Jana Novotná was a professional tennis player from the Czech Republic. She played a serve and volley game, an rare style of play among women during her career, she won the women's singles title at Wimbledon in 1998 and was runner-up in three previous Grand Slam tournaments. Novotná won 12 Grand Slam women's doubles titles, four Grand Slam mixed doubles titles, three Olympic medals, she reached a career-high singles ranking of world No. 2 in 1997, held the No. 1 ranking in doubles for 67 non-consecutive weeks. Jana Novotná turned professional in February 1987. In the early years of her career, she was known for her success as a doubles player. In the early 1990s, Novotná began to have success in singles once four-time Grand Slam singles champion Hana Mandlíková became her coach. Mandlíková would coach her for nine years, she had been coached by Mike Estep. At the 1990 French Open, Novotná, seeded 11th, achieved her best results in Grand Slam singles play up until that point. Having reached the round of 16, she faced Argentinian Gabriela Sabatini.
In their four previous meetings, Sabatini got the best of Novotná in three of those matches, including two straight set wins. This time proved to be different. Although Novotná had disposed of Sabatini, she would have to face yet another difficult opponent in the quarterfinals, Katerina Maleeva from Bulgaria. In their two previous meetings Novotná had lost both times, after Maleeva won the opening set, it appeared Novotná was about to lose a third consecutive time to Maleeva. However, Novotná came back to defeat Katerina Maleeva. Despite her success, Novotná's toughest test would be against top seeded Steffi Graf of Germany in the semifinals; when Novotná faced Graf three years before at the 1987 French Open, Graf won in straight sets. Graf again defeated Novotná without dropping a set, she qualified for the first time for the season-ending Virginia Slims Championships in which she was beaten in the first round by Sabatini. She finished the year ranked No. 13. Novotná enjoyed an excellent start to the 1991 season at the Australian Open, where she was seeded 10th and beat Zina Garrison-Jackson 7–6, 6–4 in the round of 16 to advance to the quarterfinal.
The path to the final became more difficult, as Novotná had to contend with top seeded Steffi Graf in the quarterfinal encounter. In their ten previous meetings, Novotná had lost each time against Graf, but this time Novotná pulled the upset of her life by defeating Graf, the reigning champion of the last three years, 5–7, 6–4, 8–6. Now just one win away from her first Grand Slam final, Novotná would have to stop Arantxa Sánchez Vicario in the semifinals to get there. Novotná defeated Sánchez Vicario. Seles won in three sets. At the end of the year Novotná was ranked No. 7. Two years at Wimbledon, Novotná's game hit full stride, as she played some of her finest tennis ever, but for Novotná to capture the title, her path would have to go through Sabatini, Martina Navratilova and top-seeded Steffi Graf. Going into her quarterfinal against Sabatini, Novotná had lost six consecutive matches against the Argentine; this time, Novotná took Sabatini apart in straight sets, prevailing 6–4, 6–3. After Novotná got rid of Sabatini, she set her sights on a semifinal clash against Martina Navartilova, who had won each of their previous five matches.
However, Novotná defeated Navratilova. After losing a tight first set, Novotná took the second set and had a game-point serving at 4–1 in the third set. With victory in her grasp, she lost her nerve, double-faulted, allowed Graf to climb back into the match. Graf took the title. During the prize presentation ceremony, a distraught Novotná burst into tears and cried on Katharine, Duchess of Kent's shoulder; the Duchess comforted her. Novotná achieved a year-end ranking of No. 6. She began the 1994 season by reaching the quarterfinals of the Australian Open. In her quarterfinal match, she played Gabriela Sabatini, in what turned out to be their last head-to-head encounter. In their previous meeting, on the grasscourts at the 1993 Wimbledon Championships, Novotná beat Sabatini in a straight-set quarterfinal victory; this time, on the Australian hardcourts, Sabatini defeated Novotná in straight sets. At the French Open, Novotná was beaten in the first round by Anna Smashnova in straight sets. At Wimbledon, Novotná reached the quarterfinals where she again faced Martina Navratilova in a rematch from the previous year.
