A bootleg recording is an audio or video recording of a performance, not released by the artist or under other legal authority. The process of making and distributing such recordings is known as bootlegging. Recordings may be copied and traded among fans of the artist without financial exchange, but some bootleggers have sold recordings for profit, sometimes by adding professional-quality sound engineering and packaging to the raw material. Bootlegs consist of either unreleased studio recordings, live performances or interviews with an unpredictable level of quality; the concept of releasing unauthorised performances had been established before the 20th century, but reached new levels of popularity with Bob Dylan's Great White Wonder, a compilation of studio outtakes and demos released in 1969 using low-priority pressing plants. The following year, the Rolling Stones' Live'r Than You'll Ever Be, an audience recording of a late 1969 show, received a positive review in Rolling Stone. Subsequent bootlegs became more sophisticated in packaging the Trademark of Quality label with William Stout's cover artwork.
Compact disc bootlegs first appeared in the 1980s, internet distribution became popular in the 1990s. Changing technologies have affected the recording and varying profitability of the underground industry; the copyrights for the song and the right to authorise recordings reside with the artist, according to several international copyright treaties. The recording and sale of bootlegs continues to thrive, however as artists and record companies attempt to provide released alternatives to satisfy the demand; the word "bootleg" originates from the practice of smuggling illicit items in the legs of tall boots the smuggling of alcohol during the American Prohibition era. The word, over time, has come to refer to any illicit product; this term has become an umbrella term for illicit, unofficial, or unlicensed recordings, including vinyl LPs, silver CDs, or any other commercially sold media or material. The alternate term ROIO or VOI arose among Pink Floyd collectors, to clarify the recording source and copyright status was hard to determine.
Although unofficial and unlicensed recordings had existed before the 1960s, the first rock bootlegs came in plain sleeves with the title rubber stamped on it. However, they developed into more sophisticated packaging, in order to distinguish the manufacturer from inferior competitors. With today's packaging and desktop publishing technology the layman can create "official" looking CDs. With the advent of the cassette and CD-R, some bootlegs are traded with no attempt to be manufactured professionally; this is more evident with the ability to share bootlegs via the Internet. Bootlegs should not be confused with counterfeit or unlicensed recordings, which are unauthorised duplicates of released recordings attempting to resemble the official product as close as possible; some record companies have considered that any record issued outside of their control, for which they do not receive payment, to be a counterfeit, which includes bootlegs. However, some bootleggers are keen to stress that the markets for bootleg and counterfeit recordings are different, a typical consumer for a bootleg will have bought most or all of that artist's official releases anyway.
The most common type is the live bootleg, or audience recording, created with sound recording equipment smuggled into a live concert. Many artists and live venues prohibit this form of recording, but from the 1970s onwards the increased availability of portable technology made such bootlegging easier, the general quality of these recordings has improved over time as consumer equipment becomes sophisticated. A number of bootlegs originated with FM radio broadcasts of live or recorded live performances. Other bootlegs may be soundboard recordings taken directly from a multi-track mixing console used to feed the public address system at a live performance. Artists may record their own shows for private review, but engineers may surreptitiously take a copy of this, which ends up being shared; as a soundboard recording is intended to supplement the natural acoustics of a gig, a bootleg may have an inappropriate mix of instruments, unless the gig is so large that everything needs to be amplified and sent to the desk.
Some bootlegs consist of private or professional studio recordings distributed without the artist's involvement, including demos, works-in-progress or discarded material. These might be made from private recordings not meant to be shared, or from master recordings stolen or copied from an artist's home, a recording studio or the offices of a record label, or they may be copied from promotional material issued to music publishers or radio stations, but not for commercial release. A theme of early rock bootlegs was to copy deleted records, such as old singles and B-sides, onto a single LP, as a cheaper alternative to obtaining all the original recordings. Speaking, these were unlicensed recordings, but because the work required to clear all the copyrights and publishing of every track for an official release was considered to be prohibitively expensive, the bootlegs became popular; some bootlegs, did lead to official releases. The Who's Zoo bootleg, collecting early singles of The Who, inspired the official album Odds And Sods, which beat the bootleggers by issuing unreleased material, while various compilations of mid-1960s bands inspired the Nuggets series of albums.
