Archive.today is an archive site which stores snapshots of web pages. It retrieves one page at a time similar to WebCite, smaller than 50MB each, but with support for modern sites such as Google Maps and Twitter. Archive.is uses headless browsing to record what embedded resources need to be captured to provide a high-quality memento, creates a PNG image to provide a static and non-interactive visualization of the representation. Archive.today can capture individual pages in response to explicit user requests. Since July 2013, archive.is supports the Memento Project application programming interface. Archive.today was founded in 2012. The site branded itself as archive.today, but in May 2015 changed the primary mirror to archive.is. In January 2019, it began to deprecate the archive.is domain in favor of the archive.today mirror. In March 2019 the site was blocked by several Australian internet providers in the aftermath of the Christchurch mosque shootings in an attempt to limit distribution of the footage of the attack.
According to GreatFire.org, archive.is has been blocked in China since March 2016, archive.li since September 2017, archive.fo since July 2018. On July 21, 2015, the operators blocked access to the service from all Finnish IP addresses, stating on Twitter that they did this in order to avoid escalating a dispute they had with the Finnish government. In Russia, only HTTP access is possible. CloudFlare's 184.108.40.206 does not resolve archive.is domains. Archive.is records only text and images, excluding video, xml and other non-static content. It keeps track of the history of snapshots saved, returning to the user a request for confirmation before adding a new snapshot of an saved Internet address; the research toolbar enables advanced keywords operators. A couple of quotation marks address the search to an exact sequence of keywords present in the title or in the body of the webpage, whereas the insite operator restricts it to a specific Internet domain. Once a web page is archived, it cannot be deleted directly by any Internet user.
Nevertherless, archive.is controls or deletes web pages saved some days before, without any policy or right of discussion and appeal. While saving a dynamic list, archive.is searchbox shows only a result that links the previous and the following section of the list. The other web pages saved are filtered, sometimes may be found by one of their occurrences. Digital preservation Internet Archive Link rot Perma.cc Wayback Machine Web archiving WebCite WP:Link rot Official website "Offline blog"
IEEE 802.1X is an IEEE Standard for port-based Network Access Control. It is part of the IEEE 802.1 group of networking protocols. It provides an authentication mechanism to devices wishing to attach to a LAN or WLAN. IEEE 802.1X defines the encapsulation of the Extensible Authentication Protocol over IEEE 802, known as "EAP over LAN" or EAPOL. EAPOL was designed for IEEE 802.3 Ethernet in 802.1X-2001, but was clarified to suit other IEEE 802 LAN technologies such as IEEE 802.11 wireless and Fiber Distributed Data Interface in 802.1X-2004. The EAPOL protocol was modified for use with IEEE 802.1AE and IEEE 802.1AR in 802.1X-2010 to support service identification and optional point to point encryption over the local LAN segment. 802.1X authentication involves three parties: a supplicant, an authenticator, an authentication server. The supplicant is a client device that wishes to attach to the LAN/WLAN; the term'supplicant' is used interchangeably to refer to the software running on the client that provides credentials to the authenticator.
The authenticator is a network device which provides a data link between the client and the network and can allow or block network traffic between the two, such as an Ethernet switch or wireless access point. Authentication servers run software supporting the RADIUS and EAP protocols. In some cases, the authentication server software may be running on the authenticator hardware; the authenticator acts like a security guard to a protected network. The supplicant is not allowed access through the authenticator to the protected side of the network until the supplicant’s identity has been validated and authorized. With 802.1X port-based authentication, the supplicant must provide the required credentials to the authenticator - these will have been specified in advance by the network administrator, could include a user name/password or a permitted digital certificate. The authenticator forwards these credentials to the authentication server to decide whether access is to be granted. If the authentication server determines the credentials are valid, it informs the authenticator, which in turn allows the supplicant to access resources located on the protected side of the network.
EAPOL operates over the data link layer, in Ethernet II framing protocol has an EtherType value of 0x888E. 802.1X-2001 defines two logical port entities for an authenticated port—the "controlled port" and the "uncontrolled port". The controlled port is manipulated by the 802.1X PAE to allow or prevent network traffic ingress and egress to/from the controlled port. The uncontrolled port is used by the 802.1 X PAE to receive EAPOL frames. 802.1X-2004 defines the equivalent port entities for the supplicant. This is useful when an EAP method providing mutual authentication is used, as the supplicant can prevent data leakage when connected to an unauthorized network; the typical authentication procedure consists of: Initialization On detection of a new supplicant, the port on the switch is enabled and set to the "unauthorized" state. In this state, only 802.1X traffic is allowed. Initiation To initiate authentication the authenticator will periodically transmit EAP-Request Identity frames to a special Layer 2 address on the local network segment.
