The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite to link devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of private, academic and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies; the Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web, electronic mail and file sharing. Some publications no longer capitalize "internet"; the origins of the Internet date back to research commissioned by the federal government of the United States in the 1960s to build robust, fault-tolerant communication with computer networks. The primary precursor network, the ARPANET served as a backbone for interconnection of regional academic and military networks in the 1980s; the funding of the National Science Foundation Network as a new backbone in the 1980s, as well as private funding for other commercial extensions, led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies, the merger of many networks.
The linking of commercial networks and enterprises by the early 1990s marked the beginning of the transition to the modern Internet, generated a sustained exponential growth as generations of institutional and mobile computers were connected to the network. Although the Internet was used by academia since the 1980s, commercialization incorporated its services and technologies into every aspect of modern life. Most traditional communication media, including telephony, television, paper mail and newspapers are reshaped, redefined, or bypassed by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as email, Internet telephony, Internet television, online music, digital newspapers, video streaming websites. Newspaper and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging, web feeds and online news aggregators; the Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of personal interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, social networking. Online shopping has grown exponentially both for major retailers and small businesses and entrepreneurs, as it enables firms to extend their "brick and mortar" presence to serve a larger market or sell goods and services online.
Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries. The Internet has no single centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; the overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address space and the Domain Name System, are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force, a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise. In November 2006, the Internet was included on USA Today's list of New Seven Wonders; when the term Internet is used to refer to the specific global system of interconnected Internet Protocol networks, the word is a proper noun that should be written with an initial capital letter.
In common use and the media, it is erroneously not capitalized, viz. the internet. Some guides specify that the word should be capitalized when used as a noun, but not capitalized when used as an adjective; the Internet is often referred to as the Net, as a short form of network. As early as 1849, the word internetted was used uncapitalized as an adjective, meaning interconnected or interwoven; the designers of early computer networks used internet both as a noun and as a verb in shorthand form of internetwork or internetworking, meaning interconnecting computer networks. The terms Internet and World Wide Web are used interchangeably in everyday speech. However, the World Wide Web or the Web is only one of a large number of Internet services; the Web is a collection of interconnected documents and other web resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. As another point of comparison, Hypertext Transfer Protocol, or HTTP, is the language used on the Web for information transfer, yet it is just one of many languages or protocols that can be used for communication on the Internet.
The term Interweb is a portmanteau of Internet and World Wide Web used sarcastically to parody a technically unsavvy user. Research into packet switching, one of the fundamental Internet technologies, started in the early 1960s in the work of Paul Baran and Donald Davies. Packet-switched networks such as the NPL network, ARPANET, the Merit Network, CYCLADES, Telenet were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s; the ARPANET project led to the development of protocols for internetworking, by which multiple separate networks could be joined into a network of networks. ARPANET development began with two network nodes which were interconnected between the Network Measurement Center at the University of California, Los Angeles Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science directed by Leonard Kleinrock, the NLS system at SRI International by Douglas Engelbart in Menlo Park, California, on 29 October 1969; the third site was the Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics Center at the University of California, Santa Barbara, followed by the University of
National Science Foundation Network
The National Science Foundation Network was a program of coordinated, evolving projects sponsored by the National Science Foundation beginning in 1985 to promote advanced research and education networking in the United States. NSFNET was the name given to several nationwide backbone computer networks that were constructed to support NSF's networking initiatives from 1985 to 1995. Created to link researchers to the nation's NSF-funded supercomputing centers, through further public funding and private industry partnerships it developed into a major part of the Internet backbone; the National Science Foundation permitted only government agencies and universities to use the network until 1989 when the first commercial Internet service provider emerged. By 1991, the NSF removed restrictions on access and the commercial ISP business grew rapidly. Following the deployment of the Computer Science Network, a network that provided Internet services to academic computer science departments, in 1981, the U.
