A rubber chicken is a prop used in comedy. The phrase is used as a description for food served at speeches and other large meetings, as a metaphor for speechmaking. A rubber chicken is an imitation plucked fowl made in a latex injection mold, dishwasher-safe The origin of the rubber chicken is obscure, but is based on the use of pig bladders, which were inflated, attached to a stick and used as props or mock-weapons by jesters in the days before the development of plastic and latex. Chicken corpses were available. One account attributes the first use of a prop chicken to John Holmberg, the Swedish black-faced clown of the early 1900s. Holmberg would perform with his pockets full of fake food to mock the gluttony prevalent among the upper classes at the time. A claim that the symbol originated during the French Revolution with soldiers hanging a chicken from their muskets for luck is printed on the tag of rubber chickens manufactured by Archie McPhee; the term "rubber chicken" is used disparagingly to describe the food served at political or corporate events and other gatherings where there are a large number of guests who require serving in a short timeframe.
Pre-cooked chicken is held at serving temperature for some time and dressed with a sauce as it is served. The meat may be tough or “rubbery.” Someone who "travels the rubber chicken circuit" is said to do so by attending or making speeches at many such gatherings as part of political campaigning. At the staging of Ionesco's The Killing Game, theatre critic Gerhard Stadelmaier was sworn at and had a rubber chicken thrown at him by actor Thomas Lawinky, who offered his resignation. In 2009, a film depicting a sex act on a rubber chicken was posted online by an AFL player. In 2012, a team of students at NASA used a helium balloon to launch a rubber chicken equipped with film badge dosimeters into a solar storm to take measurements of the radiation levels
An advance-fee scam is a form of fraud and one of the most common types of confidence tricks. The scam involves promising the victim a significant share of a large sum of money, in return for a small up-front payment, which the fraudster requires in order to obtain the large sum. If a victim makes the payment, the fraudster either invents a series of further fees for the victim or disappears. According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, "An advance fee scheme occurs when the victim pays money to someone in anticipation of receiving something of greater value—such as a loan, investment, or gift—and receives little or nothing in return." There are many variations of this type of scam, including the 419 scam, the Spanish Prisoner scam, the black money scam, Fifo's Fraud and the Detroit-Buffalo scam. The scam has been used with fax and traditional mail, is now prevalent in online communications like emails. While Nigeria is most the nation referred to in these scams, they originate in other nations as well.
In 2006, 61% of internet criminals were traced to locations in the United States, while 16% were traced to the United Kingdom, 6% to Nigeria. Other nations known to have a high incidence of advance-fee fraud include: Ivory Coast, South Africa, the Netherlands and Jamaica; the number "419" refers to the section of the Nigerian Criminal Code dealing with fraud, the charges and penalties for offenders. The modern scam is similar to the Spanish Prisoner scam. In that con, businessmen were contacted by an individual trying to smuggle someone, connected to a wealthy family out of a prison in Spain. In exchange for assistance, the scammer promised to share money with the victim in exchange for a small amount of money to bribe prison guards. One variant of the scam may date back to the 18th or 19th centuries, as a similar letter, entitled "The Letter from Jerusalem", is seen in the memoirs of Eugène François Vidocq, a former French criminal and private investigator. Another variant of the scam, dating back to circa 1830, appears similar to what is passed via email today: "Sir, you will doubtlessly be astonished to be receiving a letter from a person unknown to you, about to ask a favour from you...", goes on to talk of a casket containing 16,000 francs in gold and the diamonds of a late marchioness.
The modern day transnational scam can be traced back to Germany in 1922, became popular during the 1980s. There are many variants of the letters sent. One of these, sent via postal mail, was addressed to a woman's husband, inquired about his health, it asked what to do with profits from a $24.6 million investment, ended with a telephone number. Other official-looking letters were sent from a writer who said he was a director of the state-owned Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation, he said he wanted to transfer $20 million to the recipient’s bank account – money, budgeted, but was never spent. In exchange for transferring the funds out of Nigeria, the recipient would keep 30% of the total. To get the process started, the scammer asked for a few sheets of the company’s letterhead, bank account numbers, other personal information, yet other variants have involved mention of a Nigerian prince or other member of a royal family seeking to transfer large sums of money out of the country—thus, these scams are sometimes called "Nigerian Prince emails".
