The Internet protocol suite is the conceptual model and set of communications protocols used on the Internet and similar computer networks. It is commonly known as TCP/IP because the protocols in the suite are the Transmission Control Protocol. It is occasionally known as the Department of Defense model, because the development of the model was funded by DARPA. The Internet protocol suite provides end-to-end data communication specifying how data should be packetized, addressed, transmitted, routed and received and this functionality is organized into four abstraction layers which are used to sort all related protocols according to the scope of networking involved. Technical standards specifying the Internet protocol suite and many of its constituent protocols are maintained by the Internet Engineering Task Force, the Internet protocol suite model is a simpler model developed prior to the OSI model. The Internet protocol suite resulted from research and development conducted by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency in the late 1960s, after initiating the pioneering ARPANET in 1969, DARPA started work on a number of other data transmission technologies. In 1972, Robert E. Cerf credits Hubert Zimmermann and Louis Pouzin, designer of the CYCLADES network, the protocol was implemented as the Transmission Control Program, first published in 1974. Initially, the TCP managed both datagram transmissions and routing, but as the protocol grew, other researchers recommended a division of functionality into protocol layers, postel stated, “we are screwing up in our design of Internet protocols by violating the principle of layering”. Encapsulation of different mechanisms was intended to create an environment where the layers could access only what was needed from the lower layers. A monolithic design would be inflexible and lead to scalability issues, the Transmission Control Program was split into two distinct protocols, the Transmission Control Protocol and the Internet Protocol. The new suite replaced all protocols used previously and this design is known as the end-to-end principle. Using this design, it possible to connect almost any network to the ARPANET, irrespective of the local characteristics. One popular expression is that TCP/IP, the product of Cerf and Kahns work. A computer called a router is provided with an interface to each network and it forwards packets back and forth between them. Originally a router was called gateway, but the term was changed to avoid confusion with other types of gateways, from 1973 to 1974, Cerfs networking research group at Stanford worked out details of the idea, resulting in the first TCP specification. A significant technical influence was the early networking work at Xerox PARC, DARPA then contracted with BBN Technologies, Stanford University, and the University College London to develop operational versions of the protocol on different hardware platforms. Four versions were developed, TCP v1, TCP v2, TCP v3 and IP v3, the last protocol is still in use today. In 1975, a two-network TCP/IP communications test was performed between Stanford and University College London, in November,1977, a three-network TCP/IP test was conducted between sites in the US, the UK, and Norway
Two Internet hosts connected via two routers and the corresponding layers used at each hop. The application on each host executes read and write operations as if the processes were directly connected to each other by some kind of data pipe. Every other detail of the communication is hidden from each process. The underlying mechanisms that transmit data between the host computers are located in the lower protocol layers.
Encapsulation of application data descending through the layers described in RFC 1122