S. National Science Foundation aimed to create an academic research network facilitating access by researchers to the supercomputing centers funded by NSF in the United States. In 1985, NSF began funding the creation of five new supercomputing centers: John von Neumann Center at Princeton University San Diego Supercomputer Center on the campus of the University of California, San Diego National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign Cornell Theory Center at Cornell University Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center, a joint effort of Carnegie Mellon University, the University of Pittsburgh, Westinghouse Also in 1985, under the leadership of Dennis Jennings, the NSF established the National Science Foundation Network. NSFNET was to be a general-purpose research network, a hub to connect the five supercomputing centers along with the NSF-funded National Center for Atmospheric Research to each other and to the regional research and education networks that would in turn connect campus networks.
Using this three tier network architecture NSFNET would provide access between the supercomputer centers and other sites over the backbone network at no cost to the centers or to the regional networks using the open TCP/IP protocols deployed on the ARPANET. The NSFNET initiated operations in 1986 using TCP/IP, its six backbone sites were interconnected with leased 56-kbit/s links, built by a group including the University of Illinois National Center for Supercomputing Applications, Cornell University Theory Center, University of Delaware, Merit Network. PDP-11/73 minicomputers with routing and management software, called Fuzzballs, served as the network routers since they implemented the TCP/IP standard; this original 56 kbit/s backbone was overseen by the supercomputer centers themselves with the lead taken by Ed Krol at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. PDP-11/73 Fuzzball routers were configured and run by Hans-Werner Braun at the Merit Network and statistics were collected by Cornell University.
Support for NSFNET end-users was provided by the NSF Network Service Center, located at BBN Technologies and included publishing the softbound "Internet Manager's Phonebook" which listed the contact information for every issued domain name and IP address in 1990. Incidentally, Ed Krol authored the Hitchhiker's Guide to the Internet to help users of the NSFNET understand its capabilities; the Hitchhiker's Guide became one of the first help manuals for the Internet. As regional networks grew the 56 kbit/s NSFNET backbone experienced rapid increases in network traffic and became congested. In June 1987 NSF issued a new solicitation to upgrade and expand NSFNET; as a result of a November 1987 NSF award to the Merit Network, a networking consortium by public universities in Michigan, the original 56 kbit/s network was expanded to include 13 nodes interconnected at 1.5 Mbit/s by July 1988. Additional links were added to form a multi-path network, a node located in Atlanta was added; each of the backbone nodes was a router called the Nodal Switching System.
The NSSes were a collection of multiple IBM RT PC systems connected by a Token Ring local area network. The RT PCs ran AOS, IBM's version of Berkeley UNIX, was dedicated to a particular packet processing task. Under its cooperative agreement with NSF the Merit Network was the lead organization in a partnership that included IBM, MCI, the State of Michigan. Merit provided overall project coordination, network design and engineering, a Network Operations Center, information services to assist the regional networks. IBM provided equipment, software development, installation and operations support. MCI provided the T-1 data circuits at reduced rates; the state of Michigan provided funding for personnel. Eric M. Aupperle, Merit's President, was the NSFNET Project Director, Hans-Werner Braun was Co-Principal Investigator. From 1987 to 1994, Merit organized a series of "Regional-Techs" meetings, where technical staff from the regional networks met to discuss operational issues of common concern with each other and the Merit engineering staff.
During this period, but separate from its support for the NSFNET backbone, NSF funded: the NSF Connections Program that helped colleges and universities obtain or upgrade connections to regional networks.
Sprint Corporation is an American telecommunications company that provides wireless services and is an internet service provider. It is the fourth-largest mobile network operator in the United States and serves 54 million customers as of October 2017; the company offers wireless voice and broadband services through its various subsidiaries under the Boost Mobile, Virgin Mobile, Assurance Wireless brands, wholesale access to its wireless networks to mobile virtual network operators. The company is headquartered in Kansas. In July 2013, a majority of the company was purchased by Japanese telecommunications company SoftBank Group Corp. although the remaining shares of the company continue to trade on the New York Stock Exchange. Sprint uses EvDO and 4G LTE networks. Sprint traces its origins to the Brown Telephone Company, founded in 1899 to bring telephone service to the rural area around Abilene, Kansas. In 2006, Sprint left the local landline telephone business, spinning those assets off into a new company named Embarq, which became a part of CenturyLink.
