Internet Explorer is a series of graphical web browsers developed by Microsoft and included in the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, starting in 1995. It was first released as part of the add-on package Plus! for Windows 95 that year. Versions were available as free downloads, or in service packs, included in the original equipment manufacturer service releases of Windows 95 and versions of Windows; the browser is discontinued, but still maintained. Internet Explorer was once the most used web browser, attaining a peak of about 95% usage share by 2003; this came after Microsoft used bundling to win the first browser war against Netscape, the dominant browser in the 1990s. Its usage share has since declined with the launch of Firefox and Google Chrome, with the growing popularity of operating systems such as Android and iOS that do not support Internet Explorer. Estimates for Internet Explorer's market share are about 1.7% across all platforms, or by StatCounter's numbers ranked 8th.
On traditional PCs, the only platform on which it has had significant share it is ranked 5th at 3.7%, with Microsoft Edge, its successor, ranking 4th with a 4.7% market share. Edge first overtook Internet Explorer in terms of market share in August 2019. IE and Edge combined rank third, after Firefox being second after Chrome. Microsoft spent over US$100 million per year on Internet Explorer in the late 1990s, with over 1,000 people involved in the project by 1999. Versions of Internet Explorer for other operating systems have been produced, including an Xbox 360 version called Internet Explorer for Xbox and for platforms Microsoft no longer supports: Internet Explorer for Mac and Internet Explorer for UNIX, an embedded OEM version called Pocket Internet Explorer rebranded Internet Explorer Mobile made for Windows CE, Windows Phone and based on Internet Explorer 7 for Windows Phone 7. On March 17, 2015, Microsoft announced that Microsoft Edge would replace Internet Explorer as the default browser on its Windows 10 devices.
This makes Internet Explorer 11 the last release. Internet Explorer, remains on Windows 10 and Windows Server 2019 for enterprise purposes. Since January 12, 2016, only Internet Explorer 11 has official support for consumers. Support varies based on its support life cycle; the browser has been scrutinized throughout its development for use of third-party technology and security and privacy vulnerabilities, the United States and the European Union have alleged that integration of Internet Explorer with Windows has been to the detriment of fair browser competition. The Internet Explorer project was started in the summer of 1994 by Thomas Reardon, according to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Review of 2003, used source code from Spyglass, Inc. Mosaic, an early commercial web browser with formal ties to the pioneering National Center for Supercomputing Applications Mosaic browser. In late 1994, Microsoft licensed Spyglass Mosaic for a quarterly fee plus a percentage of Microsoft's non-Windows revenues for the software.
Although bearing a name similar to NCSA Mosaic, Spyglass Mosaic had used the NCSA Mosaic source code sparingly. The first version, dubbed Microsoft Internet Explorer, was installed as part of the Internet Jumpstart Kit in Microsoft Plus! for Windows 95 and Plus!. The Internet Explorer team began with about six people in early development. Internet Explorer 1.5 was released several months for Windows NT and added support for basic table rendering. By including it free of charge with their operating system, they did not have to pay royalties to Spyglass Inc, resulting in a lawsuit and a US$8 million settlement on January 22, 1997. Microsoft was sued over the trademark infringement. Internet Explorer 2 Internet Explorer 3 Internet Explorer 4 Internet Explorer 5 Internet Explorer 6 Internet Explorer 7 Internet Explorer 8 Internet Explorer 9 Internet Explorer 10 Internet Explorer 11 is featured in Windows 8.1, released on October 17, 2013. It includes an incomplete mechanism for syncing tabs, it is a major update to its developer tools, enhanced scaling for high DPI screens, HTML5 prerender and prefetch, hardware-accelerated JPEG decoding, closed captioning, HTML5 full screen, is the first Internet Explorer to support WebGL and Google's protocol SPDY.
Joe's Steaks + Soda Shop named Chink's Steaks, is a cheesesteak restaurant founded in 1949 in Northeast Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The restaurant's former name was controversial to some. A second restaurant location opened in the Fishtown neighborhood of Philadelphia in 2015. In addition to its cheesesteak sandwich specialty, the company purveys other types of sandwiches, hot dogs and other foods. In 1949, Samuel "Chink" Sherman opened Chink's Steaks. Sherman, Jewish, was nicknamed "chink" because his eyes were almond-shaped. Sherman died in 1997. In 1999, long time employee, Joe Groh, purchased the restaurant from Sherman's family. In 2013, Groh changed the name of the restaurant to Joe's Steaks due to controversy from its former use of the ethnic slur "chink". Groh did not change the name earlier because he wanted to "honor the wishes of some of the regular customers who were opposed to any kind of change, big or small", because the name was a tradition; some of the restaurant's customers from the neighborhood opposed the name change, some badgered Joe about the matter.
Some people left negative comments about the name change on various social media websites and on online restaurant review sites. The restaurant realized a loss of profits after some customers boycotted the restaurant due to the name change. Groh expanded to a second location in Fishtown which opened on April 1, 2015. Joe's Steaks specializes in cheesesteak sandwiches, serves other types of sandwiches, hot dogs and sausages, hand-cut fries, sodas and sundaes; the company purveys a vegan cheesesteak sandwich. The original location on Torresdale Avenue has a 1950s diner style, with wooden booths that have small jukeboxes, a lunch counter and soda fountain, it has seating for about thirty customers. The Fishtown neighborhood location is larger, has outdoor seating. Erin O'Neill of NJ.com rated Joe's Steaks as "10 Philly cheesesteaks worth crossing the bridge for". List of submarine sandwich restaurants Official website
The Range of Reason is a 1952 book of essays by Catholic philosopher Jacques Maritain. The text presents a Thomist philosophy regarding morality, it contains a study of Atheism, titled "The Meaning of Contemporary Atheism", which has had a considerable impact on Catholic views of Atheism. In this essay, Maritain considers empiricist epistemology. While he acknowledges that sense-data plays an important part in human knowledge of the world, he rejects the thesis that the real does not exist or cannot be known, because he believes that the intellect can transcend sensory experience to perceive the noumenal world. Maritain here supports the theory that the aesthetic carries a "hidden truth", as an expression of the fundamental individuality of the artist. Maritain introduces various terms to distinguish the beliefs of atheists; these terms are: Absolute atheist - one who denies the existence of the god in whom believers believe Negative atheist - one who rejects the idea of God Positive atheist - one who challenges all aspects of God and is an antitheist Practical atheist - one who claims belief in God, yet whose actions contradict this claim Pseudo-atheist - one who claims atheism, but unconsciously believes in God Real atheist - one who denies the existence of God and follows a pseudo-morality rather than Divine law The absolute atheist does not lack belief in God, but rather challenges and fights against God.
Those described as such never stop thinking about God in order to liberate themselves from anything that connotes God. Practical atheists prefer to be seen as adherents to religious faith for selfish reasons, yet deny the gospels by lacking concern for the well-being of others; the pseudo-atheist unconsciously believes in God. According to Maritain, the "God" whose existence is denied is not God, but rather a being of reason, a nonexistent entity which he or she has mistakenly labeled as God. Thus, the pseudo atheist denies an entity, self-evidently nonexistent or that necessitates negative consequences for nature or humanity; the real atheist denies the "God Who is the authentic object of reason and of faith and Whose authentic idea mind misuses." Maritain states the morality of the real atheist is but a false idol of the "separate Good,", God's morality. The Range of Reason