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In descriptive statistics, the interquartile range called the midspread, middle 50%, or H‑spread, is a measure of statistical dispersion, being equal to the difference between 75th and 25th percentiles, or between upper and lower quartiles, IQR = Q3 − Q1. In other words, the IQR is the first quartile subtracted from the third quartile, it is a trimmed estimator, defined as the 25% trimmed range, is a used robust measure of scale. The IQR is a measure of variability, based on dividing a data set into quartiles. Quartiles divide a rank-ordered data set into four equal parts; the values that separate parts are called the first and third quartiles. Unlike total range, the interquartile range has a breakdown point of 25%, is thus preferred to the total range; the IQR is used to build simple graphical representations of a probability distribution. The IQR is used in businesses as a marker for their income rates. For a symmetric distribution, half the IQR equals the median absolute deviation; the median is the corresponding measure of central tendency.

The IQR can be used to identify outliers. The quartile deviation or semi-interquartile range is defined as half the IQR; the IQR of a set of values is calculated as the difference between the upper and lower quartiles, Q3 and Q1. Each quartile is a median calculated. Given an 2n or odd 2n+1 number of values first quartile Q1 = median of the n smallest values third quartile Q3 = median of the n largest valuesThe second quartile Q2 is the same as the ordinary median; the following table has 13 rows, follows the rules for the odd number of entries. For the data in this table the interquartile range is IQR = Q3 − Q1 = 119 - 31 = 88. +−−−−−+−+ * |−−−−−−−−−−−| | |−−−−−−−−−−−| +−−−−−+−+ +−−−+−−−+−−−+−−−+−−−+−−−+−−−+−−−+−−−+−−−+−−−+−−−+ number line 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 For the data set in this box plot: lower quartile Q1 = 7 median Q2 = 8.5 upper quartile Q3 = 9 interquartile range, IQR = Q3 - Q1 = 2 lower 1.5*IQR whisker = Q1 - 1.5 * IQR = 7 - 3 = 4. Upper 1.5*IQR whisker = Q3 + 1.5 * IQR = 9 + 3 = 12.

This means. The interquartile range of a continuous distribution can be calculated by integrating the probability density function; the lower quartile, Q1, is a number such that integral of the PDF from -∞ to Q1 equals 0.25, while the upper quartile, Q3, is such a number that the integral from -∞ to Q3 equals 0.75. The interquartile range and median of some common distributions are shown below The IQR, standard deviation of a population P can be used in a simple test of whether or not P is distributed, or Gaussian. If P is distributed the standard score of the first quartile, z1, is −0.67, the standard score of the third quartile, z3, is +0.67. Given mean = X and standard deviation = σ for P, if P is distributed, the first quartile Q 1 = + X and the third quartile Q 3 = + X If the actual values of the first or third quartiles differ from the calculated values, P is not distributed. However, a normal distribution can be trivially perturbed to maintain its Q1 and Q2 std. scores at 0.67 and −0.67 and not be distributed.

A better test of normality, such as Q-Q plot would be indicated here. The interquartile range is used to find outliers in data. Outliers here are defined as observations that fall below Q1 − 1.5 IQR or above Q3 + 1.5 IQR. In a boxplot, the highest and lowest occurring value within this limit are indicated by whiskers of the box and any outliers as individual points. Interdecile range Midhinge Robust measures of scale Media related to Interquartile range at Wikimedia Commons

Christopher DiDomenico is a Canadian professional ice hockey forward for HC Fribourg-Gottéron of the National League. DiDomenico was selected by the Toronto Maple Leafs in the sixth round of the 2007 NHL Entry Draft and has sporadically played in the National Hockey League with the Ottawa Senators, he is known for his inability to control his nerves. Prior to turning professional, DiDomenico played major junior hockey in the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League for the Saint John Sea Dogs and the Drummondville Voltigeurs. Nearing the conclusion of the 2008–09 season with the Voltigeurs, DiDomenico was signed to a three-year entry-level contract with his draft team, the Toronto Maple Leafs on March 14, 2009. On June 30, 2010, the Maple Leafs traded DiDomenico, along with Viktor Stålberg and Philippe Paradis, to the Chicago Blackhawks in exchange for Kris Versteeg and Bill Sweatt. After reporting to the Blackhawks 2010 training camp, DiDomenico made his professional debut in the 2010–11 season with American Hockey League affiliate, the Rockford IceHogs.

