Telecommunications in Barbados
Communications in Barbados refers to the telephony, postal and television systems of Barbados. Barbados has long been an informational and communications centre in the Caribbean region. Electricity coverage throughout Barbados is reliable. Usage is high and provided by a service monopoly, Barbados Light & Power Company Ltd.. The International Telecommunication Union call sign prefix allocated for all radio and television broadcasts in Barbados is 8P, this replaced the former ZN as a British territory. Barbados has had various forms of Communications as early as the 1840s; some of the earliest expressions of inter-island communication includes a number of signal stations built along the high points of the island to relay acts of transgression towards the island to the Saint Ann's Garrison on the south-west coast. The first telephone network in the country was developed in 1884; as the former British Empire's All Red Line came into existence during the early 1900s, Barbados played an important role as a crucial link in the trans-Atlantic communications network.
By 1935 a hard wired cable-based radio network was deployed throughout the country to broadcast the Rediffusion service directly from London to homes and business across Barbados. In 2001 the Government of Barbados and the local Incumbent Local Exchange Carrier provider, Cable & Wireless signed a MOU beginning a phased process of liberalisation of the international segment of Barbados' telecommunications sector; the process was aimed at bringing Barbados' sector into compliance with the World Trade Organization. The plan outlined the first phase commencing on 1 December 2001 and the entire process ending with full liberalisation being achieved on 1 August 2003; as these target dates were missed, the Phase I process was commenced on 1 November 2002, with Phase II and III beginning on 16 November 2003 and 21 February 2004 respectively. Full liberalisation was attained in February, 2005, for the international telecommunications services market. Country Code: +1246International Call Prefix: 011 Calls from Barbados to the US, other NANP Caribbean nations, are dialed as 1 + NANP area code + 7-digit number.
Calls from Barbados to non-NANP countries are dialed as 011 + country code + phone number with local area code. Number Format: nxx-xxxx The rate of telecommunications penetration in Barbados ranks among the highest in the world. According to the International Telecommunication Union, telephone service for the period 2000-2004, stated Barbados had 124 telephones in usage for every 100 people. Telecommunications are universally accessible to all. Telephones - main lines in use 134,900 county comparison to the world: 133 Telephones - mobile cellular 237,100 county comparison to the world: 165 Telephone system general assessment: fixed-line teledensity of 50 per 100 persons. BB Internet hosts 104 county comparison to the world: 178 Internet users 160,000 county comparison to the world: 131 Globally, the country of Barbados was ranked by the International Telecommunications Union and UNICEF to be one of the most wired countries in the world on a per capita basis; the report entitled "State Of The World's Children 2007" stated Barbados had rate of Internet usage, 55 users for every 100 people.
This ranking meant that only 13 nations: Australia, Finland, South Korea, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, San Marino, Sweden and the United States had a higher ratios per head of population. In so scoring this placed Barbados in the lead for the Latin America regions. Telephone services in Barbados are provided by: LIME, Sunbeach, WIISCOM, Internet services in the country are provided by: CariAccess, CaribSurf, Sunbeach Communications, TeleBarbados/Freemotion.bb, WI-NET INC. ADSL services are available, as are Frame Relay and other more advanced services..bb Call signs in North America List of countries by number of Internet users List of television stations in the Caribbean#Barbados List of radio stations in Barbados Cable & Wireless in Barbados, Posted on 19th September 2016 by Burt's, BajanThings.com International Communication in Barbados 50 years ago, Posted on 15th March 2017 by Burt's Jnr, BajanThings.com This article incorporates public domain material from
Internet in Cuba
The internet in Cuba stagnated since its introduction in the late 1990s because of lack of funding, tight government restrictions, the U. S. embargo the Torricelli Act. Starting in 2007 this situation began to improve, with 3G data services rolling out island-wide in 2018, albeit through a government-monitored network. In September 1996, Cuba's first connection to the Internet, a 64 kbit/s link to Sprint in the United States, was established. After this initial introduction, the expansion of Internet access in Cuba stagnated. Despite a lack of consensus on the exact reasons, the following appear to be major factors: Lack of funding, owing to the poor state of the Cuban economy after the fall of the Soviet Union and the Cuban government's fear that foreign investment would undermine national sovereignty; the U. S. embargo, which delayed construction of an undersea cable, made computers and other equipment expensive and difficult to obtain. According to Boris Moreno Cordoves, Deputy Minister of Informatics and Communications, the Torricelli Act identified the telecommunications sector as a tool for subversion of the 1959 Cuban Revolution, the necessary technology has been conditioned by counter-revolutionaries.