The spread of e-mail and email harvesting software lowered the cost of sending scam letters by using the Internet. While Nigeria is most the nation referred to in these scams, they may originate in other nations as well. For example, in 2006, 61% of Internet criminals were traced to locations in the United States, while 16% were traced to the United Kingdom and 6% to locations in Nigeria. Other nations known to have a high incidence of advance-fee fraud include Ivory Coast, South Africa, the Netherlands, Spain. One reason Nigeria may have been singled out is the comical ludicrous nature of the promise of West African riches from a Nigerian prince. According to Cormac Herley, a Microsoft researcher, "By sending an email that repels all but the most gullible, the scammer gets the most promising marks to self-select." Nigeria has earned a reputation for being at the center of email scammers, the number 419 refers to the article of the Nigerian Criminal Code dealing with fraud. In Nigeria, scammers use computers in Internet cafés to send mass emails promising potential victims riches or romance, to trawl for replies.
They refer to their targets as Maga, slang developed from a Yoruba word meaning "fool" and referring to gullible white people. Some scammers have accomplices in the United States and abroad that move in to finish the deal once the initial contact has been made; this scam begins with the perpetrator contacting the victim via email, instant messaging or social media using a fake email address or a fake social media account and making an offer that would result in a large payoff for the victim. An email subject line may say something like "From the desk of barrister ", "Your assistance is needed", so on; the details vary, but the usual story is that a person a government or bank employee, knows of a large amount of unclaimed money or gold which he cannot access directly because he has no right to it. Such people, who may be real but impersonated people or fictitious characters played by the con artist, could include, for example, the wife or son of a deposed African leader who has amassed a stolen fortune, a bank employee who knows of a terminally ill we
Zotz! is a 1962 fantasy/comedy film produced and directed by William Castle, about a man obtaining magical powers from a god of an ancient civilization. It is based on Walter Karig's 1947 novel. A brilliant but peculiar professor of Ancient Eastern languages, Jonathan Jones, finds that an amulet sent to his niece Cynthia by a boyfriend from an archeological dig has magical powers. Whoever has the amulet in their possession can 1) cause great pain by pointing at another living creature, 2) cause time to go into slow motion by saying the word "Zotz!", or 3) cause instant death by pointing and saying "Zotz!". Both government and Communist agents develop an interest in the amulet's possible military use.. In the meantime and rival professor Kellgore are both in line for a promotion to take over from retiring Dean Updike as head of this California university's language department. A new colleague and possible romantic interest, Professor Fenster, is startled by Jones' behavior at a party thrown by Updike's wife that turns into chaos.
Tom Poston as Professor Jonathan Jones Julia Meade as Professor Virginia Fenster Jim Backus as Professor Kellgore Cecil Kellaway as Dean Updike Margaret Dumont as Persephone Updike Fred Clark as General Bullivar During the initial theatrical run, theater patrons received a full-size plastic replica of the amulet as a promotional item. In color and design, the replicas were identical to the film amulet, with the additional feature of a small hole drilled at the top, for a key chain. On October 20, 2009, Zotz! was released on DVD as part of The William Castle Collection box set by Sony Pictures. List of American films of 1962 Zotz! on IMDb Zotz! at the TCM Movie Database Zotz! Title listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database
Interactive fiction abbreviated IF, is software simulating environments in which players use text commands to control characters and influence the environment. Works in this form can be understood as literary narratives, either in the form of Interactive narratives or Interactive narrations; these works can be understood as a form of video game, either in the form of an adventure game or role-playing game. In common usage, the term refers to text adventures, a type of adventure game where the entire interface can be "text-only", graphical text adventure games, where the text is accompanied by graphics still fall under the text adventure category if the main way to interact with the game is by typing text; some users of the term distinguish between interactive fiction, known as "Puzzle-free", that focuses on narrative, "text adventures" that focus on puzzles. Due to their text-only nature, they sidestepped the problem of writing for divergent graphics architectures; this feature meant that interactive fiction games were ported across all the popular platforms at the time, including CP/M.