DiDomenico played two years within the Blackhawks' system, toiling between the AHL and East Coast Hockey League before opting to leave as a restricted free agent in the offseason to join Asiago HC of the Italian Serie A league in 2012. After two years with Asiago, DiDomenico left Italy but remained in Europe after agreeing to join Swiss club, SCL Tigers of the National League B for their post-season campaign on February 12, 2012. Helping the Tigers return to the top flight National League A, in his fourth season with the Tigers in 2016–17, DiDomenico was approached with NHL interest. While leading the Tigers in scoring with 38 points in 48 games, DiDomenico was reluctantly released from his contract with SCL after agreeing to a two-year deal to pursue his NHL ambitions with the Ottawa Senators under former junior coach Guy Boucher on February 27, 2017. In signing with the Senators mid-season, DiDomenico was subject to waivers before joining the club. DiDomenico cleared waivers on February 28, 2017, joined the Senators.

DiDomenico made his NHL debut on March 2017 against the Arizona Coyotes. In the 2017–18 season, DiDomenico began the year with the Senators AHL affiliate, the Belleville Senators. After 4 games he was recalled and scored his first NHL goal with Ottawa on October 27, 2017, against the New Jersey Devils on a late game tying goal. On November 23, 2017, after appearing in 12 games DiDomenico was waived by the Senators, was claimed by the Tampa Bay Lightning on November 24, he was assigned on a conditioning loan to the Lightning's AHL affiliate, the Syracuse Crunch. DiDomenico appeared in 3 games for the scoring 1 goal. On December 2, 2017, DiDomenico was claimed off waivers to return to the Senators organization. On February 15, 2018, DiDomenico again left the Senators organization as he was traded to the Chicago Blackhawks in exchange for Ville Pokka, he was assigned to the Blackhawks AHL affiliate, the Rockford IceHogs, where he transitioned as the club's top offensive player by posting 23 points in 22 games to end the regular season.

At the conclusion of the season, DiDomenico as an impending free agent, opted to recommence his European career in returning to former Swiss club, SCL Tigers, on an optional three-year contract on June 13, 2018. During the 2019–20 season, while in his sixth with the SCL Tigers, on January 15, 2020, DiDomenico agreed to a two-year contract commencing from the 2020–21 season to join fellow NL club, HC Fribourg-Gottéron. At the conclusion of the regular season and prior to the relegation round, the Tigers released DiDomenico following bad behavior and lack of respect for the team. Biographical information and career statistics from NHL.com, or Eliteprospects.com, or Hockey-Reference.com, or The Internet Hockey Database Chris DiDomenico profile and statistics at TheAHL.com

Charles Bufe, better known as Chaz Bufe, is a contemporary American anarchist author. Bufe writes on the problems faced by the modern anarchist movement, on atheism, music theory and intentional community. Chaz Bufe is principally known as an anarchist publisher and occasional author. From Arizona, he was influenced by the anarchist magazine The Match! Published by Fred Woodworth in Tucson, AZ. In the early 1980s, he moved to the San Francisco Bay Area to enroll in the music department at the University of California, from which he received a master's degree in January 1985, he became a member of the anarchist Bound Together Bookstore Collective in San Francisco. He acted as the East Bay distributor of Processed World, a magazine which claimed to be written by and for "dissident office workers." It described itself as anti-authoritarian, but became controversial for its alleged lack of internal democracy and overreactions to criticism. After failing to persuade Bound Together to ban a publication by Processed World critic Bob Black, Bufe resigned from the collective writing "Listen, Anarchist!" an attack on his political enemies.