The internet is seen as essential for Cuba’s economic development. In 2009, President Obama announced that the United States would allow American companies to provide Internet service to Cuba, U. S. regulations were modified to encourage communication links with Cuba. The Cuban government rejected the offer, preferring to work instead with the Venezuelan government. In 2009 a U. S. company, TeleCuba Communications, Inc. was granted a license to install an undersea cable between Key West and Havana, although political considerations on both sides prevented the venture from moving forward. About 30 percent of the population had access to the internet in 2012. Internet connections are through satellite leading the cost of accessing the internet to be high. Private ownership of a computer or cell phone required a difficult-to-obtain government permit until 2008; when buying computers was legalized in 2008, the private ownership of computers in Cuba soared—there were 630,000 computers available on the island in 2008, a 23% increase over 2007).
Owing to limited bandwidth, authorities gave preference to use from locations where Internet access is used on a collective basis, such as in work places and research centers, where many people have access to the same computers or network. The ALBA-1 undersea fiber-optic link to Venezuela was laid in 2011 and became operational for public users in January 2013; this replaced a system which relied on the Intersputnik satellite system and aging telephone lines connecting with the United States. Total bandwidth between Cuba and the global internet before the cable was just 209 Mbit/s upstream and 379 downstream. In 2015, the Cuban government opened the first public wi-fi hotspots in 35 public locations, it reduced prices and increased speeds for internet access at state-run cybercafes. As of July 2016 4,334,022 people were Internet users. By January 2018, there were public hotspots in 500 public locations nationwide providing access in most major cities, the country relies on public infrastructure whereas home access to the Internet remains inaccessible for the general population.
As of January 2018 mobile Internet remains inaccessible in the country, but the state plans to start offering it in 2018. As of December 6, 2018, Cubans can have full mobile Internet access provided by Cuba's telecommunications company, ETECSA, at 3G speeds; the roll out of the internet service took place from Thursday, December 6, to Sunday, December 9 to avoid congestion. ETECSA announced different internet packages and their prices, ranging from 600 MB for 7 Cuban convertible pesos to 4 GB for 30 Cuban convertible pesos; the cost is still high in a country. One network link connects to the global Internet and is used by government officials and tourists, while another connection for use by the general public has restricted content. Most access is to an in-country e-mail system; the intranet contains websites that are supportive of the government. Such a network is similar to the Kwangmyong used by North Korea, a network Myanmar uses and a network Iran has plans to implement. Starting on 4 June 2013 Cubans can sign up with ETECSA, the state telecom company, for public Internet access under the brand "Nauta" at 118 centers across the country.
The Juventud Rebelde, an official newspaper, said new areas of the Internet would become available. In early 2016, ETEC S. A. began a pilot program for broadband Internet service in Cuban homes, with a view to rolling out broadband Internet services in private residences. And there are 250 WiFi hotspots around the country. In mid December 2016 Google and the Cuban government signed a deal allowing the internet giant to provide faster access to its data by installing servers on the island that will store much of the company's most popular content. Storing Google data in Cuba eliminates the long distances that signals must travel from the island through Venezuela to the nearest Google server. SNET is a Cuban grassroots wireless community network which allows people to play games or pirate movies by using interconnected network of households. Cuba has been listed as an "Internet Enemy" by Reporters Without Borders since the list was created in 2006; the level
National Congress of Chile
The National Congress of Chile is the legislative branch of the government of the Republic of Chile. The National Congress of Chile was founded on July 4, 1811, it is a bicameral legislature composed of the Chamber of Deputies, of 155 Deputies and by the Senate, formed by 50 Senators. The organisation of Congress and its powers and duties are defined in articles 42 to 59 of the current constitution and by the Constitutional Organic Law No. 18,918. Congress meets in the Chile Congress building, built during the last years of the Pinochet regime and stands in the port city of Valparaíso, some 140 km west of the capital, Santiago; this new building replaced the Former National Congress Building, located in downtown Santiago. On 13 September 1973, the Government Junta of Chile dissolved Congress. Chamber of Deputies of Chile List of legislatures by country Politics of Chile Senate of Chile Cámara de Diputados Senado
Ethernet is a family of computer networking technologies used in local area networks, metropolitan area networks and wide area networks. It was commercially introduced in 1980 and first standardized in 1983 as IEEE 802.3, has since retained a good deal of backward compatibility and been refined to support higher bit rates and longer link distances. Over time, Ethernet has replaced competing wired LAN technologies such as Token Ring, FDDI and ARCNET; the original 10BASE5 Ethernet uses coaxial cable as a shared medium, while the newer Ethernet variants use twisted pair and fiber optic links in conjunction with switches. Over the course of its history, Ethernet data transfer rates have been increased from the original 2.94 megabits per second to the latest 400 gigabits per second. The Ethernet standards comprise several wiring and signaling variants of the OSI physical layer in use with Ethernet. Systems communicating over Ethernet divide a stream of data into shorter pieces called frames; each frame contains source and destination addresses, error-checking data so that damaged frames can be detected and discarded.