Novotná lost in three sets. At the season's final Grand Slam, the US Open, the seventh seeded Novotná worked her way to the semifinals where she played top-seeded Steffi Graf. Dating back to the 1992 French Open, Novotná had lost nine consecutive matches against Graf; this trend would continue. It took four years for Novotná to reach another Wimbledon final. In 1997, she faced top-seeded Martina Hingis, lost in three sets, but to get back to the final, Novotná had to get past Mary Joe Fernandez in the round of 16. She outlasted Fernandez defeated Yayuk Basuki of Indonesia in the quarterfinals in straight sets. Now back in the semifinals of Wimbledon, her next opponent would be Arantxa Sánchez Vicario, she had prevailed against Novotná in seven of their nine previous contests, but the majority of those matches were played on clay and hard-courts, at which Sánchez Vicario excelled. On grass, Novotná had a decided advantage, as she defeated
Mary Joe Fernández
Mary Joe Fernández Godsick is an American former professional tennis player. She doubles. Fernández was the runner-up in three Grand Slam singles tournaments and won two Grand Slam women's doubles titles and three Olympic medals: two golds and one bronze. Mary Joe Fernández first came to the tennis world's attention as an outstanding junior player who won four straight Orange Bowl junior titles. In 1985, aged 14 years and eight days, she became the youngest player to win a main draw match at the US Open when she defeated Sara Gomer in the first round, she turned professional in 1986. She won, her first top-level singles title came in 1990 at the Tokyo Indoor championships. She reached her first Grand Slam singles final in 1990 at the Australian Open, where she was defeated by Steffi Graf, she finished. In 1991, Fernández teamed with Patty Fendick to win the women's doubles title at the Australian Open, she was back in the Australian Open singles final in this time losing to Monica Seles. Fernández was selected to represent the United States at the 1992 Olympic Games in Barcelona, winning a gold medal in women's doubles and a bronze medal in singles.
In the quarterfinals of the 1993 French Open, she staged a dramatic comeback against Gabriela Sabatini after Sabatini took a 6–1, 5–1 lead. But Fernández raised the level of her game and saved five match points in the second set before winning a tiebreak. In the third set, Mary Joe got rid of Sabatini by hitting a down the line winner, ending the three-hour, 36-minute marathon by a final score of 1–6, 7–6, 10–8, she faced second seeded Arantxa Sánchez Vicario in the semifinals and defeated Arantxa 6–2, 6–2, ending a three-match losing streak against the Spaniard. Her opponent in the final was top seeded Steffi Graf. Fernández took the opening set 6–4, but Graf rallied to win by a final score of 4–6, 6–2, 6–4. Fernández won her second Grand Slam doubles title in 1996 at the French Open, partnering with Lindsay Davenport; the pair went on to capture the year-end WTA Tour Championships doubles title that year. Fernández was a late replacement for Chanda Rubin on the United States team for the 1996 Olympic Games in Atlanta.
She won a second straight women's doubles gold medal, again in partnership with Gigi Fernández. She was entered in the singles competition, reached the semifinals, where she was defeated for the bronze medal by Jana Novotná; that year, Fernández was a member of the U. S. team that won the Fed Cup. Fernández won her final tour singles title in 1997 at the German Open in Berlin, her final doubles title came that year in Madrid. She retired from the tour in 2000, having won seven singles titles, 17 WTA doubles titles, two ITF women's doubles titles. In 2003, Dr. Wade Exum, the United States Olympic Committee's director of drug control administration from 1991 to 2000, gave copies of documents to Sports Illustrated which revealed that some 100 American athletes who failed drug tests and should have been prevented from competing in the Olympics were cleared to compete. Among those athletes was Fernández. Since retiring from the tour, Mary Joe Fernández has served as a tennis commentator for ESPN and joined CBS Sports as an analyst for the 2005 US Open.
She coached the US Fed Cup team from 2008 through 2016 and served as the woman's coach for the 2012 U. S. Olympic tennis team in London. Fernández was born in the Dominican Republic, her father José is from Spain, her mother Silvia Pino is from Cuba. She completed her high school education at the Carrollton School of the Sacred Heart in Miami, Florida. On April 8, 2000, Fernández married Anthony Lewisohn Godsick, a sports agent with International Management Group, they have two children. She has homes in Cleveland and Key Biscayne, Florida. Mary Joe Fernández lost in the semifinals to Steffi Graf 4–6, 2–6. In 1992, there was no bronze medal play-off match, both beaten semifinal players received bronze medals. NH = tournament not held. A = did not participate in the tournament. SR = the ratio of the number of Grand Slam tournaments won to the number of those tournaments played. Mary Joe Fernández at the Women's Tennis Association Mary Joe Fernández at the International Tennis Federation Mary Joe Fernández at the Fed Cup Mary-Joe Fernandez ESPN Bio
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Jennifer Maria Capriati is an American former professional tennis player. A member of the International Tennis Hall of Fame, she won three singles championships in Grand Slam tournaments, was the gold medalist at the 1992 Summer Olympics, reached the World No. 1 ranking, is considered one of the greatest tennis players of all time. Capriati set a number of youngest-ever records at the start of her career, she made her professional debut in 1990 at the age of 13 years 11 months, reaching the final of the hard-court tournament in Boca Raton, Florida. Capriati reached the semifinals of the French Open in her debut and became the youngest player to reach the top 10 at age 14 years, 235 days in October of that year. Following a first-round loss at the 1993 US Open, Capriati took a 14-month break from competitive pro tennis, her personal struggles during this time were well-documented by the press. In 1998, Capriati won her first Grand Slam singles match in five years at Wimbledon. During the next two years, Capriati returned to championship form, winning her first title in six years in Strasbourg in 1999 and regaining a top-20 ranking.
