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Internet Control Message Protocol

The Internet Control Message Protocol is a supporting protocol in the Internet protocol suite. It is used by network devices, including routers, to send error messages and operational information indicating success or failure when communicating with another IP address, for example, an error is indicated when a requested service is not available or that a host or router could not be reached. ICMP differs from transport protocols such as TCP and UDP in that it is not used to exchange data between systems, nor is it employed by end-user network applications. ICMP for IPv4 is defined in RFC 792. ICMP is part of the Internet protocol suite as defined in RFC 792. ICMP messages are used for diagnostic or control purposes or generated in response to errors in IP operations. ICMP errors are directed to the source IP address of the originating packet. For example, every device forwarding an IP datagram first decrements the time to live field in the IP header by one. If the resulting TTL is 0, the packet is discarded and an ICMP time exceeded in transit message is sent to the datagram's source address.

Many used network utilities are based on ICMP messages. The traceroute command can be implemented by transmitting IP datagrams with specially set IP TTL header fields, looking for ICMP time exceeded in transit and Destination unreachable messages generated in response; the related ping utility is implemented using the ICMP echo reply messages. ICMP uses the basic support of IP as if it were a higher-level protocol, however, ICMP is an integral part of IP. Although ICMP messages are contained within standard IP packets, ICMP messages are processed as a special case, distinguished from normal IP processing. In many cases, it is necessary to inspect the contents of the ICMP message and deliver the appropriate error message to the application responsible for transmitting the IP packet that prompted the ICMP message to be sent. ICMP is a network-layer protocol. There is no TCP or UDP port number associated with ICMP packets as these numbers are associated with the transport layer above; the ICMP packet is encapsulated in an IPv4 packet.

The packet consists of data sections. The ICMP header starts after the IPv4 header and is identified by IP protocol number'1'. All ICMP packets have an 8-byte header and variable-sized data section; the first 4 bytes of the header have fixed format, while the last 4 bytes depend on the type/code of that ICMP packet. Type ICMP type, see Control messages. Code ICMP see Control messages. Checksum Error checking data, calculated from the ICMP header and data, with value 0 substituted for this field; the Internet Checksum is used, specified in RFC 1071. Rest of Header Four-bytes field, contents vary based on code. ICMP error messages contain a data section that includes a copy of the entire IPv4 header, plus at least the first eight bytes of data from the IPv4 packet that caused the error message; the maximum length of ICMP error messages is 576 bytes. This data is used by the host to match the message to the appropriate process. If a higher level protocol uses port numbers, they are assumed to be in the first eight bytes of the original datagram's data.

The variable size of the ICMP packet data section has been exploited. In the "Ping of death", large or fragmented ICMP packets are used for denial-of-service attacks. ICMP data can be used to create covert channels for communication; these channels are known as ICMP tunnels. Control messages are identified by the value in the type field; the code field gives additional context information for the message. Some control messages have been deprecated. Source Quench requests that the sender decrease the rate of messages sent to a host; this message may be generated if a router or host does not have sufficient buffer space to process the request, or may occur if the router or host buffer is approaching its limit. Data is sent at a high speed from a host or from several hosts at the same time to a particular router on a network. Although a router has buffering capabilities, the buffering is limited to within a specified range; the router cannot queue any more data than the capacity of the limited buffering space.

Thus if the queue gets filled up, incoming data is discarded. But as no acknowledgement mechanism is present in the network layer, the client does not know whether the data has reached the destination successfully. Hence some remedial measures should be taken by the network layer to avoid these kind of situations; these measures are referred to as source quench. In a source quench mechanism, the router sees that the incoming data rate is much faster than the outgoing data rate, sends an ICMP message to the clients, informing them that they should slow down their data transfer speeds or wait for a certain amount of time before attempting to send more data; when a client receives this message, it will automatically slow down the outgoing data rate or wait for a sufficient amount of time, which enables the router to empty the queue. Thus the source quench ICMP message acts as flow control in the network layer. Since research suggested that "ICMP Source Quench an ineffective antidote for congestion", routers' creation of source quench messages was deprecated in 1995 by RFC 1812.

Furthermore, forwarding of and any kind of reaction to source quench messages was deprecated from 2012 by RFC 6633. Where: Type must be set to 4 Code must be set to 0 IP header and additional data is used by the sender to match the reply with the associated r


Xcalibur is a French Canadian CGI sword-and-sorcery children's television series that aired on YTV in 2001 and 2002. King Edwin, ruler of a medieval-like Kingdom is assassinated by his brother and regent, who has made a truce with the evil warlock, Kwodahn; the murder is witnessed by Prince Erwann. After hiding the sword, Kwodahn curses Erwann. Erwann's feisty teenage daughter, Princess Djana befriends Herik, a young apprentice of the exiled Shogis, a sect of sorcerers, entrusted with the Book of Life, the collected knowledge of the Shogis. Together, they retrieve Xcalibur, however upon reaching the Royal Palace, they learn Bragan has taken control of the Kingdom as regent to Arthus, the 10-year-old sovereign, too young to rule himself, confiscated Prince Erwann's lands as his own, falsely branding him as the assassin. Unable to convince the lords or Arthus that Bragan is a traitor, Djana goes on the run with Herik, Tara - a member of the People of the Sea referred to as Barbarians - and Wip, a small dragon, are branded outlaws by Bragan.