As per the OSI model, Ethernet provides services up including the data link layer. Features such as the 48-bit MAC address and Ethernet frame format have influenced other networking protocols including Wi-Fi wireless networking technology. Ethernet is used in home and industry; the Internet Protocol is carried over Ethernet and so it is considered one of the key technologies that make up the Internet. Ethernet was developed at Xerox PARC between 1973 and 1974, it was inspired by ALOHAnet. The idea was first documented in a memo that Metcalfe wrote on May 22, 1973, where he named it after the luminiferous aether once postulated to exist as an "omnipresent, completely-passive medium for the propagation of electromagnetic waves." In 1975, Xerox filed a patent application listing Metcalfe, David Boggs, Chuck Thacker, Butler Lampson as inventors. In 1976, after the system was deployed at PARC, Metcalfe and Boggs published a seminal paper; that same year, Ron Crane, Bob Garner, Roy Ogus facilitated the upgrade from the original 2.94 Mbit/s protocol to the 10 Mbit/s protocol, released to the market in 1980.
Metcalfe left Xerox in June 1979 to form 3Com. He convinced Digital Equipment Corporation and Xerox to work together to promote Ethernet as a standard; as part of that process Xerox agreed to relinquish their'Ethernet' trademark. The first standard was published on September 1980 as "The Ethernet, A Local Area Network. Data Link Layer and Physical Layer Specifications"; this so-called DIX standard specified 10 Mbit/s Ethernet, with 48-bit destination and source addresses and a global 16-bit Ethertype-type field. Version 2 was published in November, 1982 and defines what has become known as Ethernet II. Formal standardization efforts proceeded at the same time and resulted in the publication of IEEE 802.3 on June 23, 1983. Ethernet competed with Token Ring and other proprietary protocols. Ethernet was able to adapt to market realities and shift to inexpensive thin coaxial cable and ubiquitous twisted pair wiring. By the end of the 1980s, Ethernet was the dominant network technology. In the process, 3Com became a major company.
3Com shipped its first 10 Mbit/s Ethernet 3C100 NIC in March 1981, that year started selling adapters for PDP-11s and VAXes, as well as Multibus-based Intel and Sun Microsystems computers. This was followed by DEC's Unibus to Ethernet adapter, which DEC sold and used internally to build its own corporate network, which reached over 10,000 nodes by 1986, making it one of the largest computer networks in the world at that time. An Ethernet adapter card for the IBM PC was released in 1982, and, by 1985, 3Com had sold 100,000. Parallel port based Ethernet adapters were produced with drivers for DOS and Windows. By the early 1990s, Ethernet became so prevalent that it was a must-have feature for modern computers, Ethernet ports began to appear on some PCs and most workstations; this process was sped up with the introduction of 10BASE-T and its small modular connector, at which point Ethernet ports appeared on low-end motherboards. Since Ethernet technology has evolved to meet new bandwidth and market requirements.
In addition to computers, Ethernet is now used to interconnect appliances and other personal devices. As Industrial Ethernet it is used in industrial applications and is replacing legacy data transmission systems in the world's telecommunications networks. By 2010, the market for Ethernet equipment amounted to over $16 billion per year. In February 1980, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers started project 802 to standardize local area networks; the "DIX-group" with Gary Robinson, Phil Arst, Bob Printis submitted the so-called "Blue Book" CSMA/CD specification as a candidate for the LAN specification. In addition to CSMA/CD, Token Ring and Token Bus were considered as candidates for a LAN standard. Competing proposals and broad interest in the initiative led to strong disagreement over which technology to standardize. In December 1980, the group was split into three subgroups, standardization proceeded separately for each proposal. Delays in the standards process put at risk the market introduction of the Xerox Star workstation and 3Com's Ethernet LAN products.
