World Chess Network
The World Chess Network was a commercial Internet chess server devoted to the play and discussion of chess that launched in 1997 and closed ten years in 2007 when it was bought by Internet Chess Club and merged with Chess Live to form World Chess Live. As a typical chess server, the network provided basic services such as the conduction of live chess games over the Internet between two human players. Chess tournaments were conducted by the service, including a select few matches between known chess Grandmasters where spectators could watch the game in real-time. During its heyday, the network was frequented by professional chess players including notable Grandmasters like Elena Donaldson, Susan Polgar, Larry Christiansen and Larry Evans; the World Chess Network provided a number of services to its subscribers. Besides the facilitation of online chess games, it provided members with a method of conducting online chess tournaments; the network used the Elo rating system for rating its players.
The World Chess Network conducted professional grandmaster tournaments, allowing spectators to watch these matches live, with professional commentaries. It advertised itself as a venue for real-world chess players seeking to improve their playing skills; the network facilitated private chess lessons from professional players via arrangement with the professional player with an additional cost. It provided a service called Banter Chess. Lectures about playing chess professionally were given by the many Masters on the site. For players not playing games, the network offered regular chat channels so that players could schedule or discuss games, among other things; the interface used by the website was the a proprietary chess software called Mgichess. The software has arrangements to try to detect players using the assistance of chess programs, it does this by detecting changes in window input focus, based on information on the activities being undertaken on the computer that the program is able to detect.
The World Chess Network was created as an Internet chess server by Master Games International, Inc. with the support of chess philanthropist Dato Tan Chin Nam. It was home to many recognized chess Grandmasters and International Masters such as Susan Polgar, Larry Christiansen and Larry Evans. In the 1999 policy board meeting of the United States Chess Federation, a proposal was made for a strategic alliance between the World Chess Network and the USCF. On 29 May 2007, WCN was bought by the Internet Chess Club, it was merged with Chess Live, another Internet chess server acquired by Internet Chess Club from GamesParlor. The result of the acquisition and merger was the formation of World Chess Live, a new Internet chess server that merged features of both services; the site itself has been reviewed on Chess Central, a notable online chess resource, by chess grandmaster, Susan Polgar. Polgar has referred to the World Chess Network as a major chess "company". Another well-known online chess website, ChessBase, has featured the World Chess Network in at least one article.
The article featured a match on the network between American Grandmaster Larry Christiansen and the Canadian International Master Pascal Charbonneau. The network has received attention from other chess-specialty sites such as Chessville; the site has been featured as a popular chess play site on About.com. List of Internet chess servers
The Macintosh is a family of personal computers designed and sold by Apple Inc. since January 1984. The original Macintosh was the first mass-market personal computer that featured a graphical user interface, built-in screen and mouse. Apple sold the Macintosh alongside its popular Apple II family of computers for ten years before they were discontinued in 1993. Early Macintosh models were expensive, hindering its competitiveness in a market dominated by the Commodore 64 for consumers, as well as the IBM Personal Computer and its accompanying clone market for businesses. Macintosh systems still found success in education and desktop publishing and kept Apple as the second-largest PC manufacturer for the next decade. In the early 1990s, Apple introduced models such as the Macintosh LC II and Color Classic which were price-competitive with Wintel machines at the time. However, the introduction of Windows 3.1 and Intel's Pentium processor which beat the Motorola 68040 in most benchmarks took market share from Apple, by the end of 1994 Apple was relegated to third place as Compaq became the top PC manufacturer.
After the transition to the superior PowerPC-based Power Macintosh line in the mid-1990s, the falling prices of commodity PC components, poor inventory management with the Macintosh Performa, the release of Windows 95 saw the Macintosh user base decline. Prompted by the returning Steve Jobs' belief that the Macintosh line had become too complex, Apple consolidated nearly twenty models in mid-1997 down to four in mid-1999: The Power Macintosh G3, iMac, 14.1" PowerBook G3, 12" iBook. All four products were critically and commercially successful due to their high performance, competitive prices and aesthetic designs, helped return Apple to profitability. Around this time, Apple phased out the Macintosh name in favor of "Mac", a nickname, in common use since the development of the first model. Since their transition to Intel processors in 2006, the complete lineup is based on said processors and associated systems, its current lineup includes four desktops, three laptops. Its Xserve server was discontinued in 2011 in favor of the Mac Mac Pro.