According to enthusiast and author Clinton Heylin, the concept of a bootleg record can be traced back to
Appropriation in art is the use of pre-existing objects or images with little or no transformation applied to them. The use of appropriation has played a significant role in the history of the arts. In the visual arts, to appropriate means to properly adopt, recycle or sample aspects of human-made visual culture. Notable in this respect are the Readymades of Marcel Duchamp. Inherent in our understanding of appropriation is the concept that the new work recontextualizes whatever it borrows to create the new work. In most cases the original'thing' remains accessible as the original, without change. Appropriation has been defined as "the taking over, into a work of art, of a real object or an existing work of art." The Tate Gallery traces the practise back to Cubism and Dadaism, but continuing into 1940s Surrealism and 1950s Pop art. It returned to prominence in the 1980s with the Neo-Geo artists. In the early twentieth century Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque appropriated objects from a non-art context into their work.
In 1912, Picasso pasted a piece of oil cloth onto the canvas. Subsequent compositions, such as Guitar, Newspaper and Bottle in which Picasso used newspaper clippings to create forms, became categorized as synthetic cubism; the two artists incorporated aspects of the "real world" into their canvases, opening up discussion of signification and artistic representation. Marcel Duchamp is credited with introducing the concept of the ready-made, in which "industrially produced utilitarian objects...achieve the status of art through the process of selection and presentation." Duchamp explored this notion as early as 1913 when he mounted a stool with a bicycle wheel and again in 1915 when he purchased a snow shovel and humorously inscribed it “in advance of the broken arm, Marcel Duchamp.” In 1917, Duchamp formally submitted a readymade into the Society of Independent Artists exhibition under the pseudonym, R. Mutt. Entitled Fountain, it consisted of a porcelain urinal, propped atop a pedestal and signed "R. Mutt 1917".
The work posed a direct challenge to traditional perceptions of fine art, ownership and plagiarism, was subsequently rejected by the exhibition committee. Duchamp publicly defended Fountain, claiming "whether Mr. Mutt with his own hands made the fountain or not has no importance, he CHOSE it. He took an ordinary article of life, placed it so that its useful significance disappeared under the new title and point of view—and created a new thought for that object."The Dada movement continued with the appropriation of everyday objects. Dada works featured the rejection of the prevailing standards of art. Kurt Schwitters, who produced art at the same time as the Dadaists, shows a similar sense of the bizarre in his "merz" works, he constructed these from found objects, they took the form of large constructions that generations would call installations. The Surrealists, coming after the Dada movement incorporated the use of'found objects' such as Méret Oppenheim's Object; these objects took on new meaning when combined with other unsettling objects.
In 1938 Joseph Cornell produced what might be considered the first work of film appropriation in his randomly cut and reconstructed film Rose Hobart. In the 1950s Robert Rauschenberg used what he dubbed "combines" combining readymade objects such as tires or beds, silk-screens and photography. Jasper Johns, working at the same time as Rauschenberg, incorporated found objects into his work; the Fluxus art movement utilised appropriation: its members blended different artistic disciplines including visual art and literature. Throughout the 1960s and 1970s they staged "action" events and produced sculptural works featuring unconventional materials. Along with artists such as Claes Oldenburg and Andy Warhol appropriated images from commercial art and popular culture as well as the techniques of these industries. Called "pop artists", they saw mass popular culture as the main vernacular culture, shared by all irrespective of education; these artists engaged with the ephemera produced from this mass-produced culture, embracing expendability and distancing themselves from the evidence of an artist's hand.