With such business implications in mind, David Liddle an
Claro Americas is part of América Móvil, a Mexican telecom group serving clients in Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Honduras, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico and Uruguay. The company's name means "bright", "clear" or "of course" in Spanish. Headquartered in Córdoba, Claro was launched in Argentina and Uruguay on March 25, 2008 in a rebranding of CTI Móvil; as of 31 March 2007 the former served more than 12.8 million subscribers on CDMA/1XRTT and GSM/GPRS/EDGE wireless. CTI Móvil purchased Hutchison Telecommunications Paraguay in July 2005 to begin serving customers in that country; as of 2006, Claro competed with international operators such as Tigo, Personal and VOX. In these countries, the company used slogans such as "Es simple. Es Claro." and "Claro es Internet móvil de alta velocidad." In Brazil, Claro was launched in 2003 with the merger of América Móvil-owned operators ATL, BCP, Tess Celular and Claro Digital. Claro expanded its service to the states of Bahia, Santa Catarina, Paraná and Minas Gerais.
As of 2012, the provider is available in over 2,000 Brazilian cities. With competitor Vivo, Claro was one of two operators to introduce the iPhone 3G in Brazil, with TIM participating later. Claro Brazil runs a pay-TV service, Claro TV. Slogans used by the Brazilian branch include "Nós escutamos" and "Escolha". While Claro has developed a large market share in Colombia, data for prepaid customers indicates that Claro has lost market share to competing providers Tigo and Movistar. Tigo and Movistar offer prepaid customers flat-rate per-minute plans for calls placed to all mobile service providers and landlines within Colombia; the cheapest per-minute rate for Claro prepaid customers is 249 pesos per minute, a rate valid for only nine "preferred Claro numbers". Per-minute rates increase for calls to Claro numbers not on a customer's "preferred" list and all calls to other cellphone providers or landline numbers. After the opening of telecommunications in Costa Rica when the monopoly of the ICE Group was dissolved, the government opened a tender for telecommunications companies wishing to enter Costa Rica.
Superintendencia de Telecomunicaciones of Costa Rica secured a license, the company began offering lines on November 5, 2011 to users who had registered on their website or through social networks. Service began on November 11. Claro Chile was known as Chilesat PCS, which renamed to Smartcom PCS. Claro was launched in Chile on August 6, 2006, after its acquisition of Smartcom PCS. Slogans such as "Yo soy Claro, y me gusta." have appeared in advertisements. In the mobile operator segment, Claro is third in market share behind Entel. Claro was launched in the Dominican Republic on January 31, 2007 after its acquisition of Verizon Dominicana on April 3, 2006, its Dominican Republic slogans have included "Claro que tienes más", "La Red donde todo es posible", "Estamos para ti". In Ecuador, America Movil was present with Conecel until February 2011; the name "Porta" was switched to "Claro" as part of America Movil's business strategy. It is the country's leading operator, with nearly nine million subscribers.
Claro was introduced in El Salvador and Nicaragua in September 2006. On November 16, 1996, the Guatemalan Congress passed the "Ley General de Telecomunicaciones", it was purchased by LUCA S. A. and Ricardo Bueso became Telgua's first President and CEO until 2000. In 2000, it joined America Movil and some time after it renamed the brands ALO and PCS Digital to Claro on Guatemala. Claro was introduced in Guatemala on September 7, 2006 as a rebranding of Telgua-owned PCS Digital and Alo de PCS; as of March 31, 2007 Claro in Guatemala had more than 5.2 million subscribers, with CDMA/1XRTT, GSM/GPRS/EDGE and UMTS/HSDPA wireless technology. Claro was introduced in Jamaica as a replacement for the MiPhone company. Oceanic Digital Jamaica Limited was a wholly owned subsidiary of América Móvil, providing service under the Claro name; the company built a GSM/UMTS/HSDPA network with the CDMA network, plans included fixed wireless and broadband service on the CDMA network. The Jamaican company was acquired by Digicel in late 2011, the network was closed in March 2012.
