Pair skating is a figure skating discipline. The International Skating Union defines pair skating as "the skating of two persons in unison who perform their movements in such harmony with each other as to give the impression of genuine Pair Skating as compared with independent Single Skating"; the ISU states that a pairs team must consist of "one Lady and one Man". Pair skating, along with men's and women's single skating, has been an Olympic discipline since figure skating, the oldest Winter Olympic sport, was introduced at the 1908 Olympic Games in London; the ISU World Figure Skating Championships introduced pair skating in 1908. Like the other disciplines, pair skating competitions consist of two segments, the Short program and the free skating program. There are seven required elements in the short program, which lasts 2 minutes and 40 seconds for both junior and senior pair teams. Free skating for pairs "consists of a well balanced program composed and skated to music of the pair's own choice for a specified period of time".
It should contain "especially typical Pair Skating moves" such as pair spins, partner assisted jumps and other similar moves, "linked harmoniously by steps and other movements". Its duration, like the other disciplines, is 4 minutes for senior teams, 3 1/2 minutes for junior teams. Pair skating required elements include lifts, twist lifts, throw jumps, spin combinations, death spirals, step sequences, choreographic sequences; the elements performed by pairs teams must be "linked together by connecting steps of a different nature" and by other comparable movements and with a variety of holds and positions. Pair skaters must only execute the prescribed elements. Only the first attempt of an element will be included. Violations in pair skating include falls, time and clothing; the International Skating Union defines pair skating as "the skating of two persons in unison who perform their movements in such harmony with each other as to give the impression of genuine Pair Skating as compared with independent Single Skating".
The ISU states that a pairs team must consist of "one Lady and one Man" and that "attention should be paid to the selection of an appropriate partner". Pair skating, along with men's and women's single skating, has been an Olympic discipline since figure skating, the oldest Winter Olympic sport, was introduced at the 1908 Olympic Games in London; the ISU World Figure Skating Championships introduced pair skating, along with women's singles in 1908. According to writer Ellyn Kestnbaum, the rising popularity of skating during the 19th century led to the development of figure skating techniques the "various forms of hand-in-hand skating that would become the basis of pair skating." Madge Syers, the first female figure skater to compete and win internationally, stated that from the beginning of the introduction of pair skating in international competitions, it was a popular sport for audience to watch, that "if the pair are well matched and clever performers, it is undoubtedly the most attractive to watch".
British pair skater Madge Syers stated that Viennese skaters were responsible for pair skating's popularity at the beginning of the 20th century. Syers credited the Austrians for adding dance moves to pair skating. German pair skater Heinrich Burger, in his article in Irving Brokaw's The Art of Skating, stated that he and his partner, Anna Hübler, inserted figures skated by single skaters into "our several dances according to the music" until the figures became more complicated and developed into a different appearance. Hübler and Burger were the first Olympic gold medalists in pair skating in 1908. In 1936, Maxi Herber and Ernst Baier won the gold medal at the Olympics and went on to win the World Championships from 1936-1939. Soviet and Russian domination in pair skating continued throughout the 1900s. Only five non-Soviet or Russian teams won the World Championships after 1965, until 2010. In 1988, The New York Times reported that since the 1964 Olympics in Innsbruck, Soviet pair teams had won gold medals in seven consecutive Olympics.
Kestnbaum credited the Soviets for emphasizing ballet and folk dance in all disciplines of figure skating, noting the influence of Soviet pair team and married couple Liudmila Belousova and Oleg Protopopov. The Protopopovs, as they were called, won gold medals at the 1964 and 1968 Olympics, as well as the 1968 World Championships, "raised by several degrees the level of translating classical dance to the ice". Irina Rodnina, with her partner Alexei Ulanov and Alexander Zaitsev from the Soviet Union, dominated pair skating throughout the 1970s and "led the trend of female pair skaters as risk-taking athletes". Pair skating, which has never included a compulsory phase like the other figure skating disciplines, did not require a short program until the early 1960s, when the ISU "instituted a short program of required moves" as the first part of pair competitions; the arrangement of the specific moves unlike compulsory figures for single skaters and the compulsory dance for ice dancers, were up to each pair team.
The short programs introduced in single men and women competitions in 1973 were modeled after the pair skating short program, the structure of competitions in both single and pair competitions have been identical since the elimination of compulsory figures in 1990. A judging scandal at the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, Utah "ushered in sweeping reforms in the scoring system" of figure skating competi
Albertville is a commune in the Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France. The town is best known for hosting the 1992 Winter Olympics. Albertville is situated on the river Arly, close to the confluence with the Isère, its altitude is between 2,037 metres. Nearby mountains include: Belle Etoile, Dent de Cons, Négresse, Roche Pourrie, Pointe de la Grande Journée, Chaîne du Grand Arc. Nearby mountain ranges include: the Bauges. Albertville is one of two subprefectures of the Savoie department, alongside Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne; the modern city of Albertville was formed in 1836 by King Charles Albert of Sardinia, who merged the medieval town of Conflans, which has buildings dating back to the 14th century, with the town of L'Hôpital. Since Albertville has developed trade between France and Switzerland. Industries such as paper mills and hydroelectricity can be found along its river; the 1992 Winter Olympics were organised with Albertville hosting it. Some of the sports venues were adapted for other uses.