In 1958 Bruce Conner produced the influential A Movie. In 1958 Raphael Montanez Ortiz produced Indian Film, a seminal appropriation film work. In the late 1970s Dara Birnbaum was working with appropriation to produce feminist works of art. In 1978-79 she produced one of the first video appropriations. Technology/Transformation: Wonder Woman utilised video clips from the Wonder Woman television series; the term appropriation art was in common use in the 1980s with artists such as Sherrie Levine, who addressed the act of appropriating itself as a theme in art. Levine quotes entire works in her own work, for example photographing photographs of Walker Evans. Challenging ideas of originality, drawing attention to relations between power and creativity, consumerism and commodity value, the social sources and uses of art, Levine plays with the theme of "almost same". Elaine Sturtevant, on the other hand and exhibited perfect replicas of famous works, she replicated Andy Warhol's Flowers in 1965 at the Bianchini Gallery in New York.
She trained to reproduce the artist's own technique—to the extent that when Warhol was questioned on his technique, he once answered "I don't know. Ask Elaine."During the 1970s and 1980s Richard Prince re-photographed advertisements such as for Marlboro cigarettes or pho
Musical quotation is the practice of directly quoting another work in a new composition. The quotation may be from a different composer's work. Sometimes the quotation is done for the purposes of characterization, as in Puccini's use of The Star-Spangled Banner in reference to the American character Lieutenant Pinkerton in his opera Madama Butterfly, or in Tchaikovsky's use of the Russian and French national anthems in the 1812 Overture, which depicted a battle between the Russian and French armies. Sometimes, there is no explicit characterization involved, as in Luciano Berio using brief quotes from Gustav Mahler, Claude Debussy, Maurice Ravel and others in his Sinfonia. Musical quotation is to be distinguished from variation, where a composer takes a theme and writes variations on it. In that case, the origin of the theme is acknowledged in the title. In the case of quotations, however, an explicit acknowledgment does not appear in the score; some exceptions are found in Robert Schumann's Carnaval: in the section "Florestan" he quotes a theme from his earlier work Papillons, Op. 2, the inscription "" is written underneath the notes in the final section, he quotes another theme first used in Papillons, the traditional Grossvater Tanz, but this time the inscription is "Thème du XVIIème siècle".
Examples of musical quotations in classical music include: Arnold Bax quoted a theme from Richard Wagner's opera Tristan und Isolde in his 1919 symphonic poem Tintagel Alban Berg quoted Johann Sebastian Bach's setting of the chorale "Es ist genug", the closing chorale of Bach's cantata O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort, BWV 60, with variations in the final movement of his Violin Concerto, subtitled "To the memory of an Angel" in memory of Manon Gropius who died at age 17. In the fourth movement of his Lyric Suite for string quartet, Berg quoted a phrase from the third movement of Alexander Zemlinsky's Lyric Symphony that set the words "Du bist mein eigen, mein eigen". Georges Bizet used a song "El Arreglito" by Sebastián Iradier as the basis for the "Habanera" in his opera Carmen, believing it to be an anonymous folk song; when he discovered its true author, who had died only ten years earlier, he made an acknowledgment in the vocal score. Johannes Brahms quotes Gaudeamus igitur and other popular university songs in his Academic Festival Overture.
Benjamin Britten quoted many other works in his opera Albert Herring Frédéric Chopin quoted the tenor aria "Vieni fra queste braccia" from Rossini's opera La gazza ladra in his Polonaise in B-flat minor, "Adieu a Guillaume Kolberg", Op. posth. Claude Debussy quoted the opening of Tristan und Isolde disparagingly in the Golliwogg's Cakewalk from his Children's Corner suite for piano Sir Edward Elgar quoted The First Nowell and some of his own earlier music in The Starlight Express Manuel de Falla quoted the opening of Beethoven's 5th Symphony in his ballet The Three-Cornered Hat. Alberto Franchetti quoted from German popular songs and from the work of several German composers in his opera Germania, in order to lend the score a German color Umberto Giordano quoted the French national anthem La Marseillaise in his opera Andrea Chénier Charles Ives was fond of quoting other composers' themes in his works, they can be found in works such as Three Places in New England and his Piano Sonata No. 2 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart quoted a theme by his deceased mentor Johann Christian Bach in his Piano Concerto No. 12 Giacomo Puccini quoted the U.
