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Internet Relay Chat

Internet Relay Chat is an application layer protocol that facilitates communication in the form of text. The chat process works on a client/server networking model. IRC clients are computer programs that users can install on their system or web based applications running either locally in the browser or on a 3rd party server; these clients communicate with chat servers to transfer messages to other clients. IRC is designed for group communication in discussion forums, called channels, but allows one-on-one communication via private messages as well as chat and data transfer, including file sharing. Client software is available for every major operating system; as of April 2011, the top 100 IRC networks served more than half a million users at a time, with hundreds of thousands of channels operating on a total of 1,500 servers out of 3,200 servers worldwide. IRC usage has been declining since 2003, losing 60% of its users and half of its channels. IRC was created by Jarkko Oikarinen in August 1988 to replace a program called MUT on a BBS called OuluBox at the University of Oulu in Finland, where he was working at the Department of Information Processing Science.

Jarkko intended to extend the BBS software he administered, to allow news in the Usenet style, real time discussions and similar BBS features. The first part he implemented was the chat part, which he did with borrowed parts written by his friends Jyrki Kuoppala and Jukka Pihl; the first IRC network was running on a single server named tolsun.oulu.fi. Oikarinen found inspiration in a chat system known as Bitnet Relay, which operated on the BITNET. Jyrki Kuoppala pushed Oikarinen to ask Oulu University to free the IRC code so that it could be run outside of Oulu, after they got it released, Jyrki Kuoppala installed another server; this was the first "irc network". Oikarinen got some friends at the Helsinki University and Tampere University to start running IRC servers when his number of users increased and other universities soon followed. At this time Oikarinen realized that the rest of the BBS features wouldn't fit in his program. Oikarinen got in touch with people at the University of Oregon State University.

They wanted to connect to the Finnish network. They had obtained the program from one of Oikarinen's friends, Vijay Subramaniam—the first non-Finnish person to use IRC. IRC grew larger and got used on the entire Finnish national network—Funet—and connected to Nordunet, the Scandinavian branch of the Internet. In November 1988, IRC had spread across the Internet and in the middle of 1989, there were some 40 servers worldwide. In August 1990, the first major disagreement took place in the IRC world; the "A-net" included a server named eris.berkeley.edu. It required no passwords and had no limit on the number of connects; as Greg "wumpus" Lindahl explains: "it had a wildcard server line, so people were hooking up servers and nick-colliding everyone". The "Eris Free Network", EFnet, made the eris machine the first to be Q-lined from IRC. In wumpus' words again: "Eris refused to remove that line, it wasn't much of a fight. A-net was formed with the eris servers, EFnet was formed with the non-eris servers.

History showed most users went with EFnet. Once ANet disbanded, the name EFnet became meaningless, once again it was the one and only IRC network, it is around that time that IRC was used to report on the 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt throughout a media blackout. It was used in a similar fashion during the Gulf War. Chat logs of these and other events are kept in the ibiblio archive. Another fork effort, the first that made a big and lasting difference, was initiated by'Wildthang' in the U. S. October 1992, it was meant to be just a test network to develop bots on but it grew to a network "for friends and their friends". In Europe and Canada a separate new network was being worked on and in December the French servers connected to the Canadian ones, by the end of the month, the French and Canadian network was connected to the US one, forming the network that came to be called "The Undernet"; the "undernetters" wanted to take ircd further in an attempt to make it less bandwidth consumptive and to try to sort out the channel chaos that EFnet started to suffer from.

For the latter purpose, the Undernet implemented timestamps, new routing and offered the CService—a program that allowed users to register channels and attempted to protect them from troublemakers. The first server list presented, from 15 February 1993, includes servers from USA, France and Japan. On 15 August, the new user count record was set to 57 users. In May 1993, RFC 1459 was published and details a simple protocol for client/server operation, one-to-one and one-to-many conversations, it is notable that a significant number of extensions like CTCP, colors and formats are not included in the protocol specifications, nor is character encoding, which led various implementations of servers and clients to diverge. In fact, software implementation varied from one network to the other, each network implementing their own policies and standards in their own code bases. During the summer of 1994, the Undernet was itself forked; the new network was called DALnet, formed for better user service and more user and channel protections.