Apple has developed a series of Macintosh operating systems. The first versions had no name but came to be known as the "Macintosh System Software" in 1988, "Mac OS" in 1997 with the release of Mac OS 7.6, retrospectively called "Classic Mac OS". In 2001, Apple released Mac OS X, a modern Unix-based operating system, rebranded to OS X in 2012, macOS in 2016; the current version is macOS Mojave, released on September 24, 2018. Intel-based Macs are capable of running non-Apple operating systems such as Linux, OpenBSD, Microsoft Windows with the aid of Boot Camp or third-party software. Apple produced a Unix-based operating system for the Macintosh called A/UX from 1988 to 1995, which resembled contemporary versions of the Macintosh system software. Apple does not license macOS for use on non-Apple computers, however System 7 was licensed to various companies through Apple's Macintosh clone program from 1995 to 1997. Only one company, UMAX Technologies was licensed to ship clones running Mac OS 8.
Since Apple's transition to Intel processors, there is a sizeable community around the world that specialises in hacking macOS to run on non-Apple computers, which are called "Hackintoshes". The Macintosh project began in 1979 when Jef Raskin, an Apple employee, envisioned an easy-to-use, low-cost computer for the average consumer, he wanted to name the computer after his favorite type of apple, the McIntosh, but the spelling was changed to "Macintosh" for legal reasons as the original was the same spelling as that used by McIntosh Laboratory, Inc. the audio equipment manufacturer. Steve Jobs requested that McIntosh Laboratory give Apple a release for the newly spelled name, thus allowing Apple to use it; the request was denied, forcing Apple to buy the rights to use this name. In 1978, Apple began to organize the Apple Lisa project, aiming to build a next-generation machine similar to an advanced Apple II or the yet-to-be-introduced IBM PC. In 1979, Steve Jobs learned of the advanced work on graphical user interfaces taking place at Xerox PARC.
He arranged for Apple engineers to be allowed to visit PARC to see the systems in action. The Apple Lisa project was redirected to utilize a GUI, which at that time was well beyond the state of the art for microprocessor capabilities. Things had changed with the introduction of the 32-bit Motorola 68000 in 1979, which offered at least an order of magnitude better performance than existing designs, made a software GUI machine a practical possibility; the basic layout of the Lisa was complete by 1982, at which point Jobs's continual suggestions for improvements led to him being kicked off the project. At the same time that the Lisa was becoming a GUI machine in 1979, Jef Raskin started the Macintosh project; the design at that time was for a easy-to-use machine for the average consumer. In
Free Internet Chess Server
The Free Internet Chess Server is a volunteer-run Internet chess server. It was organised as a free alternative to the Internet Chess Club, after that site began charging for membership; the first Internet chess server, named the Internet Chess Server, started in January 1992. The software was coded and operated by volunteers until 1995, when administrators began charging players for membership and changed the name to ICC. Several former ICS programmers saw the commercialisation of ICS as an exploitation of their work; this group, led by Chris Petroff and Henrik Gram, developed FICS as an alternative to the paid model, giving users free, unrestricted access. The server debuted on 3 March 1995. In 1998, the Free Internet Chess Organization was organized as a nonprofit organization. In 2007, the legal entity was involuntarily dissolved; the server is still administered by volunteers. In 2016, 50,000 active players played a total of 23 million games; as of August 2014, FICS had over 650,000 registered accounts.
Playing chess on FICS requires connecting to the server either through a web-based applet on the FICS website or else by using a client program, which could be as simple as a telnet client, but is an interface designed for playing Internet chess. Users can log in either as an anonymous guest or else by registering for a free account; each user is permitted only one account. The server maintains game statistics for registered users. FICS uses the Glicko rating system. Players can watch for game requests by other users broadcast or create their own seeks and wait for someone to respond. Seeks include time controls and an optional ratings limit. Seeks can be programmed to be require manual acceptance by the user, or they can automatically be accepted by the player. Users can challenge specific players to a game by using the match command. Moves are made with a mouse on an image of a chess board or users can type in moves in algebraic chess notation. All games played by registered users are made publicly available.
Since the mechanics of play are simplified, chess games played online tend to use faster time controls than in over-the-board play. Longer games are called standard and are common on the server. Separate ratings are maintained for lightning and standard. Irregular variants, such as Fischer Random, are grouped together into a handful of formats like Wild, these are not further classified by time controls. Fischer delay is popular: the time control is specified by two numbers, the minutes each player is allotted at the start of the game, the seconds added to a player's clock after making a move. For example, in the popular 2–12 time controls, each player receives 2 minutes at the beginning of the game, 12 seconds are added to a player's clock after they make a move. Since all games are assumed to last 40 moves for format classification purposes, 2–12 is grouped with 10-minutes-per-player; the timeseal is a utility. Each move is time-stamped locally and the time is takes for each command to travel to the server is not deducted from the player's clock.