The number of interactive fiction works is increasing as new ones are produced by an online community, using available development systems. The term can be used to refer to digital versions of literary works that are not read in a linear fashion, known as gamebooks, where the reader is instead given choices at different points in the text; the most famous example of this form of printed fiction is the Choose Your Own Adventure book series, the collaborative "addventure" format has been described as a form of interactive fiction. The term “interactive fiction” is sometimes used to refer to visual novels, a type of interactive narrative software popular in Japan. Text adventures are one of the oldest types of computer games and form a subset of the adventure genre; the player uses text input to control the game, the game state is relayed to the player via text output. Interactive fiction relies on reading from a screen and on typing input, although text-to-speech synthesizers allow blind and visually impaired users to play interactive fiction titles as audio games.
Input is provided by the player in the form of simple sentences such as "get key" or "go east", which are interpreted by a text parser. Parsers may vary in sophistication. Parsers, such as those built on ZIL, could understand complete sentences. Parsers could handle increasing levels of complexity parsing sentences such as "open the red box with the green key go north"; this level of complexity is the standard for works of interactive fiction today. Despite their lack of graphics, text adventures include a physical dimension where players move between rooms. Many text adventure games boasted their total number of rooms to indicate how much gameplay they offered; these games are unique in that they may create an illogical space, where going north from area A takes you to area B, but going south from area B did not take you back to area A. This can create mazes that do not behave as players expect, thus players must maintain their own map; these illogical spaces are much more rare in today's era of 3D gaming, the Interactive Fiction community in general decries the use of mazes claiming that mazes have become arbitrary'puzzles for the sake of puzzles' and that they can, in the hands of inexperienced designers, become immensely frustrating for players to navigate.
Interactive fiction shares much in common with Multi-User Dungeons. MUDs, which became popular in the mid-1980s, rely on a textual exchange and accept similar commands from players as do works of IF. MUDs focus gameplay on activities that involve communities of players, simulated political systems, in-game trading, other gameplay mechanics that are not possible in a single player environment. Interactive fiction features two distinct modes of writing: the game output; as described above, player input is expected to be in simple command form. A typical command may be:> PULL Lever The responses from the game are written from a second-person point of view, in present tense. This is because, unlike in most works of fiction, the main character is associated with the player, the events are seen to be happening as the player plays. While older text adventures identified the protagonist with the player directly, newer games tend to have specific, well-defined protagonists with separate identities from the player.
The classic essay "Crimes Against Mimesis" discusses, among other IF issues, the nature of "You" in interactive fiction. A typical response might look something like this, the response to "look in tea chest" at the start of Curses: "That was the first place you tried and hours ago now, there's nothing there but that boring old book. You pick it up anyway, bored as you are." Many text adventures those designed for humour, address the player with an informal tone, sometimes including sarcastic remarks. The late Douglas Adams, in designing the IF version of his'Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy', created a unique solution to the final puzzle of the game: the game requires the one solitary ite
B.C. (comic strip)
B. C. is a daily American comic strip created by cartoonist Johnny Hart. Set in prehistoric times, it features a group of cavemen and anthropomorphic animals from various geologic eras. B. C. made its newspaper debut on February 17, 1958, was among the longest-running strips still written and drawn by its original creator when Hart died at his drawing board in Nineveh, New York, on April 7, 2007. Now produced by Mason Mastroianni, B. C. is syndicated by Creators Syndicate. B. C. was rejected by a number of syndicates until the New York Herald Tribune Syndicate accepted it, launching the strip on February 17, 1958. Hart was assisted with B. C. by gag writers Jack Caprio and Dick Boland. When the Herald Tribune syndicate folded in 1966, B. C. was taken over by the Publishers Syndicate. That syndicate changed hands and names — Publishers-Hall Syndicate, the Field Newspaper Syndicate, News America Syndicate, North America Syndicate — becoming part of King Features. At that point, in 1987, Hart changed distributors to Creators Syndicate, becoming one of Creators' first syndicated strips.