S. national anthem The Star-Spangled Banner in his opera Madama Butterfly Sergei Rachmaninoff based his song "Fate" on the first two measures of the opening movement of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony Robert Schumann quoted La Marseillaise in his song The Two Grenadiers and his Carnival Jest from Vienna. Sir Arthur Sullivan did quote actual melodies by Franz Schubert and Johann Sebastian Bach, but he was more adept at deliberately imitating the styles of other composers without quoting their works; the styles of Bellini, Donizetti, Dvořák, Handel, Mendelssohn, Verdi and others can all be found in his works. Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky quoted the Russian national anthem, La Marseillaise, a Russian Orthodox plainchant, some Russian folk songs, in his 1812 Overture, he used folk material in other compositions, such as
Artis Leon Ivey Jr. known by his stage name Coolio, is an American rapper, actor and record producer. Coolio achieved mainstream success in the mid-to-late 1990s with his albums It Takes a Thief, Gangsta's Paradise, My Soul, he is best known for his 1995 Grammy Award-winning hit single "Gangsta's Paradise", as well as other singles "Fantastic Voyage", "1, 2, 3, 4" and "C U When U Get There". He was known for rapping the theme song for the mid-to-late 1990s Nickelodeon series Kenan & Kel. Coolio has since gone on to release albums independently and has become a chef, creating a web series titled Cookin' with Coolio and releasing a cookbook. Ivey rose to fame as a member of the Gangsta rap group WC and the Maad Circle alongside WC and his brother, the late Crazy Toones, he recorded two singles in 1987, titled "Watcha Gonna Do" and "You're Gonna Miss Me". Coolio made connections in the L. A. rap scene, in 1991, ended up joining the group WC and the Maad Circle, led by rapper WC. He was a co-contributor on the group's debut album Ain't a Damn Thang Changed, including on the single "Dress Code".
The album was regionally successful. In 1994, Coolio released his debut solo album It Takes a Thief; the lead single "Fantastic Voyage" received heavy rotation on MTV, peaked at No. 3 on the Billboard Hot 100. "Fantastic Voyage" would become one of the biggest rap singles of the year, the album contained a few other minor hits in "County Line" and "I Remember". It Takes; the album received praise for bringing a humorous and lighthearted perspective to violent and profane themes of typical gangsta rap. In 1995, Coolio made a song featuring R&B singer LV for the movie Dangerous Minds, titled "Gangsta's Paradise", it would become one of the most successful rap songs of all time, reaching No. 1 on the Billboard Hot 100 for 3 weeks. It was the No. 1 single of 1995 for all genres, was a global hit reaching No. 1 in the United States, United Kingdom, France, Italy, Austria, Norway, Switzerland and New Zealand. The song created a controversy when Coolio claimed that parody artist "Weird Al" Yankovic had not asked for permission to make his parody of "Gangsta's Paradise", titled "Amish Paradise".
At the 1996 Grammy Awards, the song won Coolio a Grammy for Best Rap Solo Performance. "Gangsta's Paradise" was not meant to be included on one of Coolio's studio albums, but its success led to Coolio not only putting it on his next album but making it the title track. The title track sampled the chorus and music of the song "Pastime Paradise" by Stevie Wonder, recorded nearly 20 years earlier on Stevie Wonder's album Songs in the Key of Life; the album Gangsta's Paradise was released in 1995 and was certified 2X Platinum by the RIAA. The album contained two other major hits in "1, 2, 3, 4" and "Too Hot" with J. T. Taylor of Kool & the Gang doing the chorus. Despite no longer being an official member of the group, Coolio made an appearance on the second WC and the Maad Circle album Curb Servin', on the song "In a Twist". In 1996, Coolio had another top 40 hit with the song "It's All the Way Live" from the soundtrack to the movie Eddie, he was featured on the song "Hit'em High" from the soundtrack to the movie Space Jam with B-Real, Method Man, LL Cool J, Busta Rhymes.