One of the more significant changes in DALne

Rosalie Sorrels

Rosalie Sorrels was an American folk singer-songwriter. She began her public career as a collector of traditional folksongs in the late 1950s. During the early 1960s she left her husband and began traveling and performing at music festivals and clubs throughout the United States, she and her five children traveled across the country as she worked to support her family and establish herself as a performer. Along the way she beat scene, her career of social activism, teaching, songwriting, collecting folk songs and recording spanned six decades. Rosalie's first major gig was at the Newport Folk Festival in 1966. Rosalie recorded more than 20 albums including the 2005 Grammy nominated album "My Last Go'Round" She authored two books and wrote the introduction to her mother's book. In 1990 Sorrels was the recipient of the World Folk Music Association's Kate Wolf Award. In 1999 she received the National Storytelling Network Circle of Excellence Award for "exceptional commitment and exemplary contributions to the art of storytelling."

In 2000 she was awarded an honorary Doctor of Fine Arts from the University of Idaho. In 2001 she was awarded the Boise Peace Quilt Award, she had been featured several times on National Public Radio and profiled on Idaho Public Television. Throughout her career, she performed and recorded with other notable folk musicians, including Utah Phillips, Dave Van Ronk, Peggy Seeger and Pete Seeger. Oscar Zeta Acosta, Hunter S. Thompson and Studs Terkel wrote introductory notes for her albums, she was influenced by Malvina Reynolds and went on to record several of her songs on the album What does it mean to love? She credits Reynolds with helping turn rebelliousness from a destructive force into an artistic one. Rosalie Ann Stringfellow was born on June 24, 1933, in Boise, Idaho, to Walter Pendleton Stringfellow and Nancy Ann Kelly, her parents met. Her father worked for the highway department and the family travelled with him as he did field work, her father's parents were Robert Stanton Stringfellow and Rosalie Cope who settled near Idaho City, Idaho, on the Grimes Creek property.

Robert was an Episcopal missionary working with various tribes and rural churches in Idaho and Montana. His wife, Rosalie Cope, was a journalist; the Cope family were journalists in Salt Lake City. Rosalie developed a love of the outdoors while spending summers on Grimes Creek, her mother's parents were James Madison Kelly and Arabel Beaire who married and settled on a farm in Twin Falls, where Rosalie was a frequent visitor. In interviews for a biography of Rosalie, Nancy Stringfellow explained "She finds something... in a piece of poetry... that shines out like a precious jewel, you can see her cupping her hands and holding it. We all have a streak of that... We are delighted with words. We're drunk with words." During high school Rosalie acted and sang in theatrical productions, garnering praise for her performances in the local media. During this period Rosalie had an illegal abortion; the experience would influence her song. She earned a scholarship to the University of Idaho, but as a result of a rape, she became pregnant and went to a home for unwed mothers in California to await the birth of her child, a daughter.

Again, the experience of making the difficult choice of adoption shows in her writings and music. Sorrels returned to Boise after the birth of her child, she partied with her friends. She recounted that her parents did not judge her. Jim Sorrels and Rosalie Stringfellow met while performing in theater in Idaho. Jim was seven years older than Rosalie; the two married in 1952 and his job took them to Salt Lake City where they opened their home to actors and poets living or visiting in the area. During the marriage, they had five children and the house was filled with love, music and words. Both loved jazz music and Rosalie joked that Jim married her to get access to her collection of jazz recordings. Over time, her interest in the folk music of her childhood was piqued and she began to study at the University of Utah with noted folklorist, Wayland Hand, she learned to accompany herself on guitar during this period and attended folklore society meetings and seminars. In 1963 Rosalie began a four decade relationship with Manny Folklore Productions.

She performed with Manny's son, Mitch at the 1966 Newport Folk Festival and produced an album in 1964 for Folk-Legacy Records entitled If I Could Be the Rain. This is her first album which included her original songs, as previous recordings contained her renditions of traditional songs she had collected, she and her children lived for a time with Lena Spencer in Saratoga Springs, New York where she performed at Caffè Lena. She continued working on her craft, was one of the performers at the 1970 Isle of Wight Festival. Sorrels maintained an active performance schedule throughout the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s touring solo or with close friend Utah Phillips. Reviewing Sorrels' 1971 Sire LP Travelin' Lady, Robert Christgau wrote in Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies: "Though it's reminiscent of many I-gotta-move-babe male precedents, this is the most independent female persona yet to emerge, but that plaintive country quaver begins to wear after a while."Sorrels was awarded the Kate Wolf Memorial Award by the World Folk Music Association in 1990.