Many of the channels are reserved for bots. Some of the more popular channels include: channel 1 - general help; some channels are used for FICS staff and cannot be seen by regular users: channel 0 - the admin channel channel 5 - the service representatives channel channel 48 - the mamer manager channel channel 63 - the chess advisor channelA user can listen and send tells to up to thirty channels simultaneously. Another form of mass communication available to registered users is "shouts" which can be seen by all connected users connected who haven't turned shouts off; the following chess variants are available on FICS, besides regular chess: Suicide – capturing is compulsory, a player wins by losing all his pieces.
Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid. The game is played by millions of people worldwide. Chess is believed to be derived from the Indian game chaturanga some time before the 7th century. Chaturanga is the ancestor of the Eastern strategy games xiangqi and shogi. Chess reached Europe by the 9th century, due to the Umayyad conquest of Hispania; the pieces assumed their current powers in Spain in the late 15th century with the introduction of "Mad Queen Chess". Play does not involve hidden information; each player begins with 16 pieces: one king, one queen, two rooks, two knights, two bishops, eight pawns. Each of the six piece types moves differently, with the most powerful being the queen and the least powerful the pawn; the objective is to checkmate the opponent's king by placing it under an inescapable threat of capture. To this end, a player's pieces are used to attack and capture the opponent's pieces, while supporting each other.
During the game, play involves making exchanges of one piece for an opponent's similar piece, but finding and engineering opportunities to trade advantageously, or to get a better position. In addition to checkmate, a player wins the game if the opponent runs out of time. There are several ways that a game can end in a draw; the first recognized World Chess Champion, Wilhelm Steinitz, claimed his title in 1886. Since 1948, the World Championship has been regulated by the Fédération Internationale des Échecs, the game's international governing body. FIDE awards life-time master titles to skilled players, the highest of, grandmaster. Many national chess organizations have a title system of their own. FIDE organizes the Women's World Championship, the World Junior Championship, the World Senior Championship, the Blitz and Rapid World Championships, the Chess Olympiad, a popular competition among international teams. FIDE is a member of the International Olympic Committee, which can be considered as a recognition of chess as a sport.
Several national sporting bodies recognize chess as a sport. Chess was included in 2010 Asian Games. There is a Correspondence Chess World Championship and a World Computer Chess Championship. Online chess has opened professional competition to a wide and varied group of players. Since the second half of the 20th century, chess engines have been programmed to play chess with increasing success, to the point where the strongest personal computers play at a higher level than the best human players. Since the 1990s, computer analysis has contributed to chess theory in the endgame; the IBM computer Deep Blue was the first machine to overcome a reigning World Chess Champion in a match when it defeated Garry Kasparov in 1997. The rise of strong chess engines runnable on hand-held devices has led to increasing concerns about cheating during tournaments. There are many variants of chess that utilize pieces, or boards. One of these, Chess960, incorporates standard rules but employs 960 different possible starting positions, thus negating any advantage in opening preparation.
Chess960 has gained widespread popularity as well as some FIDE recognition. The rules of chess are published by chess's international governing body, in its Handbook. Rules published by national governing bodies, or by unaffiliated chess organizations, commercial publishers, etc. may differ. FIDE's rules were most revised in 2017. Chess is played on a square board of eight columns; the 64 squares are referred to as light and dark squares. The chessboard is placed with a light square at the right-hand end of the rank nearest to each player. By convention, the game pieces are divided into white and black sets, the players are referred to as White and Black, respectively; each player begins the game with 16 pieces of the specified color, consisting of one king, one queen, two rooks, two bishops, two knights, eight pawns. The pieces are set out as shown in the diagram and photo, with each queen on a square of its own color. In competitive games, the colors are allocated by the organizers; the player with the white pieces moves first.
