Network access point
A Network Access Point was a public network exchange facility where Internet service providers connected with one another in peering arrangements. The NAPs were a key component in the transition from the 1990s NSFNET era to the commercial Internet providers of today, they were points of considerable Internet congestion. The four Network Access Points were defined under the U. S. National Information Infrastructure document as transitional data communications facilities at which Network Service Providers would exchange traffic, in replacement of the publicly financed NSFNET Internet backbone; the National Science Foundation let contracts supporting the four NAPs, one to MFS Datanet for the preexisting MAE-East in Washington, D. C. and three others to Sprint and Pacific Bell, for new facilities of various designs and technologies, in New York and California, respectively. As a transitional strategy, they were effective, giving commercial network operators a bridge from the Internet's beginnings as a government-funded academic experiment, to the modern Internet of many private-sector competitors collaborating to form a network-of-networks, anchored around Internet Exchange Points.
This was timely, coming hard on the heels of the ANS CO+RE controversy, which had disturbed the nascent industry, led to congressional hearings, resulted in a law allowing NSF to promote and use networks that carry commercial traffic, prompted a review of the administration of NSFNET by the NSF's Inspector General, caused commercial operators to realize that they needed to be able to communicate with each other independent of third parties or at neutral exchange points. Today, the phrase "Network Access Point" is of historical interest only, since the four transitional NAPs disappeared long ago, replaced by modern IXPs, though in Spanish-speaking Latin America, the phrase lives on to a small degree, among those who conflate the NAPs with Internet Exchange Points. Commercial Internet eXchange Federal Internet Exchange Internet exchange point high speed Backbone Network Service Commercial traffic and Controversy sections of the NSFNET article
Burstable billing is a method of measuring bandwidth based on peak use. It allows usage to exceed a specified threshold for brief periods of time without the financial penalty of purchasing a higher committed information rate from an Internet service provider. Most ISPs use 95 % usage when calculating usage; the 95th percentile is a used mathematical calculation to evaluate the regular and sustained use of a network connection. The 95th percentile method more reflects the needed capacity of the link in question than tracking by other methods such as mean or maximum rate; the bytes that make up the packets themselves do not cost money, but the link and the infrastructure on either end of the link cost money to set up and support. This method of billing is used in peering arrangements between corporate networks, it is not used by ISPs because Internet service providers need committed information rates for planning purposes. Since most networks are overprovisioned, there is some room for some bursting without advanced planning.
Ignoring the top 5% of the samples is a reasonable compromise in most cases. Many sites have the majority of their traffic on Mondays, so the Monday traffic determines the rate for the whole month; some providers offer billing on the 90th percentile as an incentive to attract customers with irregular bandwidth patterns. The 95th percentile allows a customer to have a short burst in traffic without overage charges; the 95th percentile says that 95 % of the time, the usage is below this amount. Conversely, 5% of the samples may be bursting above this rate; the sampling interval, or how samples are taken, is an important factor in percentile calculation. A percentile is calculated on some set of data points; every data point represents the average bandwidth used during the sampling interval and is calculated as the number of bits transferred throughout the interval divided by the duration of the interval. The resulting value represents the average use rate for a single sampling interval and is expressed as bits per second.
Bandwidth is recorded in a log file. In most cases, this is done every 5 minutes. At the end of the month, the samples are sorted from highest to lowest, the top 5% of data is thrown away; the next highest measurement becomes the billable use for the entire month. Based on this model, the top 36 hours of peak traffic is not taken into account when billed for an entire month. Bandwidth could be used at a higher rate for up to 72 min a day with no financial penalty. Conversely, if peak traffic only appears for a brief instant and no additional traffic is generated the billing amount can be higher than Average usage billing. Inbound and outbound traffic is counted separately, as connections are full duplex allowing traffic in-bound and out-bound simultaneously; some common algorithms are: use that as the source. This method is more complex to implement as it requires processing of each sample but results are closer to estimating total volume of data sent and received. Calculate the 95% value separately for in-bound data and out-bound data and take the maximum of those two values.