At the 2001 Australian Open, the reinvigorated Capriati became the lowest seed to win the championship when she defeated Martina Hingis in straight sets for her first Grand Slam championship. She won the French Open that year, claiming the Women's Tennis Association No. 1 ranking in October. After defending her Australian Open title in 2002, Capriati became a top-10 mainstay until injuries derailed her career in 2004, she won 14 professional singles tournaments during her career, along with one women's doubles championship. She won the Junior Orange Bowl in both the 12- and the 14-year categories, is one of only nine tennis players to win the Junior Orange Bowl Championship twice in its 70-year history, which list includes Andy Murray, Jimmy Connors, Monica Seles, Yishai Oliel. Capriati made her professional debut as a 13-year-old, reaching the finals of two of her first three pro events, losing to Gabriela Sabatini and Martina Navratilova in the Boca Raton and Hilton Head tournaments earning her first two wins over top-10 players.
She entered the rankings in April, at No. 23. Capriati made her Grand Slam debut at the French Open, she went all the way to the semifinals. She reached the fourth round at Wimbledon, losing to Steffi Graf. In the year Capriati won her first career title in Puerto Rico, defeating Zina Garrison. After this victory Capriati entered the world's top 10, she qualified for the WTA Championships. She finished her first season as a professional at World No. 8. Throughout the season Capriati set multiple "youngest ever" records, she was the youngest player to reach a tour final, the youngest player to reach the semifinals at the French Open, the youngest seed at Wimbledon, the youngest player to qualify for the season-ending championships. She was the fourth-youngest player to win a WTA title. In her second season as a touring pro, Capriati established herself as a consistent top-10 player, she won two singles titles during the summer hard court circuit, defeating World No. 1 Monica Seles in a third set tie-breaker in final of San Diego, Katerina Maleeva in straight sets in the final of Toronto.
She reached two Grand Slam semifinals, at Wimbledon and the US Open. At Wimbledon, the 15-year-old Capriati stunned nine-time champion Martina Navratilova, defeating her in the quarterfinals in straight sets. Capriati became the youngest person to reach the semifinal round of the tournament, losing to Sabatini. At the US Open, Capriati defeated Sabatini in the quarters but lost in the semis to eventual champion Seles after serving for the match twice. Capriati qualified for the year-end championships for the second time, she ended the year at No. 6, which would be a career high until 2001. Capriati won the only doubles title of her career at the Italian Open, partnering with Seles. Capriati's 1992 season was highlighted by her victory at the Summer Olympics, she defeated second-seeded Arantxa Sánchez Vicario in the semifinals and came from a set down to defeat top-seeded Steffi Graf in the gold-medal match. Capriati next defended her title in San Diego, defeating Conchita Martínez in the final, the only time that Capriati won back-to-back singles titles during her career.
She reached the quarter-finals at the Australian Open, at the French Open, at Wimbledon, she lost in the third round at the US Open. In Miami, Capriati ended Monica Seles's streak of 21 consecutive finals by defeating her in the quarterfinals. Capriati finished the year ranked in the top 10 for the third straight year, at No. 7. She became the youngest player to surpass $1 million in prize money. In 1992, a Sega Genesis video game titled Jennifer Capriati Tennis was released by Renovation Products. At her first tournament, Capriati defeated third-ranked Sabatini in the semifinals before defeating Anke Huber in the final. For the second straight year, she reached the quarterfinals at the first three majors of the year, she reached the final of the Rogers Cup in Montreal. At the US Open, the seventh-seeded Capriati lost her opening match to former top 15-player Leila Meskhi, her first loss in the first round of any pro tournament. Following this loss, Capriati decided to take a break from tennis.
She finished. Capriati only played one match in 1994, losing in the fi
Dayana Oleksandrívna Yastremska is a Ukrainian tennis player. Yastremska has a career high WTA singles ranking of 34, achieved in February 2019, a best doubles ranking of 190, first reached on 31 July 2017, she has won two singles titles on the WTA Tour, as well as three singles and three doubles titles on the ITF Women's Circuit. Her career-high junior ranking was No. 6 and, as a 15 year old, she reached the quarterfinals of the junior girls' singles event and the final of the girls' doubles event at the 2016 Australian Open. She followed that up by reaching the final of the girls' singles at Wimbledon, losing to Anastasia Potapova of Russia in straight sets. After winning her first ITF title in Brazil, Yastremska made her WTA main-draw debut at the İstanbul Cup, where she received a singles wildcard. However, she lost a close first-round match against sixth seed Nao Hibino 6–2, 4–6, 3–6. Yastremska won her first career WTA match at the İstanbul Cup, where she beat the eighth seed Andrea Petkovic 3–6, 6–0, 6–3.