There was a strong tradition in both the Stringfellow and Kelly families to celebrate the written

Lisa Graumlich

Lisa J. Graumlich is an American paleoecologist who studies the interactions between the climate and humans, she is the inaugural dean of College of the Environment at the University of Washington. Graumlich is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the Ecological Society of America, a member of the board of directors of the American Geophysical Union. Graumlich is from Ohio, she studied Botany at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, earning a bachelor's degree in 1975 and a master's degree in Geography. She earned a PhD in 1985 from Forest Resources at the University of Washington. Graumlich worked with Margaret Davis as a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Minnesota in 1986, she joined the American Geophysical Union in 1992. Graumlich pioneered the use of dendrochronology to understand the impacts of climate change on mountain ecosystems, her academic career began at University of California, Los Angeles as an assistant professor in the Department of Geography.

While at UCLA, she initiated a series of studies in the Sierra Nevada to study Foxtail Pine trees that she continued when she joined the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research at The University of Arizona. Graumlich's work has ranged from an examination of the impact of carbon dioxide on subalpine tree growth to a 1,000 year-old reconstruction of temperature and precipitation for the Sierra Nevada. Graumlich discovered that between 1000 and 1375 A. D there were high temperatures, one of the important expressions of the so-called Medieval Climate Anomaly in California. In collaboration with Professor Andrea Lloyd at Middlebury College, Graumlich documented 1000 years of changes in treeline in the Sierra Nevada, noting that the response of high-elevation tree lines to global warming will depend on the water supply. Together with Professor Andy Bunn from Western Washington University, she was able to refine the critical role of topography in mediating temperature-growth relationships in high elevation forests.

The paleoclimate record puts the 20th century into context. For example, she found that between 1937 and 1986 the Western United States experienced wet weather; the time corresponds with the greatest years of Immigration to the'golden' states. Graumlich and Professor Paul Sheppard, The University of Arizona, were the first North American scientists to collaborate with Chinese tree-ring scientists to establish long-term records of climate variability in Western China. Analysis of cores from ancient juniper trees and archeological wood revealed dry years during 74–25 BC, AD 51–375, 426–500, 526–575, 626–700, 1100–1225, 1251–1325, 1451–1525, 1651–1750 and 1801–1825. Periods with a wet climate occurred during AD 376–425, 576–625, 951–1050, 1351–1375, 1551–1600 and the present. A key feature of precipitation record is an direct relationship between interannual variability in rainfall with temperature, whereby increased warming in the future might lead to increased flooding and droughts. Reflecting her commitment to interdisciplinary research and learning, Graumlich was named the inaugural director of the Institute for the Study of Planet Earth at The University of Arizona.

Graumlich moved to Montana State University in 1998, where she served as director of the Mountain Research Center and executive director of the Big Sky Institute. While at MSU, she continued her tree-ring research while expanding her work to more explicitly incorporate human interactions. In 2006 she published Sustainability or Collapse? An Integrated History and Future of People on Earth with MIT Press; the book covered the Roman Empire and El Niño. In 2007 Graumlich returned to The University of Arizona to lead the School of Natural Resources and the Environment, her research concentrated on climate change and natural resource management, in particular severe and persistent droughts. She continued to focus on the impacts of severe and persistent droughts in the Western US, including studies large scale tree mortality. Graumlich was appointed as the inaugural Dean of the University of Washington College of the Environment in 2010, she is the Mary Laird Wood Professor at the University of Washington.

Here she has appointed Sally Jewell as a distinguished fellow with the College of the Environment and chair of the advisory council for EarthLab. In 2010 she testified before the United States House of Representative Select Committee on Energy Independence and Global Warming, she presented evidence from tree ring data that demonstrated that in the late 20th century the world was the warmest it had been for the past 1000 years. She served on the Lord Oxburgh inquiry panel that studied the Climatic Research Unit email controversy with the University of East Anglia, she has written for the Huffington Post. In 2017 she was elected to the American Geophysical Union board of directors. Graumlich has a career-long commitment to increasing diversity and inclusion in STEM. At the University of Washington she works with the President’s Race and Equity Initiative to improve academic culture and to combat the racism and inequities, both individual and institutional, that persist in academia and throughout our society.