This method is simpler to implement but does not estimate symmetric traffic patterns. Take the sum for each interval; this method does account for symmetric traffic patters. Critics of the 95th percentile billing method advocate the use of a flat rate system or using the average throughput rather than the 95th percentile. Both those methods favour heavy users. Other critics call for billing per byte of data transferred, considered most accurate and fair. MRTG - Used to review bandwidth usage and with patches, determine 95th percentile values. Cacti - another tool for 95th percentile values based on RRDtool LibreNMS - Opensource GPLv3 license which provides 95th percentile based billing. Observium - Opensource software providing both per-port 95th percentile calculation and multi-port billing tool supporting 95th percentile calculation. PRTG Network Monitor - Many sensors to monitoring all aspects of networks, server and business. Including reports with 95th calculation. MRTG Help Site - Helpful page with example MRTG graphs and explanations.
Torrus reporting setup guide - Implementation details and installation guide for monthly reports of traffic usage and 95th Percentile in Torrus Real Traffic Grabber - RTG gets SNMP statistics and does monitoring. It includes graphics and a report generator. Ocoloc - Free / open source basic SNMP collection and reporting tool for 95th percentile calculations
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite to link devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of private, academic and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies; the Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web, electronic mail and file sharing. Some publications no longer capitalize "internet"; the origins of the Internet date back to research commissioned by the federal government of the United States in the 1960s to build robust, fault-tolerant communication with computer networks. The primary precursor network, the ARPANET served as a backbone for interconnection of regional academic and military networks in the 1980s; the funding of the National Science Foundation Network as a new backbone in the 1980s, as well as private funding for other commercial extensions, led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies, the merger of many networks.
The linking of commercial networks and enterprises by the early 1990s marked the beginning of the transition to the modern Internet, generated a sustained exponential growth as generations of institutional and mobile computers were connected to the network. Although the Internet was used by academia since the 1980s, commercialization incorporated its services and technologies into every aspect of modern life. Most traditional communication media, including telephony, television, paper mail and newspapers are reshaped, redefined, or bypassed by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as email, Internet telephony, Internet television, online music, digital newspapers, video streaming websites. Newspaper and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging, web feeds and online news aggregators; the Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of personal interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, social networking. Online shopping has grown exponentially both for major retailers and small businesses and entrepreneurs, as it enables firms to extend their "brick and mortar" presence to serve a larger market or sell goods and services online.
Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries. The Internet has no single centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; the overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address space and the Domain Name System, are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force, a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise. In November 2006, the Internet was included on USA Today's list of New Seven Wonders; when the term Internet is used to refer to the specific global system of interconnected Internet Protocol networks, the word is a proper noun that should be written with an initial capital letter.
In common use and the media, it is erroneously not capitalized, viz. the internet. Some guides specify that the word should be capitalized when used as a noun, but not capitalized when used as an adjective; the Internet is often referred to as the Net, as a short form of network. As early as 1849, the word internetted was used uncapitalized as an adjective, meaning interconnected or interwoven; the designers of early computer networks used internet both as a noun and as a verb in shorthand form of internetwork or internetworking, meaning interconnecting computer networks. The terms Internet and World Wide Web are used interchangeably in everyday speech. However, the World Wide Web or the Web is only one of a large number of Internet services; the Web is a collection of interconnected documents and other web resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. As another point of comparison, Hypertext Transfer Protocol, or HTTP, is the language used on the Web for information transfer, yet it is just one of many languages or protocols that can be used for communication on the Internet.
The term Interweb is a portmanteau of Internet and World Wide Web used sarcastically to parody a technically unsavvy user. Research into packet switching, one of the fundamental Internet technologies, started in the early 1960s in the work of Paul Baran and Donald Davies. Packet-switched networks such as the NPL network, ARPANET, the Merit Network, CYCLADES, Telenet were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s; the ARPANET project led to the development of protocols for internetworking, by which multiple separate networks could be joined into a network of networks. ARPANET development began with two network nodes which were interconnected between the Network Measurement Center at the University of California, Los Angeles Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science directed by Leonard Kleinrock, the NLS system at SRI International by Douglas Engelbart in Menlo Park, California, on 29 October 1969; the third site was the Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics Center at the University of California, Santa Barbara, followed by the University of
Internet service provider
An Internet service provider is an organization that provides services for accessing, using, or participating in the Internet. Internet service providers may be organized in various forms, such as commercial, community-owned, non-profit, or otherwise owned. Internet services provided by ISPs include Internet access, Internet transit, domain name registration, web hosting, Usenet service, colocation; the Internet was developed as a network between government research laboratories and participating departments of universities. Other companies and organizations joined by direct connection to the backbone, or by arrangements through other connected companies, sometime using dialup tools such as UUCP. By the late 1980s, a process was set in place towards commercial use of the Internet; the remaining restrictions were removed by 1991, shortly after the introduction of the World Wide Web. During the 1980s, online service providers such as CompuServe and America On Line began to offer limited capabilities to access the Internet, such as e-mail interchange, but full access to the Internet was not available to the general public.