The company remains one of the largest long-distance providers in the United States. Until 2005, the company was known as the Sprint Corporation, but took the name Sprint Nextel Corporation when it merged with Nextel Communications, adopted its black & yellow color scheme along with a new logo. In 2013, following the shutdown of the Nextel network and concurrent with the acquisition by SoftBank, the company returned to using Sprint Corporation. In July 2013, as part of the SoftBank transactions, Sprint acquired the remaining shares of wireless broadband carrier Clearwire Corporation which it did not own. On August 6, 2014, it was announced that CEO Dan Hesse would be replaced by Marcelo Claure, effective August 11, 2014. Claure is the founder and former CEO of wireless supplier Brightstar. Effective May 30, 2018, Michel Combes replaced Marcelo Claure as CEO of Sprint. Claure is now the executive chairman of Sprint, working to get Sprint's planned merger with rival T-Mobile through regulatory proceedings.
The Sprint Corporation traces its origins to two companies, the Brown Telephone Company and Southern Pacific Railroad. Brown Telephone Company was founded in 1899 by Cleyson Brown to deploy telephone service to the rural area around Abilene, Kansas; the Browns installed their first long-distance circuit in 1900 and became an alternative to Bell Telephone, the most popular telephone service at the time. In 1911, C. L. Brown consolidated the Brown Telephone Company with three other independents to form the United Telephone Company. C. L. Brown formed United Telephone and Electric in 1925. In 1939, at the end of the Great Depression, UT&E reorganized to form United Utilities. In 1964, Paul H. Henson became president of United Utilities, was named as chairman two years later; when Henson began working at the company in 1959, it had 575,000 telephones in 15 states and revenues of $65 million. Henson is credited with creating the first major fiber optic network, having recognized it as a way to handle more calls and provide better quality sound.
In 1972, United Utilities changed its name to United Telecommunications. United Telecommunications began working on a 23,000 mile fiber optic network for long-distance calls in 1980; this long-distance business became profitable for the company for the first time in 1989. Henson retired from United Telecommunications in 1990. By this time the company had grown to have revenues of $8 billion. Sprint traces its roots back to the Southern Pacific Railroad, founded in the 1860s and was a subsidiary of the Southern Pacific Company; the company operated thousands of miles of track as well as telegraph wire that ran along those tracks. In the early 1970s the company began looking for ways to use its existing communications lines for long-distance calling; this division of the business was named the Southern Pacific Communications Company. By the mid 1970s, was beginning to take business away from AT&T, which held a monopoly at the time. A number of lawsuits between SPC and AT&T took place throughout the 1970s, with the majority being decided in favor of increased competition.
Prior attempts at offering long distance voice services had not been approved by the U. S. Federal Communications Commission, although a fax service was permitted. Southern Pacific Communications decided they needed a new name to differentiate the switched voice service from SpeedFAX, ran an internal contest to select a name; the winning entry was "SPRINT", an acronym for Southern Pacific Railroad Internal Network Telecommunications. In 1982, it was announced that GTE Corp. had reached an agreement to buy SPC's long-distance telephone operation, including Sprint. The deal was finalized in 1983. In 1986, GTE Sprint merged with US Telecom; the joint venture was to be co-owned by United Telecom named US Sprint Communications. The new entity included communications firm GTE Telenet, United Telecom Data communications Co.. In 1988, GTE sold more of Sprint to Telecom. United Telecom announced it would complete its acquisition of US Sprint in April 1990. United Telecom changed its name to Sprint Corporation in 1992 to capitalize on its brand recognition.
Sprint Corporation entered the Canadian market in the early 1990s as a reseller of bulk long-distance telephone lines that it bought from domestic companies. Under Canadian foreign ownership regulations, Sprint could not open its own network. In 1993, Sprint entered into a strategic alliance with Call-Net Enterprises, a Canadian long-distance service, bought 25 percent of the company. Call-Net's
Interface Message Processor
The Interface Message Processor was the packet switching node used to interconnect participant networks to the ARPANET from the late 1960s to 1989. It was the first generation of gateways. An IMP was a ruggedized Honeywell DDP-516 minicomputer with special-purpose interfaces and software. In years the IMPs were made from the non-ruggedized Honeywell 316 which could handle two-thirds of the communication traffic at one-half the cost. An IMP requires the connection to a host computer via a special bit-serial interface, defined in BBN Report 1822; the IMP software and the ARPA network communications protocol running on the IMPs was discussed in RFC 1, the first of a series of standardization documents published by the Internet Engineering Task Force. The concept of an "Interface computer" was first developed in 1966 by Donald Davies for the NPL network in England; the same idea was independently developed in early 1967 at a meeting of principal investigators for the Department of Defense's Advanced Research Projects Agency to discuss interconnecting machines across the country.
