In Internet slang, a troll is a person who starts quarrels or upsets people on the Internet to distract and sow discord by posting inflammatory and digressive, extraneous, or off-topic messages in an online community with the intent of provoking readers into displaying emotional responses and normalizing tangential discussion, whether for the troll's amusement or a specific gain. Both the noun and the verb forms of "troll" are associated with Internet discourse. However, the word has been used more widely. Media attention in recent years has equated trolling with online harassment. For example, the mass media have used "troll" to mean "a person who defaces Internet tribute sites with the aim of causing grief to families". In addition, depictions of trolling have been included in popular fictional works, such as the HBO television program The Newsroom, in which a main character encounters harassing persons online and tries to infiltrate their circles by posting negative sexual comments. Application of the term troll is subjective.
Some readers may characterize a post as trolling, while others may regard the same post as a legitimate contribution to the discussion if controversial. Like any pejorative term, it can be used as an ad hominem attack; as noted in an OS News article titled "Why People Troll and How to Stop Them", "The traditional definition of trolling includes intent. That is, trolls purposely disrupt forums; this definition is too narrow. Whether someone intends to disrupt a thread or not, the results are the same if they do." Others have addressed the same issue, e.g. Claire Hardaker, in her Ph. D. thesis "Trolling in asynchronous computer-mediated communication: From user discussions to academic definitions." Popular recognition of the existence of non-deliberate, "accidental trolls", has been documented in sources as diverse as Nicole Sullivan's keynote speech at the 2012 Fluent Conference, titled "Don't Feed the Trolls" Gizmodo, online opinions on the subject written by Silicon Valley executives and comics.
Regardless of the circumstances, controversial posts may attract a strong response from those unfamiliar with the robust dialogue found in some online, rather than physical, communities. Experienced participants in online forums know that the most effective way to discourage a troll is to ignore it, because responding tends to encourage trolls to continue disruptive posts – hence the often-seen warning: "Please do not feed the trolls"; some believe this to be bad or incomplete advice for dealing with trolls. The "trollface" is an image used to indicate trolling in Internet culture. At times the word is incorrectly used to refer to anyone with controversial, or differing, opinions; such usage goes against the ordinary meaning of troll in multiple ways. While psychologists have determined that the dark triad traits are common among Internet trolls, some observers claim trolls don't believe the controversial views they claim. Farhad Manjoo criticises this view, noting that if the person is trolling, they are more intelligent than their critics would believe.
There are competing theories of where and when "troll" was first used in Internet slang, with numerous unattested accounts of BBS and UseNet origins in the early 1980s or before. The English noun "troll" in the standard sense of ugly dwarf or giant dates to 1610 and comes from the Old Norse word "troll" meaning giant or demon; the word evokes the trolls of Scandinavian folklore and children's tales: antisocial and slow-witted creatures which make life difficult for travellers. In modern English usage, "trolling" may describe the fishing technique of dragging a lure or baited hook from a moving boat, whereas trawling describes the commercial act of dragging a fishing net. Early non-Internet slang use of "trolling" can be found in the military: by 1972 the term "trolling for MiGs" was documented in use by US Navy pilots in Vietnam, it referred to use of "...decoys, with the mission of drawing...fire away..."The contemporary use of the term is said to have appeared on the Internet in the late 1980s, but the earliest known attestation according to the Oxford English Dictionary is in 1992.
The context of the quote cited in the Oxford English Dictionary sets the origin in Usenet in the early 1990s as in the phrase "trolling for newbies", as used in alt.folklore.urban. What is meant is a gentle inside joke by veteran users, presenting questions or topics, so overdone that only a new user would respond to them earnestly. For example, a veteran of the group might make a post on the common misconception that glass flows over time. Long-time readers would both recognize the poster's name and know that the topic had been discussed but new subscribers to the group would not realize, would thus respond; these types of trolls served as a practice to identify group insiders. This definition of trolling narrower than the modern understanding of the term, was considered a positive contribution. One of the most notorious AFU trollers, David Mikkelson, went on to create the urban folklore website Snopes.com. By the late 1990s, alt.folklore.urban had such heavy traffic and participation that trolling of this sort was frowned upon.