In 1989, the first Internet service providers, companies offering the public direct access to the Internet for a monthly fee, were established in Australia and the United States. In Brookline, The World became the first commercial ISP in the US, its first customer was served in November 1989. These companies offered dial-up connections, using the public telephone network to provide last-mile connections to their customers; the barriers to entry for dial-up ISPs were low and many providers emerged. However, cable television companies and the telephone carriers had wired connections to their customers and could offer Internet connections at much higher speeds than dial-up using broadband technology such as cable modems and digital subscriber line; as a result, these companies became the dominant ISPs in their service areas, what was once a competitive ISP market became a monopoly or duopoly in countries with a commercial telecommunications market, such as the United States. On 23 April 2014, the U.
S. Federal Communications Commission was reported to be considering a new rule that will permit ISPs to offer content providers a faster track to send content, thus reversing their earlier net neutrality position. A possible solution to net neutrality concerns may be municipal broadband, according to Professor Susan Crawford, a legal and technology expert at Harvard Law School. On 15 May 2014, the FCC decided to consider two options regarding Internet services: first, permit fast and slow broadband lanes, thereby compromising net neutrality. On 10 November 2014, President Barack Obama recommended that the FCC reclassify broadband Internet service as a telecommunications service in order to preserve net neutrality. On 16 January 2015, Republicans presented legislation, in the form of a U. S. Congress H. R. discussion draft bill, that makes concessions to net neutrality but prohibits the FCC from accomplishing the goal or enacting any further regulation affecting Internet service providers. On 31 January 2015, AP News reported that the FCC will present the notion of applying Title II of the Communications Act of 1934 to the Internet in a vote expected on 26 February 2015.
Adoption of this notion would reclassify Internet service from one of information to one of the telecommunications and, according to Tom Wheeler, chairman of the FCC, ensure net neutrality. The FCC is expected to enforce net neutrality in its vote, according to The New York Times. On 26 February 2015, the FCC ruled in favor of net neutrality by adopting Title II of the Communications Act of 1934 and Section 706 in the Telecommunications Act of 1996 to the Internet; the FCC Chairman, Tom Wheeler, commented, "This is no more a plan to regulate the Internet than the First Amendment is a plan to regulate free speech. They both stand for the same concept." On 12 March 2015, the FCC released the specific details of the net neutrality rules. On 13 April 2015, the FCC published the final rule on its new "Net Neutrality" regulations; these rules went into effect on 12 June 2015. Upon becoming FCC chairman in April 2017, Ajit Pai proposed an end to net neutrality, awaiting votes from the commission. On 21 November 2017, Pai announced that a vote will be held by FCC members on 14 December on whether to repeal the policy.
On 11 June 2018, the repeal of the FCC's network neutrality rules took effect. Access provider ISPs provide Internet access, employing a range of technologies to connect users to their network. Available technologies have ranged from computer modems with acoustic couplers to telephone lines, to television cable, Wi-Fi, fiber optics. For users and small businesses, traditional options include copper wires to provide dial-up, DSL asymmetric digital subscriber line, cable modem or Integrated Services Digital Network. Using fiber-optics to end users is called Fiber To The Home or similar names. For customers with more demanding requirements can use higher-speed DSL, metropolitan Ethernet, gigabit Ethernet, Frame Relay, ISDN Primary Rate Interface, ATM and synchronous optical networking. Wireless access is another option, including satellite Internet access. A mailbox provider is an organization that provides services for hosting electronic mail domains with access to storage for mail boxes
Internet exchange point
An Internet exchange point is the physical infrastructure through which Internet service providers and content delivery networks exchange Internet traffic between their networks. IXPs reduce the portion of an ISP's traffic that must be delivered via their upstream transit providers, thereby reducing the average per-bit delivery cost of their service. Furthermore, the increased number of paths available through the IXP improves routing efficiency and fault-tolerance. In addition, IXPs exhibit the characteristics of; the primary purpose of an IXP is to allow networks to interconnect directly, via the exchange, rather than through one or more third-party networks. The primary advantages of direct interconnection are cost and bandwidth. Traffic passing through an exchange is not billed by any party, whereas traffic to an ISP's upstream provider is; the direct interconnection located in the same city as both networks, avoids the need for data to travel to other cities to get from one network to another, thus reducing latency.