She on went on to win her second-round match 6–1, 6–4 against Anna Kalinskaya, but lost her quarterfinal against Jana Čepelová in three sets after leading 5–2 in the second set and serving for the match. In the season and Potapova teamed up to win their first ITF doubles title together in Prague, she followed that up with her most important win yet in the ITF tournament in Dunakeszi, before finishing runner-up to Belinda Bencic in the Neva Cup in Saint Petersburg. Yastremska made her senior Grand Slam debut in the qualifying rounds of the Australian Open, where she won her first match against 17th seed Misaki Doi, but was knocked out in the second round by Alexandra Dulgheru, 6–7, 0–6, she qualified for the main draw in Acapulco, but injured an ankle during her first round match against Monica Puig and had to retire. Her next significant tournament was in France in May, she had to qualify for the main draw and went all the way to the final, where she lost in straight sets to Rebecca Peterson.
She reached the singles final in the equivalent tournament in Ilkley, going down in three sets to qualifier Tereza Smitková. Yastremska was serving for the first set at 5–4 but couldn't hold on, with the set going to a tie-break. Although she won the second set, the third went to a tie-break after both players dropped serve twice. Down 3–4, Smitková was able to force Yastremska into errors as she won four consecutive points to take the match; the following week, Yastremska was in Roehampton. She beat Magdalena Fręch in the first round of qualifying, but was beaten in the second round by Barbara Haas, she moved on to Rome a few days and the ITF Tiro A Volo tournament, where she was dominant throughout the preliminary rounds and destroyed Anastasia Potapova in the final, winning 6–1, 6–0, in just 45 minutes. In Budapest the following week, she reached the semifinals of the Hungarian Pro Circuit Ladies Open, losing to Ekaterina Alexandrova in three sets. After a strong summer on the ITF Women's Circuit, Yastremska became the first woman born in the 2000s to crack the top 100 on the WTA rankings, reaching No. 100 in July 2018.
In October, she competed in the International-level event in Hong Kong. She defeated Fanny Stollár, Zheng Saisai, Kristína Kučová, Zhang Shuai, all in straight sets, to reach her first final on the WTA Tour. There, she faced sixth seed Wang Qiang, defeating her decisively 6–2, 6–1 to win her first WTA title; as a result, she rose 36 ranking places to No. 66 beating her previous high of No. 96. With this victory, she became the youngest Ukrainian winner of a WTA title. Returning to Europe, she reached the semi-finals in the Luxembourg Open, where she lost to Belinda Bencic in a tight final-set tiebreak. En route to the last four, she claimed the biggest win of her career over former world number one and two-time Grand Slam champion Garbiñe Muguruza, her efforts were enough to improve her singles ranking by a further six places, to No. 60. She ended the year at a career-high ranking of 58. Yastremska began the year retiring during qualifying in Brisbane, before reaching the quarterfinals in Hobart.
She won her first two Grand Slam main-draw matches at the Australian Open, before losing to Serena Williams in the third round. She headed to the inaugural Hua Hin Championships in Thailand. Victories over Arantxa Rus, Peng Shuai, top seed Garbiñe Muguruza and Magda Linette saw her reach her second WTA final. Yastremska faced Ajla Tomljanović, where she came from 2–5 down in the deciding set to win 6–2, 2–6, 7–6; this result saw Yastremska move to a new career-high ranking of 34. Notes 1 The first Premier 5 event of the year has switched back and forth between the Dubai Tennis Championships and the Qatar Total Open since 2009. Dubai was classified as a Premier 5 event from 2009–2011 before being succeeded by Doha for the 2012–2014 period. In 2015, Dubai regained its Premier 5 status; the two tournaments have since alternated status every year. Levels of Fed Cup in which Ukraine did not compete in a particular year are marked "Not Participating" or "NP". as of February 4, 2019 The tournaments won by Yastremska are in boldface, advanced into finals by Yastremska are in italics.
8 consecutive matches won by Yastremska in the fall of 2018 is the longest win-streak of her career thus far. Yastremska's record against players who have been ranked in the top 10: Dayana Yastremska at the Women's Tennis Association Dayana Yastremska at the International Tennis Federation
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000