After Hart's death in 2007, the strip began being produced by Hart's grandsons Mason Mastroianni and his brother Mick Mastroianni, Hart's daughter Perri. For a visual glossary, see Meet The Actors at John Hart Studios. Hart was inspired to draw cavemen through the chance suggestion of one of his coworkers at General Electric, took to the idea "because they are a combination of simplicity and the origin of ideas." The name for the strip "may have been suggested by my wife, Bobby," Johnny recalls. Hart describes the title character as similar to himself, playing the "patsy." The other major characters — Peter, Clumsy Carp and Thor — were patterned after friends and co-workers. The animal characters include dinosaurs, ants and an anteater, clams, a snake, a turtle and bird duo, an apteryx. B. C.: An orange haired, humble, naïve slob and eternal patsy. B. C. makes nighttime rounds as his alter-ego, "The Midnight Skulker." Peter: A yellow haired, self-styled genius and the world's first philosophical failure, founder of the "Prehistoric Pessimists Society" and the "Truth Pedestal," and the discoverer of oil.
Peter is patterned after Peter Reuter. Thor: a self-proclaimed ladies' man. Thor was patterned after another of Hart's friends from Thornton Kinney; the Fat Broad: a bossy cavewoman who enjoys clobbering snakes. The Cute Chick: a sex object in a world that had not yet discovered objectivity. Wiley: a peg-legged, unshaven, woman-fearing, water-hating poet and coach of the local baseball and football teams, not to mention the first bartender. Wiley was patterned after Hart's brother-in-law, Wiley Baxter, who lost his leg in World War II. Clumsy Carp: a nerdy, bespectacled ichthyologist and perpetual klutz, clumsy enough to trip over a shadow, yet with some unusual skills, such as his ability to make and stack "water balls". Clumsy Carp was patterned after Jack Caprio. Curls: a master of sarcastic wit. Curls was patterned after Hart's friend from Richard Boland. Grog: pure Id, a caveman's caveman, he is a primitive, semi-evolved wild man with a one-word vocabulary and enough strength to knock the sun out of the sky using a golf ball.
The Guru: an unnamed, bearded wise man living like a hermit atop a mountain, whence he dispenses wisdom and sarcasm. John the Turtle and the Dookie Bird: this prehistoric odd couple are inseparable friends when making their annual trek south for the winter; the Dookie Bird rides on John's back. The Snake: the put-upon, mortal enemy of the Fat Broad; the Eatanter: eats ants with a sticky, elastic tongue and a ZOT! sound. Hart drew something of a hybrid—with the long ears of an aardvark and the bushy tail of a giant anteater. Maude: an ant, a nagging wife with a smart-alec son and a quarrelsome, straying husband. Jake: ant husband of Maude, always threatening to run off with Shirley. Queen Ida: the queen ant, an unfeeling and abusive dictator; the Dinosaur: big but not too bright—a sort of sauropod with spinal plates like a stegosaurus. Sometimes called Gronk, the only sound he makes; the Clams: talking clams with legs, among other appendages. The Apteryx: a "wingless bird with hairy feathers," as he invariably introduces himself.
The Turkey: makes his yearly appearance at Thanksgiving time. Oynque: the turkey's porcine partner in crime seen without his trademark mud puddle. Wolf: the newest B. C. character, debuted August 24, 2009. A blissfully deviant domestication of Precambrian fur. Man's first friend. Various incidental ants, including a schoolteacher and her students. Raptors: velociraptors that try to eat the other ch
A caveman is a stock character representative of primitive man in the Paleolithic. The popularisation of the type dates to the early 20th century, when Neanderthal Man was influentially described as "simian" or ape-like by Marcellin Boule and Arthur Keith. While knowledge of human evolution in the Pleistocene has become much more detailed, the stock character has persisted though it anachronistically conflates characteristics of archaic humans and early modern humans; the term "caveman" has its taxonomical equivalent in the now-obsolete Homo troglodytes. Cavemen are portrayed as wearing shaggy animal hides, capable of cave painting like behaviorally modern humans of the last glacial period. Anachronistically, they are shown armed with rocks or cattle bone clubs and aggressive. Popular culture frequently represents cavemen as living with or alongside dinosaurs though non-avian dinosaurs became extinct at the end of the Cretaceous period, 66 million years before the emergence of the Homo sapiens species.