The third advantage, speed, is most noticeable in areas that have poorly developed long-distance connections. ISPs in these regions might have to pay between 10 or 100 times more for data transport than ISPs in North America, Europe, or Japan. Therefore, these ISPs have slower, more limited connections to the rest of the Internet. However, a connection to a local IXP may allow them to transfer data without limit, without cost, vastly improving the bandwidth between customers of the two adjacent ISPs. A typical IXP consists of one or more network switches, to which each of the participating ISPs connect. Prior to the existence of switches, IXPs employed fiber-optic inter-repeater link hubs or Fiber Distributed Data Interface rings, migrating to Ethernet and FDDI switches as those became available in 1993 and 1994. Asynchronous Transfer Mode switches were used at a few IXPs in the late 1990s, accounting for 4% of the market at their peak, there was an attempt by Stockholm-based IXP NetNod to use SRP/DPT, but Ethernet has prevailed, accounting for more than 95% of all existing Internet exchange switch fabrics.
All Ethernet port speeds are to be found at modern IXPs, ranging from 10 Mb/second ports in use in small developing-country IXPs, to ganged 10 Gb/second ports in major centers like Seoul, New York, Frankfurt and Palo Alto. Ports with 100 Gb/second are available, for example, at the AMS-IX in Amsterdam and at the DE-CIX in Frankfurt. There are five types of business models for IXPs: Nonprofit organization Association of ISPs Operator-neutral for-profit company University or government agency Informal association of networksThe technical and business logistics of traffic exchange between ISPs is governed by mutual peering agreements. Under such agreements, traffic is exchanged without compensation; when an IXP incurs operating costs, they are shared among all of its participants. At the more expensive exchanges, participants pay a monthly or annual fee determined by the speed of the port or ports which they are using. Fees based on volume of traffic are less common because they provide a counterincentive to growth of the exchange.
Some exchanges charge a setup fee to offset the costs of the switch port and any media adaptors that the new participant requires. Internet traffic exchange between two participants on an IXP is facilitated by Border Gateway Protocol routing configurations between them, they choose to announce routes via the peering relationship – either routes to their own addresses, or routes to addresses of other ISPs that they connect to via other mechanisms. The other party to the peering can apply route filtering, where it chooses to accept those routes, route traffic accordingly, or to ignore those routes, use other routes to reach those addresses. In many cases, an ISP will have both a direct link to another ISP and accept a route to the other ISP through the IXP. In this way, the IXP acts as a backup link; when these conditions are met, a contractual structure exists to create a market to purchase network services, the IXP is sometimes called a "transit exchange". The Vancouver Transit Exchange, for example, is described as a "shopping mall" of service providers at one central location, making it easy to switch providers, "as simple as getting a VLAN to a new provider".
The VTE is run by a public entity. Advocates of green broadband schemes and more competitive telecommunications services advocate aggressive expansion of transit exchanges into every municipal area network so that competing service providers can place such equipment as video on demand hosts and PSTN switches to serve existing phone equipment, without being answerable to any monopoly incumbent. Euro-IX, the first association of Internet exchange points, was formed in May 2001; the Internet Exchange Federation, which includes Euro-IX, APIX, LAC-IX, was formed in November 2012. The African Internet Exchange Association joined the Internet Exchange Federation on 7 October 2014. List of Internet exchange points List of Internet exchange points by size Colocation centre Packet Clearing House Route server Historical IXPs Commercial Internet eXchange Federal Internet Exchange Network Access Point European Internet Exch