After the first move, players alternate turns. Pieces are moved to either an unoccupied square or one occupied by an opponent's piece, captured and removed from play. With the sole exception of en passant, all pieces capture by moving to the square that the opponent's piece occupies. A player may not make any move that would leave the player's own king under attack. A player cannot "pass" a turn. If the player to move has no legal move, the game is over; each piece has its own way of moving. In the diagrams, the dots mark the squares to which the piece can move if there are no intervening piece of either color; the king moves one square in any direction. The king has
IPad is a line of tablet computers designed and marketed by Apple Inc. which run the iOS mobile operating system. The first iPad was released on April 3, 2010; as of May 2017, Apple has sold more than 360 million iPads, though sales peaked in 2013. It is the most popular tablet computer by sales as of the second quarter of 2018; the user interface is built around the device's multi-touch screen, including a virtual keyboard. All iPads can connect via Wi-Fi. IPads can shoot video, take photos, play music, perform Internet functions such as web-browsing and emailing. Other functions – games, reference, GPS navigation, social networking, etc. – can be enabled by downloading and installing apps. As of March 2016, the App Store has more than million apps for the iPad by third parties. There have been eight versions of the iPad; the first generation established design precedents. The 2nd-generation iPad introduced a new thinner design, a dual-core Apple A5 processor, VGA front-facing and 720p rear-facing cameras designed for FaceTime video calling.
The third generation added a Retina Display, the new Apple A5X processor with a quad-core graphics processor, a 5-megapixel camera, HD 1080p video recording, voice dictation, 4G. The fourth generation added the Apple A6X processor and replaced the 30-pin connector with an all-digital Lightning connector; the iPad Air added the Apple A7 processor and the Apple M7 motion coprocessor, reduced the thickness for the first time since the iPad 2. The iPad Air 2 added the Apple A8X processor, the Apple M8 motion coprocessor, an 8-megapixel camera, the Touch ID fingerprint sensor; the iPad introduced in 2017 added the Apple A9 processor, while sacrificing some of the improvements the iPad Air 2 introduced in exchange for a lower launch price. There have been five versions of the iPad Mini; the first generation has similar internal specifications to the iPad 2 but uses the Lightning connector instead. The iPad Mini 2 added the Retina Display, the Apple A7 processor, the Apple M7 motion coprocessor matching the internal specifications of the iPad Air.
The iPad Mini 3 added the Touch ID fingerprint sensor. The iPad Mini 4 features the Apple M8 motion coprocessor; the 5th generation features the Apple A12 SoC. There have been three generations of the iPad Pro; the first generation came with 9.7" and 12.9" screen sizes, while the second came with 10.5" and 12.9" sizes, the third with 11" and 12.9" sizes. The iPad Pros have unique features such as the Smart Connector, which are exclusive to this series of iPads. Apple co-founder Steve Jobs said in a 1983 speech that the company's strategy was simple: "What we want to do is we want to put an great computer in a book that you can carry around with you and learn how to use in 20 minutes... and we want to do it with a radio link in it so you don't have to hook up to anything and you're in communication with all of these larger databases and other computers." Apple's first tablet computer was the Newton MessagePad 100, introduced in 1993, powered by an ARM6 processor core developed by ARM, a 1990 spinout of Acorn Computers in which Apple invested.
Apple developed a prototype PowerBook Duo based tablet, the PenLite, but decided not to sell it in order to avoid hurting MessagePad sales. Apple released several more Newton-based PDAs. Apple re-entered the mobile-computing markets in 2007 with the iPhone. Smaller than the iPad, but featuring a camera and mobile phone, it pioneered the multi-touch finger-sensitive touchscreen interface of Apple's iOS mobile operating system. By late 2009, the iPad's release had been rumored for several years; such speculation talked about "Apple's tablet". The iPad was announced on January 27, 2010, by Steve Jobs at an Apple press conference at the Yerba Buena Center for the Arts in San Francisco. Jobs said that Apple had begun developing the iPad before the iPhone. Jonathan Ive in 1991 had created an industrial design for a stylus-based tablet, the Macintosh Folio, as his first project for Apple. Ive stated that after seeking to produce the tablet first, he came to agree with Jobs that the phone was more important, as the tablet's innovations would work as well in it.