In 2014, the band Falling in Reverse did a cover of "Gangster's Paradise" for "Punk Goes 90's", with Coolio making a cameo in the music video. In 1996, Coolio appeared on the Red Hot Organization's compilation CD America is Dying Slowly, alongside Biz Markie, Wu-Tang Clan, Fat Joe, among many other prominent hip-hop artists; the CD, meant to raise awareness of the AIDS epidemic among African American men, was heralded as "a masterpiece" by The Source magazine. That same year, he recorded the theme song and appeared in the opening sequence of the Nickelodeon TV series Kenan & Kel which ran for four seasons. After the success of Gangsta's Paradise, Coolio's next album was expected to be another hit, his third solo album titled My Soul, came out in 1997. Although it contained the major hit "C U When U Get There" and the album went platinum, it failed to reach the success of his previous two albums. Coolio was dropped from Tommy Boy Records and his albums since 2001's Coolio.com, 2003's El Cool Magnifico, 2006's The Return of the Gangsta, 2008's Steal Hear, have not charted on any Billboard chart.
He did have a minor hit in the UK in 2006 with "Gangsta Walk", which peaked at No. 67 on the UK pop chart. Both of his last albums were produced by Vanni Giorgilli from Subside Records. While touring with hip hop duo Insane Clown Posse, Coolio received a tattoo as a homage to the group's fanbase, reading "Jugalo Cool", he stated. Coolio has performed at the Gathering of the Juggalos. Coolio was featured on an international collaboration track called'Fuck the DJ' by UK rapper Blacklisted MC featuring Bizarre of D12, Adil Omar and Uzimon the song was premiered on music website Noisey from Vice in October 2014. In 2004, Coolio appeared as a contestant on Comeback - Die große Chance, a German talent show on which artists were looking for a comeback. Coolio placed third, after Benjamin Boyce. In 2009, Coolio appeared as a housemate on Celebrity Big Brother, he went to appear on Ultimate Big Brother in 2010, where he decided it was best to leave the house after numerous confrontations with Nadia Almada and others in the house
In the field of photographic imaging, a photographic mosaic known under the term Photomosaic, a portmanteau of photo and mosaic, is a picture, divided into tiled sections, each of, replaced with another photograph that matches the target photo. When viewed at low magnifications, the individual pixels appear as the primary image, while close examination reveals that the image is in fact made up of many hundreds or thousands of smaller images. Most of the time they are a computer-created type of montage. There are two kinds of mosaic, depending on. In the simpler kind, each part of the target image is averaged down to a single color; each of the library images is reduced to a single color. Each part of the target image is replaced with one from the library where these colors are as similar as possible. In effect, the target image is reduced in resolution, each of the resulting pixels is replaced with an image whose average color matches that pixel. In the more advanced kind of photographic mosaic, the target image is not downsampled, the matching is done by comparing each pixel in the rectangle to the corresponding pixel from each library image.
The rectangle in the target is replaced with the library image that minimizes the total difference. This requires much more computation than the simple kind, but the results can be much better since the pixel-by-pixel matching can preserve the resolution of the target image; the term photomosaic referred to compound photographs created by stitching together a series of adjacent pictures of a scene. Space scientists have been assembling mosaics of this kind since at least as early as the Soviet Union space satellite missions to the moon in the late 1950s; the name photomosaic and an implementation concept were trademarked by Robert Silvers' Runaway Technology, Inc. 1993 Joseph Francis, working for R/Greenberg Associates in Manhattan, is believed to be the inventor of the modern-day computer-generated colour image versions. His Live from Bell Labs poster created in 1993 used computer-themed tile photographs to create a mosaic of a face, he went on to create a mosaic for Animation Magazine in 1993, repeated in Wired Magazine.