The image of them living in caves arises from the fact that caves are where the preponderance of artifacts have been found from European Stone Age cultures, although this most reflects the degree of preservation that caves provide over the millennia rather than an indication of their typical form of shelter. Until the last glacial period, the great majority of hominins did not live in caves, being nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes living in a variety of temporary structures, such as tents and wooden huts, their societies were similar to those of many modern day indigenous peoples. A few genuine cave dwellings did exist, such as at Mount Carmel in Israel. Stereotypical cavemen have traditionally been depicted wearing smock-like garments made of animal skin and held up by a shoulder strap on one side, carrying large clubs conical in shape, they have grunt-like names, such as Ugg and Zog. Caveman-like heraldic "wild men" were found in European and African iconography for hundreds of years. During the Middle Ages, these creatures were depicted in art and literature as bearded and covered in hair, wielding clubs and dwelling in caves.
While wild men were always depicted as living outside of civilization, there was an ongoing debate as to whether they were human or animal. In Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's The Lost World, ape-men are depicted in a fight with modern humans. Edgar Rice Burroughs adapted this idea for The Land That Time Forgot. A genre of caveman movies typified by D. W. Griffith's Man's Genesis. From the descriptions, Griffith's characters cannot talk, use sticks and stones for weapons, while the hero of Cave Man is a Tarzanesque figure who fights dinosaurs. D. W. Griffith's Brute Force, a silent film released in 1914, represents one of the earliest portrayals of cavemen and dinosaurs together. C. and the television series The Flintstones. The anachronistic combination of cavemen with dinosaurs itself became a humorous stereotype; the comic strips B. C. Alley Oop, the Spanish comic franchise Mortadelo y Filemón, The Far Side and Gogs portray "cavemen" with dinosaurs. Gary Larson, in his The Prehistory of the Far Side, stated he once felt that he needed to confess his cartooning sins in this regard: "O Father, I Have Portrayed Primitive Man and Dinosaurs In The Same Cartoon".
The animated series The Flintstones, a spoof on family sitcoms, portrays the Flintstones using dinosaurs and prehistoric mammals as tools, household appliances and construction machines. Stereotypical cavemen are often featured in advertising, including advertisements for Minute Maid. In early 2004, GEICO launched a series of television commercials and attempts at viral marketing, collectively known as the GEICO Cavemen advertising campaign, where GEICO announcers are denounced by modern cavemen for perpetuating a stereotype of unintelligent, backward cavemen; the GEICO advertisements spawned. Neanderthals in popular culture Prehistoric fiction Dawn of Humanity
The Princess Bride (film)
The Princess Bride is a 1987 American romantic comedy fantasy adventure film directed and co-produced by Rob Reiner, starring Cary Elwes, Robin Wright, Mandy Patinkin, Chris Sarandon, Wallace Shawn, André the Giant and Christopher Guest. Adapted by William Goldman from his 1973 novel of the same name, it tells the story of a farmhand named Westley, accompanied by companions befriended along the way, who must rescue his true love Princess Buttercup from the odious Prince Humperdinck; the film preserves the novel's narrative style by presenting the story as a book being read by a grandfather to his sick grandson. The film was first released in the United States on September 25, 1987, was well-received by critics at the time, but was only a modest box office success. Over time with the introduction of the Internet, the film has become a cult classic; the film is number 50 on Bravo's "100 Funniest Movies", number 88 on The American Film Institute's "AFI's 100 Years...100 Passions" list of the 100 greatest film love stories, 46 in Channel 4's 50 Greatest Comedy Films list.