Djana's resistance to Bragan's alliance with Kwodahn sparks a rebellion in the kingdom, assisted by the people of the villages of Mallory and Quinn, secretly assisted by Prince Duncan, one of the lords of the Kingdom. Princess Djana — the fiery daughter of Prince Erwann opposed to Kwodahn and Prince Bragan, her mother mysteriously disappeared. She takes the sword Xcalibur to protect the innocent and to free her father from the curse it hinted at that Djana is bisexual for her feelings for Tara and Herik Herik — a young Shogi apprentice, rebellious by nature. During Bragan's attack on the Shogi Monastery, he is entrusted with the Book of Life by the Grand Magus, he helps her to retrieve Xcalibur, going on the run with her. Tara — a young dark skin messenger sent by the People of the Sea, she is sent to negotiate with Prince Erwann, the go-between for negotiating a peace treaty between King Edwin and her people. She arrives too late, is declared an outlaw along with Djana and Herik where it implied in the episode The Toll Of The Past Djana and Tara have feelings for each other.

Wip — a small, flying dragon, once the Totem of Sapphire. Prince Bragan — King Edwin's younger brother, who has him assassinated, he is in league with Kwodahn, attempts to subvert his nephew Arthus to become king. King Arthus — the 10 year old sovereign, son of the late King Edwin, he is naive led by his uncle, Bragan who believes his story that Erwann assassinated the King to steal Xcalibur. Kwodahn — the Devil, who lives in a flying castle, he carries out his plans for domination through Walka, who have sold their souls to him. Wolf — the leader of the People of the Sea, raiders who attack the Kingdom for food and riches. King Edwin attempted to negotiate with them, offering them a land to settle in return for peace, however his assassination prevents this from happening, he discovers that Herik is his son. Walka — one of the three Sylph sisters in Brocelianda, dressed in a green gown, the Sylph of the Appearances who leans towards serving Kwodahn, has become an evil sorceress, she is banished from the Sylphs by Fedora.

As a Sylph, she possesses a jewel: Sylph Bracelet. She redeems herself by freeing Queen Lorna, defying Kwodahn, her Totem is a Two-Headed Snake. She is godmother of Queen Lorna. Fedora — one of the three Sylph sisters in Brocelianda. Sylph of Time and Queen of the Sylphs, dressed in a blue gown, she possesses a jewel: Sylph Necklace, a wand. Her Totem is a Unicorn, she is the Aunt of Djana. Sapphire — one of the three Sylph sisters in Brocelianda, dressed in a red gown, the Sylph of the Expressions and Djana's mother, she possesses a jewel: Sylph Ring. Her Totem is Wip, she is wife of Erwann. Mussi — governess to King Arthus, she is devoted to the care of Arthus. Queen Lorna — King Arthus' mother and rightful regent of the Kingdom. Bragan decided to get rid of Lorna first, gave the task of assassinating her to her godmother. Unable to kill her goddaughter, she hid Lorna in Mussi's body, she is released by Walka in a bout of redemption, replaces Bragan as the regent. Prince Erwann — Princess Djana's father.

He was Chief of King Edwin's Army and his close friend, who worked as a bridge between Edwin and Tara, representing the People of the Sea. It is implied, he is turned to stone when he refuses to hand over Xcalibur to him. King Edwin — the late ruler of the Kingdom and Arthus' father, he is portrayed as a fair ruler, who wanted to make peace with the People of the Sea. Zeky Zek — Wolf's subordinate. Zoldan — a Shaman who accompanies the People of the Sea, he is used as a pawn by Kwodahn for his plans. Morgan — an experienced Shogi who leads the exiled Shogis to a new life on the Shogi Island, he is a close friend of Herik. The Shogi Master -- sometimes called a powerful sorcerer and leader of the Shogis. Silkar — a citizen of the village of Mallory, one of Djana's allies, he becomes a prominent figure in the rebellion against Bragan. Arped — a citizen of the hamlet of Quinn, another prominent figure in the resistance against Bragan. Will — one of the leaders of the Wandering City, a city which floats above the sea, inhabited by pacifists.