The iPad's internal codename was K48, revealed in the court case surrounding leaking of iPad information before launch. Apple began taking pre-orders for the first-generation iPad on March 12, 2010; the only major change to the device between its announcement and being available to pre-order was the change of the behavior of the side switch to perform either sound muting or screen rotation locking. The Wi-Fi version of the iPad went on sale in the United States on April 3, 2010; the Wi-Fi + 3G version was released on April 30. 3G service in the United States is provided by AT&T and was sold with two prepaid contract-free data plan options: one for unlimited data and the other for 250 MB per month at half the price. On June 2, 2010, AT&T announced that effective June 7 the unlimited plan would be replaced for new
Susan Polgár is a Hungarian-born American chess Grandmaster. She is an Olympic and World chess champion, a chess teacher, coach and promoter and the head of the Susan Polgar Institute for Chess Excellence at Webster University as well as the head coach for the 2011 and 2012 National Championship college chess teams at Texas Tech University and the 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017 National Championship teams at Webster University; the U. S. Collegiate championship has been contested each year since 2001 at the Final Four of College Chess known as the President's Cup, her younger sisters Zsófia and Judit are highly ranked chess players. She was the first woman to earn the grandmaster title through tournament play, is credited with breaking a number of gender barriers in chess. On the July 1984 FIDE Rating List, at the age of 15, she became the top-ranked woman player in the world, remained ranked in the top three for the next 23 years, she was the first woman in history to break the gender barrier by qualifying for the 1986 "Men's" World Championship.
She was the Women's World Chess Champion from 1996 to 1999. She won the World Blitz and Rapid Championships in 1992. In October 2005, Polgár had an Elo rating of 2577, making her the second-ranked woman in the world at the time, after her sister Judit. Polgár went on to win four Women's World Championships, she has not played in official competition since 2006. In 1997, Polgár founded the Polgar Chess Center in Forest Hills, New York, to give chess training to children; the Polgar Chess Center closed in 2009 following her relocation to Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas. In 2002, she established the Susan Polgar Foundation. Since her foundation has sponsored the National Invitational for Girls, National Open Championship for Boys and Girls, World Open Championship for Boys and Girls, All-Star Girl's Chess Team, NY City Mayor's Cup Invitational, Tri-State Scholastic Chess Challenge, SPICE Cup and a series of Get Smart Play Chess scholastic chess tournaments, she founded the SPICE Institute in Texas in 2007 and began coaching the Texas Tech Knight Raiders in 2007 as well.
As of January 2009, she has been the Co-Chairperson of the Commission for Women's Chess for the World Chess Federation FIDE. She was brought up in Budapest, Hungary, to a Hungarian-Jewish family. In 1994, Polgár married computer consultant Jacob Shutzman, moved to New York, they have two sons and Leeam. She divorced. In December 2006, she married Paul Truong, she now lives in suburban St. Missouri. Polgár and her two younger sisters, Grandmaster Judit and International Master Sofia, were part of an educational experiment carried out by their father László Polgár, who sought to prove that children could make exceptional achievements if trained in a specialized subject from a early age. "Geniuses are made, not born," was László's thesis. He and his wife Klara educated their three daughters at home, with chess as the principal subject. In 2007, National Geographic released an hour-long documentary entitled "My Brilliant Brain" with Susan Polgár as the main subject; the father taught his three daughters Esperanto.
Most of her family emigrated to Israel, but Susan Polgár moved to New York after marrying an American citizen in 1994. Members of the Polgár family, who are Jewish, perished in the Holocaust, her grandmother was a survivor of Auschwitz. At age 4, Susan Polgár won her first chess tournament, the Budapest Girls' Under-11 Championship, with a 10–0 score. In 1982, at the age of 12, she won the World Under 16 Championship. Despite restrictions on her freedom to play in international tournaments, by 1984 at age 15, Polgár had become the top-rated female chess player in the world. In November 1986, FIDE decided to grant 100 bonus Elo rating points to all active female players except Polgár, which knocked her from the top spot in the January 1987 FIDE ratings list; the rationale was that the FIDE ratings of women were not commensurate with the ratings of the men because the women tended to play in women-only tournaments, Polgár being an exception because up to that point she had played against men. In January 1991, Polgár became the third woman to earn the Grandmaster title, after Nona Gaprindashvili and Maia Chiburdanidze.