Larry Roberts, who led the ARPANET implementation proposed a network of host computers. Wes Clark suggested inserting "a small computer between each host computer and the network of transmission lines", i.e. making the IMP a separate computer. The IMPs were built by the Massachusetts-based company Bolt Beranek and Newman in 1969. BBN was contracted to build the first being due at UCLA by Labor Day; when Massachusetts Senator Edward Kennedy learned of BBN's accomplishment in signing this million-dollar agreement, he sent a telegram congratulating the company for being contracted to build the "Interfaith Message Processor". The team working on the IMP called themselves the "IMP Guys": Team Leader: Frank Heart Software: Willy Crowther, Dave Walden, Bernie Cosell and Paul Wexelblat Hardware: Severo Ornstein, Ben Barker Theory and collaboration with the above on the overall system design: Bob Kahn Other: Hawley Rising Added to IMP team later: Marty Thrope, Jim Geisman, Truett Thach, Bill Bertell BBN began programming work in February 1969 on modified Honeywell DDP-516s.
The completed code was six thousand words long, was written in the Honeywell 516 assembly language. The IMP software was produced on a PDP-1, where the IMP code was written and edited run on the Honeywell. BBN designed the IMP as "a messenger" that would only "store-and-forward". BBN designed only the host-to-IMP specification, leaving host sites to build individual host-to-host interfaces; the IMP had an error-control mechanism that discarded packets with errors without acknowledging receipt. Based on the requirements of ARPA's request for proposal, the IMP used a 24-bit checksum for error correction. BBN chose to make the IMP hardware calculate the checksum, because it was a faster option than using a software calculation; the IMP was conceived as being connected to one host computer per site, but at the insistence of researchers and students from the host sites, each IMP was designed to connect to multiple host computers. The first IMP was delivered to Leonard Kleinrock's group at UCLA on August 30, 1969.
It used an SDS Sigma-7 host computer. Douglas Engelbart's group at the Stanford Research Institute received the second IMP on October 1, 1969, it was attached to an SDS-940 host. The third IMP was installed in University of California, Santa Barbara on November 1, 1969; the fourth and final IMP was installed in the University of Utah in December 1969. The first communication test between two systems took place on October 29, 1969, when a login to the SRI machine was attempted, but only the first two letters could be transmitted; the SRI machine crashed upon reception of the'g' character. A few minutes the bug was fixed and the login attempt was completed. BBN developed a program to test the performance of the communication circuits. According to a report filed by Heart, a preliminary test in late 1969 based on a 27-hour period of activity on the UCSB-SRI line found "approximately one packet per 20,000 in error; some Honeywell-based IMPs were replaced with multiprocessing BBN Pluribus IMPs, but BBN developed a microprogrammed clone of the Honeywell machine.
IMPs were at the heart of the ARPANET until DARPA decommissioned the ARPANET in 1989. Most IMPs were either taken apart, junked or transferred to MILNET; some became artifacts in museums. The last IMP on the ARPANET was the one at the University of Maryland. BBN Report 1822 specifies the method for connecting a host computer to an IMP; this connection and protocol is referred to as 1822, the report number. The initial version of the 1822 protocol was developed in 1969: since it predates the OSI model by a decade, 1822 does not map cleanly into the OSI layers. However, it is accurate to say that the 1822 protocol incorporates the physical layer, the data link layer, the network layer; the interface visible to the host system passes network layer addresses directly to a physical layer device. To transmit data, the host
The T-carrier is a member of the series of carrier systems developed by AT&T Bell Laboratories for digital transmission of multiplexed telephone calls. The first version, the Transmission System 1, was introduced in 1962 in the Bell System, could transmit up to 24 telephone calls over a single transmission line of copper wire. Subsequent specifications carried multiples of the basic T1 data rates, such as T2 with 96 channels, T3 with 672 channels, others; the T-carrier is a hardware specification for carrying multiple time-division multiplexed telecommunications channels over a single four-wire transmission circuit. It was developed by AT&T at Bell Laboratories ca. 1957 and first employed by 1962 for long-haul pulse-code modulation digital voice transmission with the D1 channel bank. The T-carriers are used for trunking between switching centers in a telephone network, including to private branch exchange interconnect points, it uses the same twisted pair copper wire that analog trunks used, employing one pair for transmitting, another pair for receiving.