Anarchists Brian Kane and Lawrence Jarach replied with their own pamphlet, "Hold Your Tongue, Demagogue." After receiving his degree, Bufe founded See Sharp Press in 1984 and relocated to Tucson, Arizona. Some See Sharp publications are reprints of classical anarchist texts. Others are by Bufe himself music instruction/reference works and atheist titles, including a critique of Alcoholics Anonymous and two pamphlets on ideas about a future anarchist or utopian society. One was "A Future Worth Living: Thoughts on Getting There", which reveals the influence of the German New Age commune ZEGG. Bufe returned to the utopian theme in Design Your Own Utopia, co-authored by "Doctress Neutopia" which consisted of a questionnaire addressed to would-be utopians. Bufe has written several hundred aphorisms under the pseudonym "Robert Tefton" which appear in an anthology he edited, "The Heretics's Handbook of Quotations", its model is The Devil's Dictionary by Ambrose Bierce. Bufe has released The Devil's Dictionaries consisting of quotations by Bierce and himself.

The latter book has been referenced by IslamOnline, recommended by Cape Cod Times and he has been called "the Ambrose Bierce of our time" from AlterNet. Bufe is a musician, author of An Understandable Guide to Music Theory, now in its third edition, he translated the only English-language collection of the writings of Ricardo Flores Magón – Flores Magón Dreams of Freedom: A Ricardo Flores Magón Reader – and translated the Spanish language book Cuban Anarchism: The History of a Movement by Frank Fernández into English as well as Venezuela: Revolution as Spectacle, by Rafael Uzcategui. Fabbri, Luigi. Bourgeois influences on anarchism. San Francisco: Acrata. OCLC 40358389. Bufe, Charles. Astrology: fraud or superstition?. San Francisco: See Sharp Press. OCLC 22929767. Bufe, Charles. Listen, Anarchist!. Tucson, Arizona: The Match!. OCLC 22807295. Bufe, Charles. Alcoholics Anonymous: Cult or Cure?. See Sharp Press. ISBN 978-1884365126. Bufe, Chaz. An Understandable Guide to Music Theory. San Francisco: See Sharp Press.

ISBN 1-884365-00-0. Bierce, Ambrose; the Devil's Dictionaries. San Francisco: See Sharp Press. ISBN 1-884365-06-X. Haldeman-Julius, E; the Meaning of atheism. Tucson, Arizona: See Sharp Press. OCLC 55749463. Bufe, Charles. A future worth living: thoughts on getting there. Tucson, Arizona: See Sharp Press. OCLC 46823347. Bufe, Charles. 20 reasons to abandon Christianity. Tucson, Arizona: See Sharp Press. OCLC 45056549. Fernandez, Frank. Cuban Anarchism. San Francisco: See Sharp Press. ISBN 1-884365-19-1. Bufe, Charles. Design your own utopia. Tucson, Arizona: See Sharp Press. OCLC 52101028. Bufe, Charles. Anarchism: what it is & what it isn't. Tucson, Arizona: See Sharp Press. OCLC 56972828. Bufe, Charles. You call this freedom?. Tucson, Arizona: See Sharp Press. OCLC 54442735. Magón, Ricardo Flores. Chaz Bufe. Dreams of Freedom: A Ricardo Flores Magón Reader. Stirling: AK Press. ISBN 978-1-904859-24-6. Bufe, Chaz. God's hit list: abominations and death penalties in the Bible. Tucson, Arizona: See Sharp Press. OCLC 70855645. Listen, Anarchist! is an influential 1987 essay by Bufe on the internal dynamics of the American anarchist movement.