The Panama government licensed America Móvil to use spectrum in Panama under the Claro name. The government aims to expand competition and mobile access to the Panamanian population. Claro began operation on October 2005 after its acquisition of TIM Peru; the country has more than seventeen million customers. Claro was introduced in Puerto Rico on May 18, 20
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent units, but is divided into 1000 mills for accounting; the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. Since the suspension in 1971 of convertibility of paper U. S. currency into any precious metal, the U. S. dollar is, de facto, fiat money. As it is the most used in international transactions, the U. S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their official currency, in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean: the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while still minting their own coins, or accept U. S. dollar coins. As of June 27, 2018, there are $1.67 trillion in circulation, of which $1.62 trillion is in Federal Reserve notes.
Article I, Section 8 of the U. S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power "To coin money". Laws implementing this power are codified at 31 U. S. C. § 5112. Section 5112 prescribes the forms; these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as "legal tender" in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar; the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins, which have values ranging from one cent to 100 dollars; these other coins are more described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that "a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time"; that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the "Statements" are being expressed in U. S. dollars. The U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States.
The word "dollar" is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution. There, "dollars" is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act. Section 9 of that act authorized the production of various coins, including "DOLLARS OR UNITS—each to be of the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current, to contain three hundred and seventy-one grains and four sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver". Section 20 of the act provided, "That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units... and that all accounts in the public offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation". In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States. Unlike the Spanish milled dollar, the U.
S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. In addition to the dollar the coinage act established monetary units of mill or one-thousandth of a dollar, cent or one-hundredth of a dollar, dime or one-tenth of a dollar, eagle or ten dollars, with prescribed weights and composition of gold, silver, or copper for each, it was proposed in the mid-1800s that one hundred dollars be known as a union, but no union coins were struck and only patterns for the $50 half union exist. However, only cents are in everyday use as divisions of the dollar. XX9 per gallon, e.g. $3.599, more written as $3.599⁄10. When issued in circulating form, denominations equal to or less than a dollar are emitted as U. S. coins while denominations equal to or greater than a dollar are emitted as Federal Reserve notes. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the note form is more common. In the past, "paper money" was issued in denominations less than a dollar and gold coins were issued for circulation up to the value of $20.
The term eagle was used in the Coinage Act of 1792 for the denomination of ten dollars, subsequently was used in naming gold coins. Paper currency less than one dollar in denomination, known as "fractional currency", was sometimes pejoratively referred to as "shinplasters". In 1854, James Guthrie Secretary of the Treasury, proposed creating $100, $50 and $25 gold coins, which were referred to as a "Union", "Half Union", "Quarter Union", thus implying a denomination of 1 Union = $100. Today, USD notes are made from cotton fiber paper, unlike most common paper, made of wood fiber. U. S. coins are produced by the United States Mint. U. S. dollar banknotes are printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and, since 1914, have been issued by t
Telecommunications in the Bahamas
Telecommunications in the Bahamas includes telephones, radio and the Internet. Access to the Internet is unrestricted. There were no government restrictions on access to the Internet or credible reports that the government monitors e-mail or Internet chat rooms without judicial oversight; the constitution provides for freedom of speech and press, the government respects these rights in practice. An independent press combined with a effective—albeit backlogged—judiciary, a functioning democratic political system ensures freedom of speech and press; the constitution prohibits arbitrary interference with privacy, home, or correspondence, the government respects these prohibitions in practice. Strict and antiquated libel laws dating to British legal codes are invoked. In April 2013, the Bahamas Commissioner of Police Ellison Greenslade warned that the police would press charges against people who post “lewd” or “obscene” pictures on social media websites and Attorney General Allyson Maynard-Gibson announced that the government was working on legislation that will police information posted on the Internet.
"We have to balance freedom of the press with protecting the public,” she added. In April Rodney Moncur was charged with "committing a grossly indecent act" by posting autopsy photographs of a man who died in police custody on his Facebook page. Phone calls to the Bahamas are monitored by the National Security Agency's MYSTIC program. Bahamas BTC, Bahamas Telecommunications Company, primary telecommunications provider for the Bahamas government owned. List of television stations in the Caribbean Television in the Bahamas ZNS-1, Radio Bahamas, state-owned ZNS-TV 13, state-owned This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html. BSNIC, Bahamas Network Information Center. Bahamas Telecommunications Company, website. ZNS Bahamas, website