Signal repeaters may be used for extended distance requirements. Before the digital T-carrier system, carrier wave systems such as 12-channel carrier systems worked by frequency division multiplexing. A T1 trunk could transmit 24 telephone calls at a time, because it used a digital carrier signal called Digital Signal 1. DS-1 is a communications protocol for multiplexing the bitstreams of up to 24 telephone calls, along with two special bits: a framing bit and a maintenance-signaling bit. T1's maximum data transmission rate is 1.544 megabits per second. Europe and most of the rest of the world, except Japan, have standardized the E-carrier system, a similar transmission system with higher capacity, not directly compatible with the T-carrier. Existing frequency-division multiplexing carrier systems worked well for connections between distant cities, but required expensive modulators and filters for every voice channel. For connections within metropolitan areas, Bell Labs in the late 1950s sought cheaper terminal equipment.
Pulse-code modulation allowed sharing a coder and decoder among several voice trunks, so this method was chosen for the T1 system introduced into local use in 1961. In decades, the cost of digital electronics declined to the point that an individual codec per voice channel became commonplace, but by the other advantages of digital transmission had become entrenched; the most common legacy of this system is the line rate speeds. "T1" now means any data circuit line rate. The T1 format carried 24 pulse-code modulated, time-division multiplexed speech signals each encoded in 64 kbit/s streams, leaving 8 kbit/s of framing information which facilitates the synchronization and demultiplexing at the receiver; the T2 and T3 circuit channels carry multiple T1 channels multiplexed, resulting in transmission rates of 6.312 and 44.736 Mbit/s, respectively. A T3 line comprises each operating at total signaling rate of 1.544 Mbit/s. It is possible to get a fractional T3 line, meaning a T3 line with some of the 28 lines turned off, resulting in a slower transfer rate but at reduced cost.
The 1.544 Mbit/s rate was chosen because tests done by AT&T Long Lines in Chicago were conducted underground. The test site was typical of Bell System outside plant of the time in that, to accommodate loading coils, cable vault manholes were physically 2,000 meters apart, which determined the repeater spacing; the optimum bit rate was chosen empirically—the capacity was increased until the failure rate was unacceptable reduced to leave a margin. Companding allowed acceptable audio performance with only seven bits per PCM sample in this original T1/D1 system; the D3 and D4 channel banks had an extended frame format, allowing eight bits per sample, reduced to seven every sixth sample or frame when one bit was "robbed" for signaling the state of the channel. The standard does not allow an all zero sample which would produce a long string of binary zeros and cause the repeaters to lose bit sync. However, when carrying data there could be long strings of zeros, so one bit per sample is set to "1" leaving 7 bits × 8,000 frames per second for data.
A more detailed understanding of how the rate of 1.544 Mbit/s was divided into channels is as follows. Given that the telephone system nominal voiceband is 4,000 Hz, the required digital sampling rate is 8,000 Hz. Since each T1 frame contains 1 byte of voice data for each of the 24 channels, that system needs 8,000 frames per second to maintain those 24 simultaneous voice channels; because each frame of a T1 is 193 bits in length, 8,000 frames per second is multiplied by 193 bits to yield a transfer rate of 1.544 Mbit/s. T1 used Alternate Mark Inversion to reduce frequency bandwidth and eliminate the DC component of the signal. B8ZS became common practice. For AMI, each mark pulse had the opposite polarity of the previous one and each space was at a level of zero, resulting in a three level signal which however only carried binary data. Similar British 23 channel systems at 1.536 megabaud in the 1970s were equipped with ternary signal repeaters, in anticipation of using a 3B2T or 4B3T code to increase the number of voice channels in future, but in the 1980s the systems were replaced with European standard ones.