Some sports venues still remain such as the ice rink, La halle de glace Olympique, designed by the architect Jacques Kalisz. Despite this, the town remains more industrial than touristic. In 2003, the town was labelled a "Town of art and history". Gérard Mourou, Nobel Prize winner in Physics, 2018 Justine Braisaz and Olympic medalist in biathlon Jean-Luc Crétier, Olympic champion in alpine skiing Léa Lemare, ski jumper and national champion Florine De Leymarie, skier Adrien N'Goma, rugby player Jérôme Jarre, comedian on Vine La halle de glace Olympique, or the Olympic ice hall, the ice arena that hosted events during the 1992 Winter Olympics. L'anneau de vitesse, or speed oval, the athletic stadium that served as the site of the speed skating competitions of 1992 Winter Olympics. Albertville is twinned with: Aosta, Italy Winnenden Sainte-Adèle, Quebec Vancouver, British Columbia, which like Albertville, hosted a Winter Olympics, doing so in 2010. Communes of the Savoie département 1992 Winter Olympics INSEE City council website Tourism webpage about Albertville Tourism webpage about Albertville
Single skating is a discipline of figure skating in which male and female skaters compete individually. Men's singles and women's singles, along with the other figure skating disciples, pair skating, ice dance, synchronized skating, are governed by the International Skating Union. There are two segments in all international competitions, the short program and the free skating program. Compulsory figures, from which the sport of figure skating gets its name, was a crucial part of the sport for most of its history until the ISU voted to remove them in 1990. Singles skating has required elements that skaters must perform during a competition and that make up a well-balanced skating program, they include: jumps, step sequences, choreographic sequences. They must be performed in specific ways, as described by published communications by the ISU, unless otherwise specified; the ISU publishes their points values yearly. Deductions in singles skating include violations in time and clothing, as well as regulations regarding falls and interruptions.
The short program is the first segment of single skating, pair skating, synchronized skating in international competitions, including all ISU championships, the Olympic Winter Games, the Winter Youth Games, qualifying competitions for the Olympic Winter Games, ISU Grand Prix events for both junior and senior-level skaters. The short program must be skated before the second component in competitions; the short program lasts, for both senior and junior singles and pairs, 40 seconds. Vocal music with lyrics has been allowed in single skating and in all disciplines since the 2014-2015 season. Yuzuru Hanyu from Japan holds the two highest single men's short program scores: 110.53 points, which he earned at the 2018 Rostelecom Cup, 106.69, earned at the 2018 Grand Prix of Helsinki. Russian skater Alina Zagitova holds the highest single women's short program score of 82.92, which she earned at the 2018 Winter Olympics in PyeongChang, South Korea. The short program for senior single skaters consists of seven required elements.
The sequence of the elements is optional. Skaters can choose their own music. Men single senior skaters must have the following elements in their short program: a double or triple axel. Women single senior skaters must perform seven elements in their short program: a double or triple axel. Junior single skaters have seven required elements. Free skating called the free skate or long program, is the second segment in single skating, pair skating, synchronized skating in international competitions, including all ISU championships, the Olympic Winter Games, the Winter Youth Games, qualifying competitions for the Olympic Winter Games, ISU Grand Prix events for both junior and senior-level skaters, its duration, across all disciplines, is 4 minutes for senior skaters and teams, 3 1/2 minutes for junior skaters. American skater Nathan Chen holds the highest single men's free skating program score of 216.02, which he earned at the 2019 World Championships. Alina Zagitova from Russia holds the highest single women's free skating score of 158.50, which she earned at the 2018 CS Nebelhorn Trophy.
According to the ISU, free skating "consists of a well balanced program of Free Skating elements, such as jumps, spins and other linking movements". A well-balanced free skate for both senior men and women single skaters must consist of the following: up to seven jump elements, one of which has to be an axel jump. Junior men and women single skaters have the same requirements, except that they do not have to perform a choreographic sequence. Compulsory figures called school figures, are the "circular patterns which skaters trace on the ice to demonstrate skill in placing clean turns evenly on round circles"; until 1947, for the first half of the existence of figure skating as a sport, compulsory figures made up for 60 percent of the total score at most competitions around the world. After World War II, the numbers of figures skaters had to perform during competitions decreased, after 1968, they began to be progressively devalued, until the ISU voted to remove them from all international competitions in 1990.