Erin — one of the inhabitants of Quinn. She is a spy for Bragan, passing on information about the rebellion's plans to attack Bragan's camp and kill hi

Museum im Kulturspeicher W├╝rzburg

The Museum im Kulturspeicher Würzburg is a municipal art museum located at Veitshöchheimer Strasse 5, Würzburg, Northern Bavaria, Germany. It is open daily except Monday; the museum opened in 2002 within a converted river-side warehouse that provides 3,500 m² of exhibit space in 12 rooms. It contains two distinct collections: the municipal art collection, founded in 1941 as the Städtische Gallerie and located in Hofstraße. Ruppert Collection of European concrete art from World War II to the present day; the municipal collection exhibits regional art from Franconia and Southern Germany, ranging from Biedermeier-style portraits and landscapes of the first half of the 19th century, through German impressionism and painters of the Berlin Secession, including Robert Breyer, Philipp Franck, Walter Leistikow, Joseph Oppenheimer, Max Slevogt, as well as members of the Weimar Saxon-Grand Ducal Art School including Ludwig von Gleichen-Rußwurm and Franz Bunke. It includes works by Bauhaus painter Hans Reichel and works from the estate of sculptor Emy Roeder, as well as about 30,000 graphics works.

The Ruppert collection includes concrete art from 22 European countries, incorporating a broad spectrum of materials and media, exhibited within six galleries. Artists include Max Bill, John Carter, Andreas Christen, Ralph Eck, Christoph Freimann, Gerhard von Graevenitz, Erwin Heerich, Malcolm Hughes, Norbert Kricke, Richard Paul Lohse, Maurizio Nannucci, Nausika Pastra, Henry Prosi, Bridget Riley, Peter Sedgley, Anton Stankowski. Museum im Kulturspeicher Würzburg BAYERN. BY entry Undated pamphlet, Museum im Kulturspeicher Würzburg

Karl Olivecrona

Karl Olivecrona was a Swedish lawyer and legal philosopher. He studied law at Uppsala from 1915 to 1920 and was a pupil of Axel Hägerström, the spiritual father of Scandinavian legal realism. One of the internationally best-known Swedish legal theorists, Olivecrona was a professor of procedural law and legal philosophy at Lund University, his writings emphasise the psychological significance of legal ideas. His most striking work on legal theory, the first edition of his book Law as Fact, stressed the importance of a monopoly of force as the fundamental basis of law. Olivecrona's politics during World War II showed a related stress on a need for overwhelming coercive power to guarantee order in international relations, he became convinced that Europe required an unchallengeable controlling force to ensure its peace and unity, that Germany alone could provide this. His pamphlet England eller Tyskland, published in the darkest days of the war, argued that England had lost its claim to exert leadership in Europe and that the future required an acceptance of German hegemony.

Indirectly, Scandinavian legal realism, with its emphasis on "law as fact", helped to create a climate conducive to the sociological study of law. One of Olivecrona's doctoral students, Per Stjernquist, who as a left-leaning liberal rejected his supervisor's politics, became a pioneer of sociology of law and was responsible for establishing it as a university subject in Sweden in the early 1960s. Law as Fact England eller Tyskland Europa och Amerika "Is a Sociological Explanation of Law Possible?", 14 Theoria 167-207 Three Essays in Roman Law The Problem of the Monetary Unit Law as Fact, 2nd edn. "Locke's Theory of Appropriation", 24 Philosophical Quarterly 220-34 "Appropriation in the State of Nature: Locke on the Origin of Property", 35 Journal of the History of Ideas 211-30 "Bentham’s ‘Veil of Mystery", 31 Current Legal Problems 227-37 Torben Spaak, A Critical Appraisal of Karl Olivecrona's Legal Philosophy. Roger Cotterrell, "Northern Lights: From Swedish Realism to Sociology of Law", 40 Journal of Law and Society 657-69.

Herbert Olivecrona, Karl's brother, considered the founder of Swedish neurosurgery

M People

M People are an English dance music band that formed in 1990 and achieved success throughout most of the 1990s. The name M People is taken from the first letter of the first name of band member Mike Pickering, who formed the group. In December 2016, Billboard magazine ranked them as the 83rd most successful dance artist of all-time. Pickering had been a member of Factory Records dance act Quando Quango, but became more noted as one of the original DJs at The Haçienda. Paul Heard was a member of acid jazz band Ace of Clubs, Shovell had been in the collective Natural Life; the original plan had been to have a roster of different singers for different songs but having been spotted by Pickering and Heard, Heather Small became the distinctive vocalist of the group. She had been in the English Soul band Hot House, which had released a number of critically acclaimed records without scoring any major success, their first release came in the form of "Colour My Life", a limited white label pressing which got them some recognition, but it was the first official single "How Can I Love You More?" that gave them their first Top 30 hit and a following in and around the Manchester club scene, where Pickering was still DJ-ing.