History of the Internet
The history of the Internet begins with the development of electronic computers in the 1950s. Initial concepts of wide area networking originated in several computer science laboratories in the United States, United Kingdom, France; the U. S. Department of Defense awarded contracts as early as the 1960s, including for the development of the ARPANET project, directed by Robert Taylor and managed by Lawrence Roberts; the first message was sent over the ARPANET in 1969 from computer science Professor Leonard Kleinrock's laboratory at University of California, Los Angeles to the second network node at Stanford Research Institute. Packet switching networks such as the NPL network, ARPANET, Merit Network, CYCLADES, Telenet, were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s using a variety of communications protocols. Donald Davies first demonstrated packet switching in 1967 at the National Physics Laboratory in the UK, which became a testbed for UK research for two decades; the ARPANET project led to the development of protocols for internetworking, in which multiple separate networks could be joined into a network of networks.
The Internet protocol suite was developed by Robert E. Kahn and Vint Cerf in the 1970s and became the standard networking protocol on the ARPANET, incorporating concepts from the French CYCLADES project directed by Louis Pouzin. In the early 1980s the NSF funded the establishment for national supercomputing centers at several universities, provided interconnectivity in 1986 with the NSFNET project, which created network access to the supercomputer sites in the United States from research and education organizations. Commercial Internet service providers began to emerge in the late 1980s; the ARPANET was decommissioned in 1990. Limited private connections to parts of the Internet by commercial entities emerged in several American cities by late 1989 and 1990, the NSFNET was decommissioned in 1995, removing the last restrictions on the use of the Internet to carry commercial traffic. In the 1980s, research at CERN in Switzerland by British computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee resulted in the World Wide Web, linking hypertext documents into an information system, accessible from any node on the network.
Since the mid-1990s, the Internet has had a revolutionary impact on culture and technology, including the rise of near-instant communication by electronic mail, instant messaging, voice over Internet Protocol telephone calls, two-way interactive video calls, the World Wide Web with its discussion forums, social networking, online shopping sites. The research and education community continues to develop and use advanced networks such as JANET in the United Kingdom and Internet2 in the United States. Increasing amounts of data are transmitted at higher and higher speeds over fiber optic networks operating at 1 Gbit/s, 10 Gbit/s, or more; the Internet's takeover of the global communication landscape was instant in historical terms: it only communicated 1% of the information flowing through two-way telecommunications networks in the year 1993 51% by 2000, more than 97% of the telecommunicated information by 2007. Today the Internet continues to grow, driven by greater amounts of online information, commerce and social networking.
However, the future of the global internet may be shaped by regional differences in the world. The concept of data communication – transmitting data between two different places through an electromagnetic medium such as radio or an electric wire – pre-dates the introduction of the first computers; such communication systems were limited to point to point communication between two end devices. Semaphore lines, telegraph systems and telex machines can be considered early precursors of this kind of communication; the Telegraph in the late 19th century was the first digital communication system. Fundamental theoretical work in data transmission and information theory was developed by Claude Shannon, Harry Nyquist, Ralph Hartley in the early 20th century. Early computers had remote terminals; as the technology evolved, new systems were devised to allow communication over longer distances or with higher speed that were necessary for the mainframe computer model. These technologies made it possible to exchange data between remote computers.
However, the point-to-point communication model was limited, as it did not allow for direct communication between any two arbitrary systems. The technology was considered unsafe for strategic and military use because there were no alternative paths for the communication in case of an enemy attack. With limited exceptions, the earliest computers were connected directly to terminals used by individual users in the same building or site; such networks became known as local area networks. Networking beyond this scope, known as wide area networks, emerged during the 1950s and became established during the 1960s. J. C. R. Licklider, Vice President at Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc. proposed a global network in his January 1960 paper Man-Computer Symbiosis: A network of such centers, connected to one another by wide-band communication lines the functions of present-day libraries together with anticipated advances in information storage and retrieval and symbiotic functions suggested earlier in this paper In August 1962, Licklider and Welden Clark published the paper "On-Line Man-Computer Communication", one of the first descriptions of a networked future.