Despite the apparent demise of compulsory figures from the sport of figure skating, coaches continued to teach figures and skaters continued to practice them because figures gave skaters an advantage in developing alignment, core strength, body control, discipline. The World Figure Sport Society has conducted festivals and competitions of compulsory figures, endorsed by the Ice Skating Institute, since 2015; the ISU defines a jump element as "an individual jump, a jump combination or a jump sequence". The six most common jumps can be divided into two groups: toe jumps and edge jumps (the Salchow, the loop
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Vyacheslav Vasylovych Zahorodnyuk is a Ukrainian former competitive figure skater. He represented the USSR until its dissolution and represented Ukraine, he is the 1994 World bronze medalist, 1996 European champion, 1989 World Junior champion. Zahorodnyuk was born on 11 August 1972 in Odessa, Ukrainian SSR, he married Ukrainian ice dancer Olga Mudrak in 1994. They have a son, a daughter, Alina. Zahorodnyuk was coached by Galina Zmievskaya. Competing for the Soviet Union, he won the 1989 World Junior Championships. After placing sixth at the 1991 Skate America, Zahorodnyuk won silver medals at the 1991 Grand Prix International de Paris and 1991 NHK Trophy, still representing the Soviet Union. In January 1992, he competed for the Commonwealth of Independent States at the European Championships in Lausanne, where he finished fourth. In February, he placed eighth for the Unified Team at the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville, France, he was tenth at the 1992 World Championships for the CIS. Zahorodnyuk began competing under the Ukrainian flag in the 1992–93 season.
He won bronze at gold at the 1996 European Championships. In his final competitive season, Zahorodnyuk placed seventh at the 1998 European Championships and tenth at the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan, he ended his career with a fourth-place result at the 1998 World Championships. He was coached by Valentyn Nikolayev in Virginia. After retiring from competition in April 1998, Zahorodnyuk participated in some film and TV productions, including The Christmas Angel: A Story on Ice and worked as a coach in Richmond, Virginia, he coached in Kiev in 2011. As of May 2016, he is based in California. Zahorodnyuk represented the Soviet Union until December 1991. GP: Champions Series
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Poland the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With a population of 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, Szczecin. Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast and Lithuania to the north and Ukraine to the east and Czech Republic, to the south, Germany to the west; the establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to AD 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of the realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin; this union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791.
More than a century after the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Germany, followed by the Soviet Union invading Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. More than six million Polish citizens, including 90% of the country's Jews, perished in the war. In 1947, the Polish People's Republic was established as a satellite state under Soviet influence. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, Poland reestablished itself as a presidential democratic republic. Poland is regional power, it has the fifth largest economy by GDP in the European Union and one of the most dynamic economies in the world achieving a high rank on the Human Development Index. Additionally, the Polish Stock Exchange in Warsaw is the largest and most important in Central Europe. Poland is a developed country, which maintains a high-income economy along with high standards of living, life quality, safety and economic freedom.
Having a developed school educational system, the country provides free university education, state-funded social security, a universal health care system for all citizens. Poland has 15 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Poland is a member state of the European Union, the Schengen Area, the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Three Seas Initiative, the Visegrád Group; the origin of the name "Poland" derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta river basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century. The origin of the name "Polanie" itself derives from the early Slavic word "pole". In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites, which derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I. Early Bronze Age in Poland begun around 2400 BC, while the Iron Age commenced in 750 BC. During this time, the Lusatian culture, spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became prominent; the most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around 700 BC.
Throughout the Antiquity period, many distinct ancient ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland in an era that dates from about 400 BC to 500 AD. These groups are identified as Celtic, Slavic and Germanic tribes. Recent archeological findings in the Kujawy region, confirmed the presence of the Roman Legions on the territory of Poland; these were most expeditionary missions sent out to protect the amber trade. The exact time and routes of the original migration and settlement of Slavic peoples lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented; the Slavic tribes who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. Up until the creation of Mieszko's state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in 966 AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism. With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the religious authority of the Roman Church.
However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the 1030s. Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. Poland's first documented ruler, Mieszko I, accepted Christianity with the Baptism of Poland in 966, as the new official religion of his subjects; the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next few centuries. In 1000, Boleslaw the Brave, continuing the policy of his father Mieszko, held a Congress of Gniezno and created the metropolis of Gniezno and the dioceses of Kraków, Kołobrzeg, Wrocław. However, the pagan unrest led to the transfer of the capital to Kraków in 1038 by Casimir I the Restorer. In 1109, Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated the King of Germany Henry V at the Battle of Hundsfeld, stopping the Ge