collins said of DiDia; the way Nick based the record was that he wanted to record the band how we were at that particular moment, he didn't want to play around too much." As a result of this attitude, the band only spent one month in the studio, the album was mixed by DiDia soon after. Powderfinger used the extra time to play table tennis, the band's recreation of choice during the Internationalist and Odyssey Number Five recording sessions. Collins described the album as not being as easy listening as their previous work, that it contained numerous experiments in songwriting that they had not put into previous albums. Fanning said Internationalist was "a better record" than Double Allergic, but acknowledged that it was not as likeable—it was just an improvement in songwriting. Collins and Fanning acknowledged that the album's experimental nature could lose them some old fans, but the pair drew parallels with bands such as U2, who Collins said had "constantly re-invented themselves, with success".
He said Powderfinger's reinvention was as much for the band's own interest as it was for the "public's perception". Meanwhile, guitarist Ian Haug described the album as a "moderation" between Parables for Wooden Ears and Double Allergic, Powderfinger's two previous albums, he agreed that the album was much more experimental, described the album as the band's "most successful", as well as stating that the album that best replicated "the sound we have live". Numerous songs on Internationalist were politically and influenced, although the band denied it being a deliberate motif. Fanning explaining that the band did not intentionally discuss political issues, saying "we don't try to do anything in particular", he noted, that the songs, as his emotional responses to recent events, could be interpreted as being political. When "The Day You Come" was released, there was speculation that it alluded to Pauline Hanson's One Nation political party, although the band claimed the song was vague and didn't refer to one person.
Fanning said of "The Day You Come". The band did not intend for it to be the first single, released it only when they could not decide on anything else. Haug said it being "a pretty inoffensive song musically". "The Day You Come" spent nine weeks on the ARIA Charts, peaking at #25. The second single was the double a-side, "Don't Wanna Be Left Out/Good-Day Ray", released on 9 November 1998. "Don't Wanna Be Left Out", a song about a friend of Fanning's who had difficulty in social situations, was one of the roughest Powderfinger songs to date.'Don't Wanna Be Left Out' could be comfortably ranked with other Powderfinger songs such as'Lighten My Load' and'Rise Up'. Drummer Jon Coghill described it as the most difficult Powderfinger song to play live at the time, because it was so "fast and offbeat"; the music video for "Don't Wan na Be Left Out" drew criticism from band members. "Good-Day Ray" was dedicated to Australian television presenter Ray Martin and his public disagreements with former Media Watch host Stuart Littlemore.
Its lyrics verged on punk. He described the music video for "Good-Day Ray" as being one of the better videos the band had made. Internationalist's third single was "Already Gone", released on 12 February 1999; the song was their influence on Powderfinger's music. The fourth and final single from the album was "Passenger", released on 9 August 1999. "Passenger" was influenced by Elvis Presley, included a big horn section, as well as backing vocals from folk group Tiddas. "Passenger" won the ARIA Award for "Song Of The Year" in 1999. The song's music video was one of Powderfinger's first to feature computer graphics, was produced by Fifty Fifty Films. "Passenger" spent 11 weeks on the ARIA Charts, peaking at #30. It appeared at #48 on Max's top 100 songs from the 1990s list. Powderfinger went on a nationwide tour after the release of Internation
League for the Fourth International
The League for the Fourth International is a Trotskyist international organisation, whose most noteworthy section is the Internationalist Group/Grupo Internacionalista in the United States. It has other affiliates in Mexico, Brazil and Germany. All of these are small and based in at most one or two cities. Like other international Trotskyist groups, it fights for "international socialist revolution, the conquest of power by the working class, led by its Leninist party." Led by Jan Norden, it was formed by members who were expelled from the Spartacist League's international the International Communist League on June 8, 1996 and the Grupo Espartaquista de México, forming the Internationalist Group. In addition to which the new Internationalist Group had links with the Liga Quarta-Internacionalista do Brasil, developing fraternal relations with the Spartacist League; the Liga Quarta-Internacionalista do Brasil, following the ICL's break of fraternal relations with it, signed with the Internationalist Group their “Joint Statement of Commitment to Reforge the Fourth International.”