In 2016, the film was inducted into the National Film Registry, being deemed as "culturally or aesthetically significant". The film is an enactment of a book read to a sick boy from Chicago—who is dismissive of the story—by his grandfather, with occasional interruptions of the scenes in this frame story. A beautiful young woman named Buttercup lives on a farm in the fictional country of Florin. Whenever she orders the farmhand Westley to do chores for her, he complies and answers, "As you wish", she realizes that they are mutually in love. He leaves to seek his fortune so they can marry, but his ship is attacked by the Dread Pirate Roberts and Westley is believed dead. Five years Buttercup reluctantly agrees to marry Prince Humperdinck, heir to the throne of Florin. Before the wedding, she is kidnapped by three outlaws: a short Sicilian boss named Vizzini, a gigantic wrestler from Greenland named Fezzik, a Spanish fencing master named Inigo Montoya, who seeks revenge against a six-fingered man who killed his father.
The outlaws are pursued separately by a masked man in black and Prince Humperdinck with a complement of soldiers. The man in black catches up to the outlaws at the top of the Cliffs of Insanity, he defeats Inigo in a duel and knocks him unconscious, chokes Fezzik until he passes out, kills Vizzini by tricking him into drinking poison. He takes Buttercup prisoner and they flee, stopping to rest at the edge of a gorge; when Buttercup guesses that he is the Dread Pirate Roberts, she becomes enraged at him for killing Westley. As he tumbles down, he shouts, "As you wish!" Realizing he is Westley, she throws herself into the gorge after they are reunited. Westley explains the Dread Pirate Roberts is a title passed on by subsequent holders and he had taken the title so the previous Roberts could retire, they pass through the dangerous Fire Swamp inhabited by rodents of unusual size, but are captured on the other side by Humperdinck and his sadistic vizier Count Rugen, revealed to be Inigo's father's killer.
Buttercup agrees to return with Humperdinck in exchange for Westley's release, but Humperdinck secretly orders Rugen to lock Westley in his torture chamber, the Pit of Despair. When Buttercup expresses unhappiness at marrying Humperdinck, he promises to search for Westley. However, his real plan is to start a war with the neighboring country of Guilder by killing Buttercup and framing Guilder for her death. Meanwhile and Fezzik reunite when Humperdinck orders the thieves arrested in the nearby forest, Fezzik tells Inigo about Rugen. Inigo decides. Buttercup berates Humperdinck after learning. Inigo and Fezzik follow the cries of anguish through the forest, they find Westley's body and bring him to a folk healer, Miracle Max, who Humperdinck had fired. He discovers that Westley is only "mostly dead" due to being sustained by his love for Buttercup, revives him to a state of heavy paralysis. After Westley and Fezzik invade the castle, Humperdinck panics and orders the wedding ceremony shortened. Inigo finds and kills Rugen in a duel taunting him with his greeting of vengeance: "Hello, my name is Inigo Montoya.
You killed my father. Prepare to die." Westley finds Buttercup, about to commit suicide, assuring her that the marriage is invalid because she never said "I do". Still paralyzed, he bluffs his way out of a duel with Humperdinck and they flee the castle. Westley rides away with Buttercup and Fezzik before sharing a passionate kiss with Buttercup. Back in the boy's bedroom, the boy eagerly asks his grandfather to read the story to him again the next day, to which the grandfather replies, "As you wish". Peter Falk as Grandpa/The Narrator Fred Savage as The Grandson Betsy Brantley as The Mother Cary Elwes as Westley/Dread Pirate Roberts/The Man in Black Robin Wright as Buttercup/The Princess Bride Mandy Patinkin as Inigo Montoya Chris Sarandon as Prince Humperdinck Christopher Guest as Count Tyrone Rugen Wallace Shawn as Vizzini André the Giant as Fezzik Billy Crystal as Miracle Max Carol Kane as Valerie, Max's wife Peter Cook as The Impressive Clergyman Mel Smith as The Albino Margery Mason as The Ancient Booer Malcolm Storry as Yellin, a soldier of Florin Willoughby Gray as The King Rob Reiner, enamored with Goldman's