Others expanded the term to include the practice of playing a misinformed or deluded user in newsgroups where one was not a regular. The noun troll referred to an act of trolling – or to the resulting discussion – rather than to the author, though some posts punned on the dual meaning of troll. In Chinese, trolling is referred to as bái mù (C
The Christian Chronicle is a religious newspaper associated with the Churches of Christ. The Chronicle has a "news not views" editorial policy. A survey conducted in the early 1990s found that 68 percent of ministers in the Churches of Christ read the Chronicle, 88 percent of those readers said they agreed with the content; the Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement describes the Chronicle as "by far the most-read paper in the Churches of Christ and exercises an influence for cohesiveness in this part of the Stone-Campbell Movement". The Christian Chronicle was established in 1943, has been characterized as "one of the most important sources of primary historical information on the worldwide missions carried out by Churches of Christ." The magazine was acquired by Sweet Publishing Company in the late 1960s. In 1981 the Chronicle was redesigned by Charlie Marler, a journalism professor from Abilene Christian University, it has been supported since 1981 by Oklahoma Christian University. The Christian Chronicle
Melville is a town in St. Landry Parish, United States; the population was 1,041 at the 2010 census. It is part of the Opelousas−Eunice Micropolitan Statistical Area, it is known as the Atchafalaya River Catfish Capital of Louisiana. Melville is located at 30°41′36″N 91°44′44″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.3 sq mi, all but 0.039 sq mi of, land. It is flat land surrounded by a ring levee to protect it from flooding from the Atchafalaya River; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 1,041 people living in the town. The racial makeup of the town was 51.9% Black, 45.0% White, 0.2% Native American, 0.2% Asian and 1.0% from two or more races. 1.8 % were Latino of any race. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,376 people, 542 households, 363 families living in the town; the population density was 1,097.6 people per square mile. There were 648 housing units at an average density of 516.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 52.47% White, 45.78% African American, 0.87% Asian, 0.87% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.74% of the population. There were 542 households out of which 32.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.6% were married couples living together, 20.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.0% were non-families. 31.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.17. In the town, the population was spread out with 29.9% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 24.3% from 25 to 44, 23.2% from 45 to 64, 13.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 83.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 76.2 males. The median income for a household in the town was $18,487, the median income for a family was $20,625. Males had a median income of $22,083 versus $15,833 for females; the per capita income for the town was $8,881. About 35.6% of families and 40.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 47.2% of those under age 18 and 37.7% of those age 65 or over.
In 2010, Melville had the 12th-lowest median household income of all places in the United States with a population over 1,000. Lottie Beebe, superintendent of public schools in St. Martin Parish and Republican member of the Louisiana Board of Elementary and Secondary Education, was born in Melville in 1953. Charlton Lyons, Louisiana Republican state chairman from 1964 to 1968 and Republican gubernatorial nominee in 1964, was reared in Melville. "Town of Melville, Louisiana". Town of Melville, LA. Retrieved 2018-05-01."Melville, Louisiana". City-data.com. Retrieved 2006-07-08
Summers Melville Jack was a Republican member of the U. S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania. Summers M. Jack was born in the Pittsburgh DMA town of Pennsylvania, he attended Indiana Normal School. He taught school for six years, he was admitted to the bar in 1879 and commenced practice in Indiana, Pennsylvania. He was district attorney for Indiana County, Pennsylvania from 1884 to 1890, he was appointed a member of the board of trustees of the Indiana Normal School in 1886 and by reappointment served more than forty years. He was the chairman of the congressional conference for the twenty-first district in 1896. Jack was elected as a Republican to the Fifty-seventh, he was not a candidate for renomination in 1902. He served as a member of the congressional delegation sent to the Philippine Islands in 1901 to inquire into the advisability of establishing civil government, he resumed the practice of law, was a delegate to the 1908 Republican National Convention at Chicago. He died in Indiana, Pennsylvania, in 1945.