In early 1998, the ICL expelled the Permanent Revolution Faction from the Ligue Trotskyste de France and at the same time declared that the key statement of the founding program of the Fourth International had been superseded. In April that year, the Internationalist Group, Liga Quarta-Internacionalista do Brasil and the Permanent Revolution Faction formed the League for the Fourth International, whose founding statement was Reforge the Fourth International. In 2004, the LFI's Dutch section, consisting of only one member, left to join the International Bolshevik Tendency; the leading member is Jan Norden, former editor of the Spartacist League newspaper Workers Vanguard and founder of the LFI's American section, the Internationalist Group. Their English language newspaper is called The Internationalist. League for the Fourth International
Internationalism is a political principle which transcends nationalism and advocates a greater political or economic cooperation among nations and people. Supporters of this principle are referred to as internationalists, believe that the people of the world should unite across national, cultural, racial, or class boundaries to advance their common interests, or that the governments of the world should cooperate because their mutual long-term interests are of greater importance than their short-term disputes. In 19th-century UK there was a liberal internationalist strand of political thought epitomized by Richard Cobden and John Bright. Cobden and Bright were against the protectionist Corn Laws and in a speech at Covent Garden on September 28, 1843 Cobden outlined his utopian brand of internationalism: Free Trade! What is it? Why, breaking down the barriers that separate nations. Cobden believed that Free Trade would pacify the world by interdependence, an idea expressed by Adam Smith in his The Wealth of Nations and common to many liberals of the time.
A belief in the idea of the moral law and an inherent goodness in human nature inspired their faith in internationalism. Such "liberal" conceptions of internationalism were harshly criticized by socialists and radicals at the time, who pointed out the links between global economic competition and imperialism, would identify this competition as being a root cause of world conflict. One of the first international organisations in the world was the International Workingmen's Association, formed in London in 1864 by working class socialist and communist political activists. Referred to as the First International, the organization was dedicated to the advancement of working class political interests across national boundaries, was in direct ideological opposition to strains of liberal internationalism which advocated free trade and capitalism as means of achieving world peace and interdependence. Other international organizations included the Inter-Parliamentary Union, established in 1889 by Frédéric Passy from France and William Randal Cremer from the United Kingdom, the League of Nations, formed after World War I.
The former was envisioned as a permanent forum for political multilateral negotiations, while the latter was an attempt to solve the world's security problems through international arbitration and dialogue. J. A. Hobson, a Gladstonian liberal who became a socialist after the Great War, anticipated in his book Imperialism the growth of international courts and congresses which would settle international disputes between nations in a peaceful way. Sir Norman Angell in his work The Great Illusion claimed that the world was united by trade, finance and communications and that therefore nationalism was an anachronism and that war would not profit anyone involved but would only result in destruction. Lord Lothian was an internationalist and an imperialist who in December 1914 looked forward to:...the voluntary federation of the free civilised nations which will exorcise the spectre of competitive armaments and give lasting peace to mankind. In September 1915 he thought the British Empire was'the perfect example of the eventual world Commonwealth'Internationalism expressed itself in Britain through the endorsement of the League of Nations by such people as Gilbert Murray.
The Liberal Party and the Labour Party had prominent internationalist members, like the Labour Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald who believed that'our true nationality is mankind' Internationalism is an important component of socialist political theory, based on the principle that working-class people of all countries must unite across national boundaries and oppose nationalism and war in order to overthrow capitalism. In this sense, the socialist understanding of internationalism is related to the concept of international solidarity. Socialist thinkers such as Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Vladimir Lenin argue that economic class, rather than nationality, race, or culture, is the main force which divides people in society, that nationalist ideology is a propaganda tool of a society's dominant economic class. From this perspective, it is in the ruling class' interest to promote nationalism in order to hide the inherent class conflicts at play within a given society. Therefore, socialists see nationalism as a form of ideological control arising from a society's given mode of economic production.