Francis has said on his "History of Photo Mosaics" webpage that his interest in developing these techniques further was in part stimulated by the work of artist Chuck Close. 1994 Dave McKean creates an image for DC Comics, a mosaic of a face made from photos of faces, although this is believed to be created manually using Photoshop.1994 Adam Finkelstein and Sandy Farrier create a mosaic of John F. Kennedy from parts of Marilyn Monroe pictures; the result was displayed in the Xerox PARC Algorithmic Art Show in 1994. 1994 Benetton: AIDS - Faces mosaic. Over one thousand young peoples' portraits from all over the word computer-processed spell out the word AIDS.1995 The Gioconda Sapiens, a face with ten thousand faces, was presented to the public in April 1995. This was the first large photographic mosaic, using photographs of 10,062 people from 110 countries to make the Mona Lisa. 1995 Adam Finkelstein creates a mosaic of the oil painting American Gothic from images collected from the Web in early 1995.
1995 Robert Silvers creates an algorithm for generating Photomosaics programmatically and goes on to trademark the term Photomosaic and patent his process for creation of Photomosaics in 1997. There is debate over whether Photomosaics are mere technique; the making of a photomosaic is sometimes parallelled and compared to forms of artistic appropriation, like literary assemblage. Artists such as David Hockney, Christopher Kates and Pep Ventosa have pioneered their own photographic mosaic techniques where multiple photographs are taken of a scene and pieced together again to create a cohesive image. Robert Silvers, a Master's student at MIT, filed for a trademark on the term Photomosaic on September 3, 1996; this trademark was registered on August 12, 2003. Silvers applied for a U. S. patent on the production of Photomosaics on January 2, 1997, granted as US 6137498 in October 2000 and has been assigned to Runaway Technology, Inc. Patent applications in other countries were filed, patents granted include EP 0852363, JP 10269353, CA 2226059, AU 723815B.
He is quoted as saying: "By being granted this patent in the United States and other countries, we can protect our proprietary innovations and continue to make unique artwork." In September 2008, the Public Patent Foundation filed a formal request with the United States Patent and Trademark Office to review certain claims in the US 6137498 on photomosaics. The request was granted and a reexamination proceeding ensued. On August 31, 2010, the USPTO issued a Reexamination Certificate confirming the patentability of all claims in the patent which were amended to refer to shape matching. There are a number of other commercial companies. Since there has been no litigation of these patents, these companies must therefore either use processes that do not infringe on the particular claimed process, have licenses under the patents, or are infringing those patents but Runaway Technology has chosen not to bring infringement proceedings. Silvers' patent may be regarded as a software patent, a subject over which there is a great deal of debate.
For example, Article 52 EPC states that "programs for computers as such" are not regarded as patentable inventions. Current practice relating to computer-imple
Replicas of Michelangelo's Pietà
This is a list of replicas of Michelangelo's Pietà. St. Mary's Cathedral, Tokyo, Japan St. Joseph's Catholic Church, Kerala, India St. John's Cathedral, South Korea Minor Basilica of the Immaculate Conception Manila Metropolitan Cathedral, Philippines Our Lady of Remedies Parish Malate, Philippines Our Lady of Atonement Cathedral, Baguio City, Philippines Loyola Memorial Park Parañaque City, Philippines Our Lady of Sorrows Parish, Pasay City, Philippines La Verna, Bandar Lampung, Indonesia Cathedral of the Good Shepherd, Singapore St Laurensius, Alam Sutera, Tangerang Selatan - Banten, Indonesia St Mary's Cathedral, Australia R. K. kerk Sint Cyriacus en Franciscus in Hoorn, Netherlands H. H. Simon en Judaskerk in Lattrop, Netherlands Church of Our Lady of Sorrows, Poznań, Poland – this copy was used as a model in reconstruction of original after damage in 1972 The Slater Memorial Museum, Norwich Free Academy, Norwich, CT. Full-sized cast-plaster copy of the original sculpture. Basilica of Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré Quebec City, Canada Soumaya Museum, Mexico City, Mexico Cathedral of Our Lady of Refuge, Mexico Sacred Heart of Jesus Catholic Church], Anniston Alabama Cathedral of St. Andrew, Little Rock, Arkansas Cathedral of Christ the Light, California Hotel Mission De Oro, Santa Nella, California Mother of Christ Catholic Church, Florida Our Lady of Sorrows Basilica, Illinois – carved in Pietrasanta Italy by Spartaco Palla.