Interment in the Oakland Cemetery in Indiana, Pennsylvania. United States Congress. "Summers M. Jack". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress; the Political Graveyard
SNL Québec is a Canadian television sketch comedy series, which aired on Télé-Québec in 2014 and 2015. A French language adaptation of the influential American sketch comedy series Saturday Night Live, the series featured both translated recreations of sketches from the original series and original material written for the Quebec series: the show's first episode included a translation of the iconic Schweddy Balls sketch, a sketch in the second episode recast the leaders' debate from the 2014 provincial election as an episode of Un dîner presque parfait, the French-language version of Come Dine with Me; the show's core cast members were Katherine Levac, Virginie Fortin, Léane Labrèche-Dor, Pier-Luc Funk, Mathieu Quesnel, Guillaume Girard, Mickaël Gouin and Phil Roy. Quesnel served as Les nouvelles SNL anchor for the first two episodes, with Girard and Gouin taking over thereafter. Announced as two standalone comedy specials, several further episodes were produced in 2014 and 2015 as a once-a-month series.
Ten episodes, nine originals and a "best-of" compilation of sketches from the earlier episodes, were broadcast overall. As advance publicity for the first two specials, hosts Louis-José Houde and Stéphane Rousseau each recorded segments in which they visited the New York City set of the original Saturday Night Live, including brief interviews with some of SNL's cast. Télé-Québec announced in early 2015 that due to cutbacks to its budget, the series would not be renewed for another season. Ici Radio-Canada Télé subsequently announced that it had signed the show's production team and cast to produce a new series, Le nouveau show, for that network. SNL Québec
The Seltzbach is a river, 33 kilometres long. It forms a left tributary of the Sauer in Alsace; the Seltzbach rises at a height of about 325 m in the Forêt de Gœrsdorf northeast of Mitschdorf in the North Vosges It flows for about 700 metres through woods in a southerly direction. Thereafter its course runs along the boundary between the municipalities of Mitschdorf and Lampertsloch, past the fields and meadows of the field system known as In der Heimelsstraengen to its right and the woods of Liebwald to its left; the river is now heding south-southwest. Near the mill of Brehmmühle southeast of Mitschdorf and north of the Rue de Voyageurs it bends almost at right angles, to bear east-southeast; this now becomes its main direction of flow from here to its mouth. It now reaches the western edge of Preuschdorf and its volume is increased by the arrival of a headstream from the left, from the Liebwald to the north. Somewhat it is joined by a stream on the right from the hill of Kalmersberg, which on many maps is seen as the main headstream of the same name.
East of the village it is fed from the right by the Kinderlochgraben, which comes from the southwest. Its course is now accompanied for a long stretch by the D28, it flows now through a landscape of meadows. Just before it reaches Merkwiller-Péchelbronn, it picks up the waters of the Augraben from the left and, a little the Willenbachgraben on the right. After the Seltzersbach has left the village, it collects the Bruchgraben from the right, south of Wingertsfeld; the Seltzersbach now passes through the municipality of Kutzenhausen. At the spot where it is joined from the right by the Sumpfgraben, the Seltzersbach swings northeast and reaches Soultz-sous-Forêts-Wolfsgarten shortly thereafter, it now changes direction to head west, flows through grassland and crosses under the Rue du Docteur Michel Deutsch. Shortly afterwards on its left side its water volume it boosted by the Froeschwillerbach called the Froeschwillerbaechel; the Seltzersbach now passes under a railway of the SNCF and flows through more fields and meadows, passing under theD263 northeast of Hohwiller.
It arrives in Hoffen. Near the sawmill, northeast of Leiterswiller, it collects Haussauerbach on the left. There the Eichelgraben ditch splits off and south of Oberroedern on its northern bank, the Eilgraben; the Seltzersbach is rejoined shortly thereafter by the Eichelgraben. Afterwards another ditch branches of the Seltzersbach to the south. Southwest of Buhl the Eilgraben to the north rejoins the Seltzersbach. Soon afterwards the Seebach called the Seebaechel, empties into the river from the left. Near the mill of Gerittsmühle the Warsbach discharges into the Seltzersbach on the left, coming from the north, it now is fed there by the Reissergraben from the right. It leaves this village and snakes its way along the northern perimeter of the Hesselbusch woods, passes under the N363 and reaches the northern edge of Seltz, where it picks up the Eberbach from the left, it now empties at last into the Sauer at a height of 109 m. Débits caractéristiques le Seltzbach Localisation des points de prélèvements