In October 1962, Licklider was hired by Jack Ruina as director of the newly established Information Processing Techniques Office w
Federal Communications Commission
The Federal Communications Commission is an independent agency of the United States government created by statute to regulate interstate communications by radio, wire and cable. The FCC serves the public in the areas of broadband access, fair competition, radio frequency use, media responsibility, public safety, homeland security; the FCC was formed by the Communications Act of 1934 to replace the radio regulation functions of the Federal Radio Commission. The FCC took over wire communication regulation from the Interstate Commerce Commission; the FCC's mandated jurisdiction covers the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Territories of the United States. The FCC provides varied degrees of cooperation and leadership for similar communications bodies in other countries of North America; the FCC is funded by regulatory fees. It has an estimated fiscal-2016 budget of US $388 million, it has 1,688 federal employees, made up of 50% males and 50% females as of December, 2017. The FCC's mission, specified in Section One of the Communications Act of 1934 and amended by the Telecommunications Act of 1996 is to "make available so far as possible, to all the people of the United States, without discrimination on the basis of race, religion, national origin, or sex, efficient and world-wide wire and radio communication services with adequate facilities at reasonable charges."
The Act furthermore provides that the FCC was created "for the purpose of the national defense" and "for the purpose of promoting safety of life and property through the use of wire and radio communications."Consistent with the objectives of the Act as well as the 1999 Government Performance and Results Act, the FCC has identified four goals in its 2018-22 Strategic Plan. They are: Closing the Digital Divide, Promoting Innovation, Protecting Consumers & Public Safety, Reforming the FCC's Processes; the FCC is directed by five commissioners appointed by the President of the United States and confirmed by the United States Senate for five-year terms, except when filling an unexpired term. The U. S. President designates one of the commissioners to serve as chairman. Only three commissioners may be members of the same political party. None of them may have a financial interest in any FCC-related business. † Commissioners may continue serving until the appointment of their replacements. However, they may not serve beyond the end of the next session of Congress following term expiration.
In practice, this means that commissioners may serve up to 1 1/2 years beyond the official term expiration dates listed above if no replacement is appointed. This would end on the date that Congress adjourns its annual session no than noon on January 4; the FCC is organized into seven Bureaus, which process applications for licenses and other filings, analyze complaints, conduct investigations and implement regulations, participate in hearings. The Consumer & Governmental Affairs Bureau develops and implements the FCC's consumer policies, including disability access. CGB serves as the public face of the FCC through outreach and education, as well as through their Consumer Center, responsible for responding to consumer inquiries and complaints. CGB maintains collaborative partnerships with state and tribal governments in such areas as emergency preparedness and implementation of new technologies; the Enforcement Bureau is responsible for enforcement of provisions of the Communications Act 1934, FCC rules, FCC orders, terms and conditions of station authorizations.
Major areas of enforcement that are handled by the Enforcement Bureau are consumer protection, local competition, public safety, homeland security. The International Bureau develops international policies in telecommunications, such as coordination of frequency allocation and orbital assignments so as to minimize cases of international electromagnetic interference involving U. S. licensees. The International Bureau oversees FCC compliance with the international Radio Regulations and other international agreements; the Media Bureau develops and administers the policy and licensing programs relating to electronic media, including cable television, broadcast television, radio in the United States and its territories. The Media Bureau handles post-licensing matters regarding direct broadcast satellite service; the Wireless Telecommunications Bureau regulates domestic wireless telecommunications programs and policies, including licensing. The bureau implements competitive bidding for spectrum auctions and regulates wireless communications services including mobile phones, public safety, other commercial and private radio services.
The Wireline Competition Bureau develops policy concerning wire line telecommunications. The Wireline Competition Bureau's main objective is to promote growth and economical investments in wireline technology infrastructure, development and services; the Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau was launched in 2006 with a focus on critical communications infrastructure. The FCC has eleven Staff Offices; the FCC's Offices provide support services to the Bureaus. The Office of Administrative Law Judges is responsible for conducting hearings ordered by the Commission; the hearing function includes acting on interlocutory requests filed in the proceedings such as petitions to intervene, petitions to enlarge issues, contested discovery requests. An Administrative Law Judge, appointed under the Administrative Procedure Act, presides at the hearing during which documents and sworn testimony are received in evidence, witnesses are cross-examined. At the co