In 1992, Polgár won both the Women's the Women's World Rapid Championship. Prior to 1992, Polgár tended to avoid women-only tournaments, she entered the candidates' cycle for the 1993 Women's World Championship and was eliminated after the candidates' final match with Nana Ioseliani. The match was drawn at the chessboard and the winner advanced to the championship based on the drawing of lots, she became the Women's World Champion at her second attempt in 1996. Her title defense against Xie Jun of China was scheduled to take place in 1998 but FIDE had been unable to find a satisfactory sponsor. In early 1999, a match was arranged, but under conditions to; as a result, Polgár requested a postponement because she was pregnant and due to give birth to a child, Tom, in March 1999. She felt that she did not nave sufficient time to recuperate, secondly because the match was to be held in China, the home country of her challenger, she wanted a larger prize fund. When Polgár refused to play under these conditions, FIDE declared that she had forfeited the title, instead organized a match between Xie Jun and Alisa Galliamova for the Women's World Chess Championship, which w
A chess variant is a game "related to, derived from, or inspired by chess". Such variants can differ from chess in many different ways, ranging from minor modifications to the rules, to games which have only a slight resemblance. "International" or "Western" chess itself is one of a family of games which have related origins and could be considered variants of each other. Chess is theorised to have been developed from chaturanga, from which other members of this family, such as shatranj and xiangqi evolved. Many chess variants are designed to be played with the equipment of regular chess. Although most variants have a similar public-domain status as their parent game, some have been made into commercial, proprietary games. Just as in traditional chess, chess variants can be played over-the-board, by correspondence, or by computer; some internet chess servers facilitate the play of some variants in addition to orthodox chess. In the context of chess problems, chess variants are called fairy chess.
Fairy chess variants tend to be created for problem composition rather than actual play. There are thousands of known chess variants; the Classified Encyclopedia of Chess Variants catalogues around two thousand, with the preface noting that — with creating a chess variant being trivial — many were considered insufficiently notable for inclusion. The origins of the chess family of games can be traced to the game of chaturanga during the time of the Gupta Empire in India. Over time, as the game spread geographically, modified versions of the rules became popular in different regions. In Sassanid Persia, a modified form became known as shatranj. Modifications made to this game in Europe resulted in the modern game. Courier chess was a popular variant in medieval Europe, which had a significant impact on the "main" variant's development. Other games in the chess family, such as shogi, xiangqi, are developments from chaturanga made in other regions; these related games are considered chess variants, though the majority of variants are, modifications of chess.
The basic rules of chess were not standardised until the 19th century, the history of chess prior to this involves many variants, with the most popular modifications spreading and forming the modern game. While some regional variants have historical origins comparable to or older than chess, the majority of variants are express attempts by individuals or small groups to create new games with chess as a starting point. In most cases the creators are attempting to create new games of interest to chess enthusiasts or a wider audience. Variants have the same public domain status as chess, though a few are proprietary, the materials for play are released as commercial products; the variations from chess may be done to address a perceived issue with the standard game. For example, Chess960, which randomises the starting positions, was invented by Bobby Fischer to combat what he perceived to be the detrimental dominance of opening preparation in chess. Several variants introduce complications to the standard game, providing an additional challenge for experienced players, for example in Kriegspiel, where players cannot see the pieces of their opponent.
A handful, such as No Stress Chess, attempt to simplify the game, so as to be attractive to chess beginners. The table below details some, but not all, of the ways in which variants can differ from the orthodox game: Variants can themselves be developed into further sub-variants, for example Horde chess is a variation upon Dunsany's Chess; some variations are created for the purpose of composing interesting puzzles, rather than being intended for full games. This field of composition is known as fairy chess. Fairy chess gave rise to the term "fairy chess piece", used more broadly across writings about chess variants to describe chess pieces with movement rules other than those of the standard chess pieces. Forms of standardised notation have been devised to systematically describe the movement of these. A distinguishing feature of several chess variants is the presence of one or more fairy pieces. Physical models of common fairy pieces are sold by major chess set suppliers. Individuals notable for creating multiple chess variants include V. R. Parton, Ralph Betza, Philip M. Cohen and George R. Dekle Sr.
Some board game designers, notable for works across a wider range of board games, have attempted to create chess variants. These include Andy Looney. Several chess masters have developed variants, such as Chess960 by Bobby Fischer, Capablanca Chess by José Raúl Capablanca, Seirawan chess by Yasser Seirawan. While chess and xiangqi have professional circuits as well as many organised tournaments for amateurs, play of the majority of chess variants is predominately on a casual basis; some variants have had significant tournaments. Several Gliński's hexagonal chess tournaments were played at the height of the variant's popularity in the 1970s and 1980s. Chess960 has been the subject of tournaments, including in 2018 an "unofficial world championship" between reigning World Chess Champion Magnus Carlsen and fellow high-ranking Grandmaster Hikaru Nakamura. Several internet chess servers facilitate live play of popular variants, including Chess.com and the Free Internet Chess Server. The software packages Zillions of Games and Fairy-Max have been programmed to support many chess variants.
Play in most chess variants is sufficiently similar to chess that games can be recorded with algebraic notation, although additions to this are required. For example, the third dimension in Millennium 3D Chess means that move notatio