Since the 19th century, socialist political organizations and radical trade unions such as the Industrial Workers of the World have promoted internationalist ideologies and sought to organize workers across national boundaries to achieve improvements in the conditions of labor and advance various forms of industrial democracy. The First, Second and Fourth Internationals were socialist political groupings which sought to advance worker's revolution across the globe and achieve international socialism. Socialist internationalism is anti-imperialist, therefore supports the liberation of peoples from all forms of colonialism and foreign domination, the right of nations to self-determination. Therefore, socialists have aligned themselves politically with anti-colonial independence movements, opposed the exploitation of one country by another. Since war is understood in socialist theory to be a general product of the laws of economic competition inherent to capitalism (i.e. competi
International Workingmen's Association
The International Workingmen's Association called the First International, was an international organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing socialist and anarchist groups and trade unions that were based on the working class and class struggle. It was founded in 1864 in a workmen's meeting held in London, its first congress was held in 1866 in Geneva. In Europe, a period of harsh reaction followed the widespread Revolutions of 1848; the next major phase of revolutionary activity began twenty years with the founding of the IWA in 1864. At its peak, the IWA reported having 8 million members. In 1872, it split in two over conflicts between statist and anarchist factions and dissolved in 1876; the Second International was founded in 1889. Following the January Uprising in Poland in 1863, French and British workers started to discuss developing a closer working relationship. Henri Tolain, Joseph Perrachon and Charles Limousin visited London in July 1863, attending a meeting held in St. James's Hall in honour of the Polish uprising.
Here, there was discussion of the need for an international organization, which would amongst other things prevent the import of foreign workers to break strikes. In September 1864, some French delegates again visited London with the concrete aim of setting up a special committee for the exchange of information upon matters of interest to the workers of all lands. On 28 September, a great international meeting for the reception of the French delegates took place in St. Martin’s Hall in London; the meeting was attended by a wide array of European radicals, including English Owenites, followers of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon and Louis Auguste Blanqui and Polish nationalists, Italian republicans and German socialists. Included among the last-mentioned of this eclectic band was a somewhat obscure 46-year-old émigré journalist Karl Marx, who would soon come to play a decisive role in the organisation; the positivist historian Edward Spencer Beesly, a professor at London University, was in the chair. His speech pilloried the violent proceedings of the governments and referred to their flagrant breaches of international law and advocated a union of the workers of the world for the realisation of justice on earth.
George Odger, Secretary of the London Trades Council, read a speech calling for international co-operation. The meeting unanimously decided to found an international organisation of workers; the centre was to be in London, directed by a committee of 21, instructed to draft a programme and constitution. Most of the British members of the committee were drawn from the Universal League for the Material Elevation of the Industrious Classes and were noted trade-union leaders like Odger, George Howell, Cyrenus Osborne Ward and Benjamin Lucraft and included Owenites and Chartists; the French members were Victor Le Lubez and Bosquet. Italy was represented by Fontana. Other members were Louis Wolff, Johann Eccarius and at the foot of the list Marx, who participated in his individual capacity and did not speak during the meeting; this executive committee in turn selected a subcommittee to do the actual writing of the organisational programme—a group which included Marx and which met at his home about a week after the conclusion of the St. Martin's Hall assembly.
This subcommittee deferred the task of collective writing in favor of sole authorship by Marx and it was he who drew up the fundamental documents of the new organisation. On 5 October, the General Council was formed with co-opted additional members representing other nationalities, it was based at the headquarters of the Universal League for the Material Elevation of the Industrious Classes at 18 Greek Street. Different groups offered proposals for the organisation. Louis Wolff offered a proposal based on the rules and constitution of the Italian Workingmen’s Association and John Weston, an Owenite tabled a programme. Wolff left for Lubez rewrote it in a way which appalled Marx. Through deft manipulation of the sub-committee, Marx was left with all the papers and set about writing the Address to the Working Classes to, attached a simplified set of rules. At first, the IWA had male membership, although in April 1865 it was agreed that women could become members; the initial leadership was male.
At the IWA General Council meeting on 16 April 1867, a letter from the secularist speaker Harriet Law about women's rights was read and it was agreed to ask her if she would be willing to attend council meetings. On 25 June 1867, Law was admitted to the General Council and for the next five years was the only woman representative. Due to the wide variety of philosophies present in the First International, there was conflict from the start; the first objections to Marx's influence came from the mutualists, who opposed communism and statism. However, shortly after Mikhail Bakunin and his followers joined in 1868, the First International became polarised into two camps, with Marx and Bakunin as their respective figureheads; the clearest differences between the groups emerged over their proposed strategies for achieving their visions of socialism. The anarchists grouped around Bakunin favoured "direct economical struggle against capitalism, without interfering in the political parliamentary agitation".