The supplicant listens on this address, on receipt of the EAP-Request Identity frame it responds with an EAP-Response Identity frame containing an identifier for the supplicant such as a User ID. The authenticator encapsulates this Identity response in a RADIUS Access-Request packet and forwards it on to the authentication server; the supplicant may initiate or restart authentication by sending an EAPOL-Start frame to the authenticator, which will reply with an EAP-Request Identity frame. Negotiation The authentication server sends a reply to the authenticator, containing an EAP Request specifying the EAP Method; the authenticator transmits it to the supplicant. At this point the supplicant can start using the requested EAP Method, or do an NAK and respond with the EAP Methods it is willing to perform. Authentication If the authentication server and supplicant agree on an EAP Method, EAP Requests and Responses are sent between the supplicant and the authentication server until the authentication server responds with either an EAP-Success message, or an EAP-Failure message.
If authentication is successful, the authenticator sets the port to the "authorized" state and normal traffic is allowed, if it is unsuccessful the port remains in the "unauthorized" state. When the supplicant logs off, it sends an EAPOL-logoff message to the authenticator, the authenticator sets the port to the "unauthorized" state, once again blocking all non-EAP traffic. Wi
Active Directory is a directory service that Microsoft developed for the Windows domain networks. It is included in most Windows Server operating systems as a set of services. Active Directory was only in charge of centralized domain management. Starting with Windows Server 2008, Active Directory became an umbrella title for a broad range of directory-based identity-related services. A server running Active Directory Domain Service is called a domain controller, it authenticates and authorizes all users and computers in a Windows domain type network—assigning and enforcing security policies for all computers and installing or updating software. For example, when a user logs into a computer, part of a Windows domain, Active Directory checks the submitted password and determines whether the user is a system administrator or normal user, it allows management and storage of information, provides authentication and authorization mechanisms, establishes a framework to deploy other related services: Certificate Services, Active Directory Federation Services, Lightweight Directory Services and Rights Management Services.
Active Directory uses Lightweight Directory Access Protocol versions 2 and 3, Microsoft's version of Kerberos, DNS. Active Directory, like many information-technology efforts, originated out of a democratization of design using Request for Comments or RFCs; the Internet Engineering Task Force, which oversees the RFC process, has accepted numerous RFCs initiated by widespread participants. Active Directory incorporates decades of communication technologies into the overarching Active Directory concept makes improvements upon them. For example, LDAP underpins Active Directory. X.500 directories and the Organizational Unit preceded the Active Directory concept that makes use of those methods. The LDAP concept began to emerge before the founding of Microsoft in April 1975, with RFCs as early as 1971. RFCs contributing to LDAP include RFC 1823,RFC 2307, RFC 3062, RFC 4533. Microsoft previewed Active Directory in 1999, released it first with Windows 2000 Server edition, revised it to extend functionality and improve administration in Windows Server 2003.
Additional improvements came with subsequent versions of Windows Server. In Windows Server 2008, additional services were added to Active Directory, such as Active Directory Federation Services; the part of the directory in charge of management of domains, a core part of the operating system, was renamed Active Directory Domain Services and became a server role like others. "Active Directory" became the umbrella title of a broader range of directory-based services. According to Bryon Hynes, everything related to identity was brought under Active Directory's banner. Active Directory Services consist of multiple directory services; the best known is Active Directory Domain Services abbreviated as AD DS or AD. Active Directory Domain Services is the cornerstone of every Windows domain network, it stores information about members of the domain, including devices and users, verifies their credentials and defines their access rights. The server running this service is called a domain controller. A domain controller is contacted when a user logs into a device, accesses another device across the network, or runs a line-of-business Metro-style app sideloaded into a device.
Other Active Directory services as well as most of Microsoft server technologies rely on or use Domain Services. Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services known as Active Directory Application Mode, is a light-weight implementation of AD DS. AD LDS runs as a service on Windows Server. AD LDS shares the code base with AD DS and provides the same functionality, including an identical API, but does not require the creation of domains or domain controllers, it provides a Data Store for storage of directory data and a Directory Service with an LDAP Directory Service Interface. Unlike AD DS, multiple AD LDS instances can run on the same server. Active Directory Certificate Services establishes an on-premises public key infrastructure, it can create and revoke public key certificates for internal uses of an organization. These certificates can be used to encrypt files and network traffic. AD CS predates Windows Server 2008, but its name was Certificate Services. AD CS requires an AD DS infrastructure.
Active Directory Federation Services is a single sign-on service. With an AD FS infrastructure in place, users may use several web-based services or network resources using only one set of credentials stored at a central location, as opposed to having to be granted a dedicated set of credentials for each service. AD FS's purpose is an extension of that of AD DS: The latter enables users to authenticate with and use the devices that are part of the same network, using one set of credentials; the former enables them to use the same set of credentials in a different network. As the name suggests, AD FS works based on the concept of federated identity. AD FS requires an AD DS infrastructure. Active Directory Rights Management Services is a server software for information rights management shipped with Windows Server