In this essay, Bufe launches heavy criticism against anarcho-primitivists, including Fredy Perlman and the Vancouver Five eco-terrorist group, as well as the publications Fifth Estate, The Spark, Open Road. In a section entitled "What Can Be Done?", Bufe advocates minimal use of violence in revolutionary political struggle, condemning the vanguardist "urban guerillas" of insurrectionary anarchism. He criticizes these and other so-called "lifestyle" anarchists in the movement for deliberately alienating mainstream society, falling to victim to dangerous irrationality and mysticism. In his account of "marginalised" anarchists, Bufe criticizes the anti-work tendency in contemporary anarchism, accusing some of its advocates of being parasites of those who do work. In response, Feral Faun wrote an article called "The Bourgeois Roots of Anarcho-Syndicalism" in which he claims that the endorsement of work showed that anarcho-syndicalists "embrace the values essential to capitalism", only objecting to, in charge.

The Summer 2005 issue of Green Anarchy included an "update on workerist moral

Miss Universe Malaysia 2020 will be the 58th edition of the Miss Universe Malaysia pageant. The grand finale will be held on April 2020 at The Majestic Hotel Kuala Lumpur. Shweta Sekhon of Kuala Lumpur will crown her successor at end of the event.the winner will represent Malaysia at the Miss Universe 2020 at a yet-to-be revealed location. The winner will receive a cash prize and sponsored prizes with a combined value of RM 180,000 and a full education scholarship from HELP University. Official 18 Finalists of Miss Universe Malaysia 2020 were selected from national auditions held on 24 and 25 August 2019 in Kuala Lumpur. Color key: The finalists will be featured in an online show, The Next 2020 Miss Universe Malaysia, comprising 18 episodes scheduled to be aired starting January 23, 2020, followed by 10 episodes of their journey leading to the crowning of Miss Universe Malaysia on online lifestyle channel, hurr.tv. The webisodes will be available on the Miss Universe Malaysia Organization YouTube channel and the hurr.tv mobile app.

Contestants who competed/appeared at other international/national beauty pageants: "Miss Universe Malaysia Organization". Miss Universe Malaysia 2020 on Facebook Video on YouTube

Visconti is an Italian manufacturing company of luxury goods, founded in 1988 in Florence by Dante Del Vecchio and Luigi Poli, who were themselves collectors of fountain pens. The company became notable for the use of celluloid in the manufacturing of its pens, adding details in ivory, gold, diamond and acrylic fiber. Visconti's handmade fountain pens has been recognised for their quality and fine craft, having released several collections since the company's inception; the company was founded on October 20, 1988, by Luigi Poli and Dante del Vecchio, two friends that decided to turn their passion for fountain pens into a business. The first collection launched by Visconti was the "Classic", a pen made of celluloid, which would be used for several collections in successive years; the success of this pen encouraged its founders to release a new model, "Urushi", a limited edition of only 100 pieces, made of ebonite and decorated with the Japanese lacquerware technique. During the 1990s, Visconti developed the high vacuum power filler system, the travel inkwell and the double reservoir filling system, which consisted of a double reservoir refilling system, to prevent leakage.

By 2008, the company had 25 employees. In 2009, Visconti reached a deal with Coles of London, whereby Coles became the official distributor of Visconti products in the United States. Together, both companies launched a range of new products, including the Rembrandt Collection, Opera Masters, Homo Sapiens Collection, Divina Royale range, the limited-edition Templari. By 2012, Visconti exported its crafted products to more than 50 countries around the world, with 50,000 pens sold by year. Official website Visit with Visconti and President Dante del Vecchio

"The Cage" is the second episode of the American television drama series The Killing, which aired on April 3, 2011 on AMC in the United States after the pilot episode. The episode was directed by Ed Bianchi. In the episode, police question Rosie Larsen's grieving parents. Rosie's best friend, ex-boyfriend, enter the suspect list, which leads the detectives to new evidence found at the school. A medical examiner prepares Rosie's body, in order for her parents to view her; as Stan silently identifies his daughter's body, Mitch cries. At the police station and Holder interview the Larsens about the case. Mitch, still in shock, speaks of Rosie's broken fingernails, Stan describes Rosie as a quiet, family-oriented girl who broke up with Jasper Ames. Lieutenant Oakes presents a key chain with a bird emblem. Oakes tells Sarah that he needs her for only one more day, asking her to look into the Richmond campaign, adding that campaign car keys were found in the ignition. Sarah urges the Larsens to keep news of Rosie's death to themselves.