Marxist thinking at that time focused on parliamentary activity. For example, when the new German Empire of 1871 introduced male suffrage, many German socialists became active in t
The International Brigades were paramilitary units set up by the Communist International to assist the Popular Front government of the Second Spanish Republic during the Spanish Civil War. The organisation existed for two years, from 1936 until 1938, it is estimated that during the entire war, between 32,000 and 35,000 members served in the International Brigades, including 15,000 who died in combat. The headquarters of the brigade was located at the Gran Hotel, Castilla-La Mancha, they participated in the Battle of Madrid, Guadalajara, Belchite, Teruel and the Ebro. Most of these ended in defeat. For the last year of its existence, the International Brigades were integrated into the Spanish Republican Army as part of the Spanish Foreign Legion; the organisation was dissolved on 23 September 1938 by Spanish Prime Minister, Juan Negrín, in an attempt to get more support from the liberal democracies on the Non-Intervention Committee. The International Brigades represented Comintern and Joseph Stalin's commitment to provide assistance to the Spanish Republican cause, just as Fascist Italy, Corporatist Portugal and Nazi Germany were providing assistance to the opposing Nationalist insurgency.
The largest number of volunteers came from communist exiles from Italy and Germany. A large number of Jews from the English-speaking world and Eastern Europe participated. Republican volunteers who were opposed to "Stalinism" did not join the Brigades but formed the separate Popular Front, the POUM, formed from Trotskyist and other anti-Stalinist groups, composed of a mix of Spaniards and foreign volunteers or anarcho-syndicalist groups such as the Durruti Column, the IWA and the CNT. Using foreign Communist Parties to recruit volunteers for Spain was first proposed in the Soviet Union in September 1936—apparently at the suggestion of Maurice Thorez—by Willi Münzenberg, chief of Comintern propaganda for Western Europe; as a security measure, non-Communist volunteers would first be interviewed by an NKVD agent. By the end of September, the Italian and French Communist Parties had decided to set up a column. Luigi Longo, ex-leader of the Italian Communist Youth, was charged to make the necessary arrangements with the Spanish government.
The Soviet Ministry of Defense helped, since they had experience of dealing with corps of international volunteers during the Russian Civil War. The idea was opposed by Largo Caballero, but after the first setbacks of the war, he changed his mind, agreed to the operation on 22 October. However, the Soviet Union did not withdraw from the Non-Intervention Committee to avoid diplomatic conflict with France and the United Kingdom; the main recruitment centre was in Paris, under the supervision of Soviet colonel Karol "Walter" Świerczewski. On 17 October 1936, an open letter by Joseph Stalin to José Díaz was published in Mundo Obrero, arguing that victory for the Spanish second republic was a matter not only for Spaniards, but for the whole of "progressive humanity". Entry to Spain was arranged for volunteers: for instance, a Yugoslav, Josip Broz, who would become famous as Marshal Josip Broz Tito, was in Paris to provide assistance and passports for volunteers from Eastern Europe. Volunteers were sent by train or ship from France to Spain, sent to the base at Albacete.
However, many of them went by themselves to Spain. The volunteers were under no contract, nor defined engagement period, which would prove a problem. Many Italians and people from other countries joined the movement, with the idea that combat in Spain was a first step to restore democracy or advance a revolutionary cause in their own country. There were many unemployed workers, adventurers; some 500 communists, exiled to Russia were sent to Spain. The operation was met with enthusiasm by anarchists with skepticism, at best. At first, the anarchists, who controlled the borders with France, were told to refuse communist volunteers, but reluctantly allowed their passage after protests. A group of 500 volunteers arrived in Albacete on 14 October 1936, they were met by international volunteers, fighting in Spain: Germans from the Thälmann Battalion, Italians from Centuria Gastone Sozzi and French from Commune de Paris Battalion. Among them was British poet John Cornford. Men were sorted according to their experience and origin, dispatched to units.
In 30 May 1937, the Spanish liner Ciudad de Barcelona, carrying 200–250 volunteers from Marseille to Spain, was torpedoed by a Nationalist submarine off the coast of Malgrat de Mar. The ship sunk and up to 65 volunteers are estimated to have drowned. Albacete soon became its main depot, it was run by a troika of Comintern heavyweights: André Marty was commander. The French Communist Party provided uniforms for the Brigades, they were organized into mixed brigades, the basic mil