Their first album, Northern Soul, provided other singles, including a full release of "Colour My Life", "Someday" and "Excited", followed by a re-release and repackaging of the album. 1993 started with the re-released and remixed single from 1991's "How Can I Love You More?", released at the end of January and provided the band with their first Top 10 single, peaking at number 8. While this single was in the chart the band were working on new material for the second album to be released that autumn, it provided them with a dance/pop success that set up a bigger worldwide hit with the second single, "Moving On Up". The album Elegant Slumming peaked at No. 2, remaining on the chart until the following summer and winning the band a Mercury Music Prize. A further two Top 10 singles followed: "Don't Look Any Further" in December, "Renaissance", used as the theme tune to the BBC 2 show, The Living Soap, sending the single to number 5 in the UK Singles Chart. In 1994 and 1995, M People won the BRIT Award for Best British Dance Act, the latter as a result of the release of Bizarre Fruit.

The first single from that album was "Sight for Sore Eyes" which climbed to number 6, helping the album to enter the UK Albums Chart and peak at No. 4 and stay in the Top 10 for four months into the following year. The second single from the album was "Open Your Heart", which became their seventh consecutive Top Ten hit in two years and at the Brit Awards'95 they collaborated with Sting on his track "If You Love Somebody Set Them Free", their third single "Search for the Hero" was used in the TV advertising campaign for the Peugeot 406. The song got to number 9 in the chart. In 1995, the band embarked on their first world tour entitled the Come Again Tour and two more singles were lifted from a re-issued album: Bizarre Fruit II which charted and peaked one place higher at number 3; the former was the least successful single from the album charting at number 32, the latter was a cover of The Small Faces 1967 single, which charted at number 11. Although the choice of the latter song to cover drew negative comments from the media.

In the United States, their biggest success was on the Hot Dance Music/Club Play chart, where they achieved five Top 5 singles, four of which hit number one. After touring and promotion of Bizarre Fruit II for 18 months the band took a break in 1996; the album, having been released in November 1995, did not leave the chart until April 1997, becoming one of the biggest selling albums of the decade. They made some outdoor live UK performances called the Summer M Parties in June 1996, at Crystal Palace, Alton Towers plus a televised performance on BBC 1 on 29 June 1996 from Old Trafford, Manchester for The Crowd are on the Pitch: The Euro'96 Extravanganza, where they performed along with bands Dodgy and fellow Mancunians Simply Red and comedians Nick Hancock and Jo Brand to a crowd of 60,000 at party celebrating the Euro 1996 football championships. In March 1997, lead singer Heather Small gave birth to her son. With the closure by BMG of the deConstruction label in 1996, the band founded their own record label, M People Records, to release the forthcoming album.

In September they released the lead single "Just for You" which peaked at number 8 on the chart and two weeks their album Fresco was released and went in the UK Albums Chart at number two, going on to sell 1.1 million copies and certified platinum. The band achieved their third multi-platinum selling album and this time appeared on Jools Holland's BBC 2 show, performing album tracks "Never Mind Love", "Angel St" and Small performed, the million-selling charity single that she appeared on, "Perfect Day". Fresco bore the single, "Fantasy Island" and went on a fifteen-date UK Tour supporting the album to rave reviews; the final single lifted off the album was Angel St which got to number 8 and earned them their tenth Top 10 chart hit in March 1998, making the band one of the most consistent hit-makers of the 1990s on both sales and airplay. During the middle of 1998, the band prepared for their fifth album, a compilation entitled The Best of M People which contained three new tracks: "Testify", "Dreaming" and a cover of the Doobie Brothers classic: "What a Fool Believes".

The album went on to sell 1.75 million, peaked at number 2 and wa

O'Connell Street, North Adelaide

O'Connell Street is the main north–south route through North Adelaide, South Australia and is heavily-trafficked by north-suburban commuters to Adelaide city centre. At its northern end it intersects with Barton Terrace West and the commencement of Prospect and Main North roads. At its southern end it abuts Brougham Gardens and intersects with Brougham Place and the commencement of King William Road, it is considered to be one of two major shopping and dining strips within North Adelaide, the other being Melbourne Street. The street was named on 23 May 1837 at a meeting between the Governor John Hindmarsh, the Colonial Secretary Robert Gouger and several advisers including judge John Jeffcott, it has been suggested that it was not named, as might have been presumed, for Irish political leader and Catholic emancipist Daniel O'Connell, at the peak of his career, but his son parliamentarian Maurice O'Connell, a fellow student of Jeffcott's at Trinity College and fellow expatriate of Tralee, Kerry.

Jeffcott Street was intended to be the main north–south thoroughfare through North Adelaide, but drainage problems in the vicinity led to the opening up of the link through Brougham Gardens from King William Street and the resultant access to enter Adelaide city most directly from the north via O'Connell Street