Alexander Memorial Park Cemetery, Indiana. The full-sized marble statue is located inside The Chapel Of Remembrance mausoleum. St. Patrick's Catholic Church, Iowa Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, Kansas St. Pius X Catholic Church, Louisiana. 2014 Arte Divine-Vatican Conservatory Foundation, No. 39 of 100, Medium - Cast Marble, Life Size. Donated by the Stuller Family. St. Bernard's Parish, Massachusetts Holy Family Catholic Church in Saginaw, Michigan St. Mary's Parish, Spring Lake, Michigan Cathedral of Saint Paul, National Shrine of the Apostle Paul, Saint Paul, Minnesota Cathedral Basilica of Saint Louis, Missouri Our Mother of Sorrows Cemetery, Reno Nevada; the statue is located at the main entrance to the cemetery St. Thomas Aquinas Cathedral, Nevada St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York City Queens Museum, New York Wilhelm's Portland Memorial Funeral Home, Oregon The Church of Saint Joseph, Jim Thorpe, Pennsylvania St. Alexander Roman Catholic Church, Rhode Island Hamilton Memorial Gardens, Chapel of Devotion, Tennessee, United States St. Anne's Catholic Church, Texas St. Jude Catholic Church, Texas Socorro Mission - La Purisima Catholic Church, Texas Christ United Methodist Church, Salt Lake City, Utah St. Mary of the Lakes Parish, Wisconsin Italian Community Center of Milwaukee, Wisconsin Mission San Buenaventura, California.
2018 Arte Divine-Vatican Conservatory Foundation, No. 73/100, Medium-Cast Marble, Life Size. Dixie State University’s Dolores Dore Eccles Fine Arts Center, St. George, Utah. #14/100 The Metropolitan Cathedral of Brasília, Brazil. The Church of Nossa Senhora da Conceição, Santa Catarina, Brazil; the Church of São Pelegrino, Caxias do Sul, Brazil The Church of Santiago Apostol Lampa, Peru Entrance of Cemetery One, Valparaíso, Chile Media related to replicas of Michelangelo's Pietà at Wikimedia Commons
In music, sampling is the reuse of a portion or sample of a sound recording in another recording. Samples may comprise rhythm, speech, or other sounds, they are integrated using hardware or software such as digital audio workstations. A process similar to sampling originated in the 1940s with musique concrète, experimental music created by splicing and looping tape; the term sampling was coined by in the late 1970s by the creators of the Fairlight CMI, an influential early sampler that became a staple of 1980s pop music. The 1988 release of the first Akai MPC, an affordable sampler with an intuitive interface, made sampling accessible to a wider audience. Sampling is a foundation of hip hop music, with producers sampling funk and soul records drum breaks, which could be rapped over. Musicians have created albums assembled from samples, such as DJ Shadow's 1996 album Endtroducing; the practice has influenced all genres of music and is important to electronic music, hip hop and pop. Sampling without permission can infringe copyright.