She is outspoken on the need to embrace and support LGBTQIA]] scientists and students. 2004 Fellow of American Association for the Advancement of Science 2013 Fellow of the Ecological Society of America Graumlich lives in Seattle with her wife, a mathematician, her two daughters. In Seattle she serves on the board of directors of the Woodland Park Zoo

Lynds Jones

Lynds Jones was an American naturalist, professor and a pioneer in the field of animal ecology. He introduced academic courses in ornithology and ecology at the Oberlin College where he taught for many years. Jones was the founding editor of the Wilson Bulletin produced by the Wilson Ornithological Club of which he was a member from its inception in 1888. Jones was born to millwright Publius Virgilius and Lavinia Burton Jones in Ohio; the family moved to Iowa where Jones developed an interest in the birds of the region. Along with a neighbor who sold wild bird eggs, he learned to collect them. An interest in nature was supported by a teacher George W. Tallmon who set up a chapter of the Louis Agassiz Association supported by St. Nicholas Magazine, he studied at Grinnell College and moved to Oberlin College in 1890 obtaining an A. B. in 1892 and an M. S. in 1895. He moved to Chicago to study under Henry C. Cowles and V. E. Shelford, obtaining a Ph. D. in 1905 with a dissertation on the development of nestling feathers.

His thesis was on the development of feathers in nestlings. Jones returned to Oberlin College and taught zoology apart from serving as a curator at the natural history museum of the college. Jones was the first to offer a course in ornithology in one on ecology. Jones was a founding member of the Wilson Ornithological Club in 1888 and served as the founding editor for its journal, the Wilson Bulletin. Jones maintained records of arrivals and departures of migrating birds and organized count and censuses before the Christmas bird counts were established. At Oberlin, he attempted to inculcate field work as part of ecology but this was disapproved initially. From 1908 Jones was the head of a division of animal ecology and a full professor by 1922, his classes were popular, with 150 students a year. According to "The Pettingell Report," published by the American Birding Association in 1974, Jones and bird-watcher W. L. Dawson, were the first people known to have identified over 100 species of birds in a single day.

Dawson and Jones identified 102 species on the 17th of May, 1898, in Ohio. On the 19th of May, 1900, Jones became the first solo bird-watcher to identify 100 species in a single day, a feat which he accomplished in Lorain County, with a total of 100; these "big days" culminated in Jones and two other bird-watchers finding 144 species in Erie County, Ohio, on the 13th of May, 1907, a record which stood until 1929. Lands married Clara Mabelle Tallmon, daughter of an older neighbour in Iowa who taught him collection and taxidermy, in 1892. Lynds Jones Archives BHL blog post

Joseph Kalimbwe

Joseph Kalimbwe is a Zambian born youth activist, author and a former Namibian student leader who served as president of the student representative council of the University of Namibia in 2017. In 2014, he was appointed president of the African Union youth simulation forum, a youth organized advocate program of the African Union, he has written for the Namibian Sun, has published three books including Persecuted in Search of Change in 2017, The Pain of An Empty Stomach in 2015 and Teenage-Hood & the Impact of the Western World in 2014. Kalimbwe was born on 25 March 1993 in Zambia, his mother was a primary school teacher. She was born and raised in northern Namibia at Katima Mulilo where her father worked as a social worker before moving to Zambia, his father was Donald Kalimbwe who worked between Livingstone. His father died when he was 2 years old, his mother died of cancer when he turned 11. After his mother's death in 2005, Kalimbwe moved to live in with his uncle in Ndola. After high school, he attended the University of Namibia.

He obtained an honors degree in political science. Writing in Persecuted in Search of Change he explains how he "wanted to change my surname", he writes to his late mother on the book's first page of how he is, "constantly thinking of changing my surname to yours as i see no reason of carrying a name of the man i never known and whose family I never met", in reference to his father who died when he was 2. He has expressed his admiration to Solomon Mahlangu, John Lewis, Kenneth Kaunda, Sam Nujoma and Nelson Mandela's need to change the world from its evils telling her "while I am proud of the teachings you gave me, I am very mindful of my own failings & hopes to find meaning in the world". In his publication with the Namibian Sun, he pointed Africa's inability to resolve poverty as a continent still "struggling to find its place in the world" saying: While he served as editor of a weekly political column in the Namibian Sun, Kalimbwe began writing his first book and publish political reviews in the paper.