Stan asks. Against Sarah's wishes, Holder assures the father. At Richmond's office, Holder asks direct questions in contrast to Sarah's restraint, she requests. If mentioned, the killer would realize. Gwen and Jamie encourage Richmond to issue an immediate statement, linking the Larsen tragedy to his own wife's death to generate voter sympathy. Richmond refuses. Alone with Gwen, he confides that someone in the campaign office tipped off a reporter about the Yitanes endorsement via e-mail, he orders an internal investigation. Holder tells Sarah. Since multiple campaign workers used the vehicle, the keys were left in the ignition for convenience, he questions Sterling, who says she lost track of Rosie at the dance and assumed she was with Jasper. Meanwhile, Jasper brags to Sarah about picking up "some old lady" at a bar on Friday night, he takes out his cell phone, which Sarah confiscates. He tells her that Rosie's relationship was brief. Michael Ames, Jasper's father and declares the interview over. Alone with his son, Michael smacks him in the face.

Back at the station, Holder considers Jasper as the prime suspect, since Jasper could afford to buy Rosie the expensive designer shoes that Rosie wore to the dance. Oakes adds that Jasper was arrested for auto theft. At City Hall, Gwen informs Richmond that nothing suspicious was found in staff e-mails, Jamie reports that no staff members are suspects in Rosie's murder. Yitanes enters. Sarah arrives, takes Richmond aside, promises to make him look good, if he stays quiet until midnight, or to look as though he's obstructing a child-murder investigation, if he doesn't. Richmond agrees tells Yitanes about smoking marijuana in college, she leaves. As they campaign door-to-door, Jamie asks Richmond to tell Yitanes about the Larsen situation, but he considers the issue closed. Richmond secretly meets with Nathan to ask if he investigated Jamie's e-mail accounts. Told no, Richmond orders him to do so. While driving to the Yitanes endorsement, Richmond receives a call from a reporter requesting confirmation about Rosie and the campaign car.

In a girls' bathroom at the high school, Sarah discovers Rosie's name scratched in a mirror with a line of Xs across it. Smoking outside the school, Holder is approached by two girls, he offers them a smoke. After he asks about campus party places, one girl mentions a hideaway known as "The Cage." Holder locates the secret room in an abandoned boarded-off area of the school basement. Back at the station, Lieutenant Oakes gives; the time of death is unclear, however Rosie was alive when the car hit the water because she ripped off her fingernails trying to claw out. Sarah reminds her boss that she's not staying, but arrives at The Cage. Holder states. Sarah surveys the scene, seeing a blood-soaked mattress, a witch's hat like Rosie's, bloody handprints on the wall. In an interview with Mina Hochberg at AMCTV.com, Brent Sexton spoke about the difficulty in portraying Stan Larsen: "Stan's the kind of guy that, once he knows it's his daughter and he has his breakdown and rage at the site where they found her, from that point on he's decided to put his family first.

He's decided to be the rock for his family and suppresses his own grief. So during the morgue scene, yes wants to come out. However, he won't let it happen." Critics paired their reviews with the Pilot episode, nonetheless, gave favorable reviews. Teresa L. at TV Fanatic rated the episodes 4.5 out of 5 stars and stated, "This was a great, but long, start to the season. It's an intriguing premise to focus a crime series around a single crime and the effects of that crime and I think it will make for a entertaining show." The A. V. Club's Meredith Blake rated the first two episodes an A– and commented, "At this early stage, it's hard to know whether The Killing will live up to AMC's aspirations and become The Next Great American Television Show, with a mystery this engrossing, who cares?"Coupled with the Pilot episode, "The Cage" drew 2.7 million viewers and a 2 househol