The process of acquiring permission for a sample is known as clearance, which can be a complex and costly process. Landmark legal cases, such as Grand Upright Music, Ltd. v. Warner Bros. Records Inc in 1991, changed how samples are used; as the court ruled that unlicensed sampling constitutes copyright infringement, samples from well known sources are now prohibitively expensive. In the 1940s, Pierre Schaeffer developed musique concrète, an experimental form of music created by recording sounds to tape, splicing them, manipulating them to create sound collages, he created pieces using recordings of sounds including the human body and kitchen utensils. The method involved the creation of tape loops, splicing lengths of tape end to end, by which a sound could be played indefinitely. Schaeffer developed a tape recorder, the Phonogene, which played loops at twelve different pitches triggered by a keyboard. Composers including John Cage, Edgar Varèse, Karheinz Stockhausen and Iannis Xenakis experimented with musique concrète, Bebe and Louis Barron used it to create the first electronic film soundtrack, for the 1956 science fiction film Forbidden Planet.
It was brought to a mainstream audience by the BBC Radiophonic Workshop, which used these early sampling techniques to produce soundtracks for shows including Doctor Who. In the 1960s, Jamaican dub reggae producers such as King Tubby and Lee "Scratch" Perry began using pre-recorded samples of reggae rhythms to produce riddim tracks, which were deejayed over. Jamaican immigrants introduced dub sampling techniques to American hip hop music in the 1970s; the term sampling was coined by in the late 1970s by Kim Ryrie and Peter Vogel to describe a feature of their Fairlight CMI synthesizer. Designers of early samplers used the term to describe the technical process of the instruments, rather than to describe how users would use the feature. While developing the Fairlight, Vogel sampled around a second of a piano piece from a radio broadcast, discovered that he could imitate a real piano by playing the sample back at different pitches, he recalled in 2005: It sounded remarkably like a piano, a real piano.
This had never been done before... By today's standards it was a pretty awful piano sound, but at the time it was a million times more like a piano than anything any synthesiser had churned out. So I realised that we didn't have to bother with all the synthesis stuff. Just take the sounds, whack them in the memory and away you go. Compared to samplers, the Fairlight offered limited control over samples, it allowed control over pitch and envelope, could only record a few seconds of sound. However, its ability to sample and play back acoustic sounds became its most popular feature. Though the concept of reusing recordings in larger recordings was not new, the Fairlight's built-in sequencer and design made the process simple. According to the Guardian, the Fairlight was the "first world-changing sampler". Though it was it was unaffordable for most hobbyists, early users included Kate Bush, Peter Gabriel, Thomas Dolby, Duran Duran, Herbie Hancock, Todd Rundgren and Ebn Ozn. An early pulse-code modulation digital sampler was Toshiba's LMD-649, created in 1981 by engineer Kenji Murata for Japanese electronic music band Yellow Magic Orchestra, who used it for extensive sampling and looping in their 1981 album Technodelic.
The LMD-649 played and recorded PCM samples at 12-bit audio depth and 50 kHz sampling rate, stored in 128 KB of dynamic RAM. The success of the Fairlight inspired competitors, improving the technology and driving down prices dramatically. Early competitors included the E-mu Emulator and the Akai S950. Drum machines such as the Oberheim DMX and Linn LM-1 began incorporating samples of drum kits rather than generating sounds from circuits; the designers of early samplers anticipated that users would sample short sounds, such as drum hits or individual notes, to use as "building blocks" for compositions. However and producers began sampling longer passages of music. In the words of Greg Milner, author of Perfecting Sound Forever, "They didn't just want the sound of John Bonham's kick drum, they wanted to loop and repeat the whole of'When the Levee Breaks'." Roger Linn, designer of the LM-1 and MPC, said: "It was a pleasant surprise. After sixty years of recording, there are so many. Why reinvent the wheel?"In response to demand, samplers such as E-mu's SP-1200 were developed to allow users to store longer samples.
In 1988, Akai released the first MPC sampler, which allowed artists to assign samples to separate pads and trigger them independently to playing a keyboard or drum kit. It h