In 2018, he began writing his fourth book, A Fractured World: How irresponsibility led to 3rd World Economic Downturns aided by former Goldman Sachs and World Bank executive Dambisa Moyo on the Worlds Economy following the 2008 financial crisis. His publications include, he was expelled from his Master's programme at the university in 2017 after breaking into a cafeteria with other students to use it as a study area, claiming that there were not enough designated study spaces. He took part in the FeesMustFall protests in which university students demanded a decrease in university fees, he was arrested as a result of this campaigning. According to The Namibian, the student protests in Namibia are happening "against the backdrop of the Affirmative Repositioning youth movement occupying urban land, the Landless People's Movement reclaiming ancestral land in Namibia. During the #FeesMustFall movements in South Africa, Kalimbwe was advocating for Namibian government to scrape fees for poor students.

He was arrested in 2017 after a protest in Windhoek. His trial was postponed several times. At his 10th appearance on 30 November 2018, the state found that the trial could not continue as there was no evidence and lack of state witnesses with the state advocating for the case's removal from court roll; that evening, New Era reported that the state had lost the case against Kalimbwe whose lawyers had promised legal action against the "unfair treatment" of their client. In May 2017, Kalimbwe and three other members of the UNAM SRC organised a protest for increased study areas, a decrease in tuition fees, against alleged senior staff corruption at the University of Namibia. A month before and members of the students union had claimed they had been provided with inside information of how senior staff members in the University's IT department, had taken N$1.3 million meant for a student system upgrade. The staff member, in emails leaked to The Namibian newspaper threatened to prevent the alleged claims by hunting down the student leaders and university employees who provided Kalimbwe with such information.

Two days after the protests, the Namibia police was called and the four student leaders where suspended and expelled for leading the protests. Kalimbwe was charged with fraud after the university alleged he had failed to register for his master's degree programme; this increased Kalimbwe's prominence among Namibian students as student protests began in Windhoek after his followers demanded for his immediate reinstatement. Kalimbwe stated, his third book, Persecuted in Search of Change, narrates his version of the events. Kalimbwe became subject to public condemnations after a publication on China–Africa Relations in which he called Chinese investors "parasites feeding on African blood". Chinese Ambassador to Namibia Qiu Xuejun stated that the publication was meant to tarnish China's relationships with Africa while the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees's Namibia coordinator and SWAPO party Namibia National Liberation Association Chairperson Nkrumah Mushelenga expressed support for Kalimbwe saying the Chinese take advantage of Africa's poverty.

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George Osborne Morgan

Sir George Osborne Morgan, 1st Baronet, was a Welsh lawyer and Liberal politician. Born at Gothenburg, Morgan was educated at Friars School, Shrewsbury School and Balliol College and was a scholar of Worcester College, Oxford from 1847. Morgan became a barrister of Lincoln's Inn in 1853, he was Liberal MP for Denbighshire from 1868 to 1885, for Denbighshire East from 1885 until his death. He introduced Burials Bill in 1870 re-introducing it for ten successive sessions until it was passed in 1880, allowing any Christian ritual in a parish cemetery, the Places of Worship Bill, which became law in 1873, he was appointed a Queen's Counsel and a bencher of Lincoln's Inn in 1869, serving as treasurer from 1890. He was chairman of the House of Commons Select Committee on Land Titles and Transfer from 1878-9. Among his many Welsh involvements was support for the Welsh Sunday closing bill, disestablishment of the Welsh Church, supporting the University College of Wales at Aberystwyth, he held office as Judge Advocate General under William Gladstone from 1880 to 1885, was appointed a privy councillor in 1880.

He introduced the annual Army Discipline Bill in 1881, took charge of Married Women's Property Bill, 1882. He was re-elected as Member of Parliament for East Denbighshire in 1885, 1886, 1892, he once again held office under Gladstone as Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies in 1886. He was created a Baronet, of Green Street, Grosvenor Square, in the Parish of Saint George, Hanover Square, in the County of London and of Lincoln's Inn, in 1892; the baronetcy became extinct on his death. Morgan published a translation of Virgil's Eclogues in English hexameters, other writings. George Osborne Morgan in Welsh Biography Online Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by George Osborne Morgan