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Interregnum (England)

The Interregnum was the period between the execution of Charles I on 30 January 1649 and the arrival of his son Charles II in London on 29 May 1660 which marked the start of the Restoration. During the Interregnum, England was under various forms of republican government; the politics of the period were dominated by the wishes of the Grandees of the New Model Army and their civilian supporters. They encouraged several republican regimes. From 1649 until 1653 executive powers lay with Council of State, while legislative functions were carried out by the Rump Parliament. In 1653 the Grandees, with Oliver Cromwell in the lead, dismissed the Rump, replaced it with a Nominated Assembly made up of 140 nominees, 129 from England and Wales, five from Scotland and six from Ireland, it proved to be as difficult for the executive to work with this parliament as it had with the Rump, so, after sitting for five months, members friendly to the Grandees engendered its dissolution on 12 December 1653. The Instrument of Government was adopted on 15 December 1653 and the pre-eminent Grandee Oliver Cromwell was installed as Lord Protector on the following day.

The Instrument of Government granted executive power to the Lord Protector. Although this post was elective, not hereditary, it was to be held for life, it required the calling of triennial Parliaments, with each sitting for at least five months. In January 1655, Cromwell dissolved the first Protectorate Parliament, ushering in a period of military rule by the Major Generals; the Instrument of Government was replaced in May 1657 by England's second, last, codified constitution, the Humble Petition and Advice. However Oliver Cromwell died the next year and his nominated successor as Lord Protector, his son Richard, proved unable to govern as various political parties strove to gain power; the Protectorate came to an end in May 1659 when the Grandees recalled the Rump Parliament, which authorised a Committee of Safety to replace Richard's Council of State. This ushered in a period of unstable government, which did not come to an end until February 1660 when General George Monck, the English military governor of Scotland, marched to London at the head of his troops, oversaw the restoration of the monarchy under Charles II.

After the Parliamentarian victory in the Civil War, the Puritan views of the majority of Parliament and its supporters began to be imposed on the rest of the country. The Puritans advocated an austere lifestyle and restricted what they saw as the excesses of the previous regime. Most prominently, holidays such as Christmas and Easter were suppressed. Pastimes such as the theatre and gambling were banned. However, some forms of art that were thought to be "virtuous", such as opera, were encouraged; these changes are credited to Oliver Cromwell, though they were introduced by the Commonwealth Parliament. Rabbi Menasseh Ben Israel met Oliver Cromwell in 1655 in order to discuss the admission of Jews into England. Cromwell did not agree to all the rights that Ben Israel requested, but the opening of Jewish synagogues and burial grounds was tolerated under Cromwell's Protectorate; the Jewish faith was still not practised in England, since Cromwell's move had been controversial and many in England were still hostile toward Jews.

Life for Jews in England improved in that they could no longer be prosecuted if caught worshipping, yet discrimination continued. Parliament had, to a large degree, encouraged the radical political groups which emerged when the usual social controls broke down during the English Civil War, it had unwittingly established a new political force when it set up the New Model Army. Not all these groups had their own hopes for the new Commonwealth. Led by John Lilburne, Levellers drew their main support from the Army. In the Agreement of the People, 1649, they asked for a more representative and accountable parliament, to meet every two years, they wanted a more democratic society, although their proposed franchise did not extend to women or to the lowest orders of society. Levellers saw the Rump as little better than the monarchy it had replaced, they showed their displeasure in demonstrations and mutinies. While their numbers did not pose a serious threat to the government, they scared the Rump into action and a Treasons Act was passed against them in 1649.

Led by Gerrard Winstanley, Diggers wanted an more equal society than the Levellers. They advocated a lifestyle that bore many similarities to understandings of communism and anarchism, with communal ownership of land, absolute equality for males and females in law and education, they existed in only small numbers and faced a strong opposition from the Levellers. The breakdown of religious uniformity and incomplete Presbyterian Settlement of 1646 enabled independent churches to flourish; the main sects were Baptists. Despite greater toleration, extreme sects were opposed by the upper classes as they were seen as a threat to social order and property rights. Catholics were excluded from the toleration applied to the other groups. Conservatives were still dominant in local government. In the for

Tadesse Werede Tesfay

Lieutenant General Tadesse Werede Tesfay is a general with the Ethiopian National Defense Force. He was born in a city in Enderta province of Ethiopia, he was the Head of Mission and Force Commander of the United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei from its inception in 2011 until 2013. He was appointed by the United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon to implement the mandate of the UN peacekeeping mission in the region of Abyei in Sudan, an oil-producing region with disputable borders between the governments of Sudan and South Sudan. UNISFA was established by the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1990 of 27 June 2011. Lieutenant General Tadesse Werede Tesfay was appointed to oversee the monitoring and verification of the withdrawal of all armed forces in Abyei. UNISFA website United Nations Press Release announcing appointment "Sudan: UN authorises peacekeepers for Abyei". BBC News website, 27 June 2011

Adra Lighthouse

The Adra Lighthouse is an active lighthouse near Adra in the Spanish province of Almería on the Mediterranean coast in Andulasia. The current lighthouse built in 1986 is the third to have been constructed near to the town of Adra; the first was washed away, the second was not tall enough to be distinguished from the lights of the town, was replaced by the modern tower. The first project to provide a beacon for Adra dates back to 1861, when the engineer Antonio Molina proposed to construct a light based on the screw pile design of Mitchell, similar to that of La Banya Lighthouse near Tarragona, his proposals were rejected, instead a 13-metre-high wooden tower was built to the east of the town, by the old mouth of the River Adra. It became operational in 1883, but the site was undermined by erosion, in 1896 it was destroyed by a storm. A second lighthouse was built nearer the town in 1899. Of similar construction to other 19th century Spanish lights, it had a lantern room on a short 6-metre-high tower attached to the rear of a single storey keeper's house.

The growth of the town, which included the construction of a harbour in 1910 began to cause problems with distinguishing the light from those of the surrounding buildings, which included the 45-metre-high shot tower. The current light was built on a small promontory on the western side of the town in 1986, consists of a 26-metre-high concrete tower, with twin galleries, it has red and white bands. With a focal height of 49 metres above the sea, its light can be seen for 16 nautical miles, has a characteristic of three flashes of white light every ten and a half seconds, it is registered under the international Admiralty number E0088 and has the NGA identifier of 113-4424, is managed and operated by the Almería Port Authority. List of lighthouses in Spain

Paul Jaworski

Paul Jaworski was a Polish-American gangster born in Poland. He immigrated to the United States in 1905. Although born to Catholic parents, when offered the services of a chaplain before his execution Jaworski said: "I preached atheism since the day I quit singing the choir. A man is yellow if he spends his life believing in nothing and comes crawling to the church because he is afraid his death is near." He was the leader of the "Flatheads" gang, who committed the first-ever armored car robbery, on March 11, 1927. The gang stole over $104,000 from an armored vehicle on Bethel Road, Bethel, 7 miles outside of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; the bandits placed 500 pounds of black powder under the roadbed, made off with money, on its way to Coverdale, Pennsylvania for the Pittsburgh Terminal Coal Company. The gang was known for the payroll robbery of The Detroit News business offices in 1928. Jaworski was shot and arrested in Detroit on 13 September 1928, while attempting to escape from the police across Chambers Avenue, after being hunted down to a nearby restaurant.

He was sentenced to death in Pennsylvania on January 2, but received a stay of execution, until a sanity evaluation could be completed. Jaworski was executed by electric chair in Pennsylvania for a separate payroll robbery which resulted in a murder; the execution took place on January 21, 1929. The Flatheads Toni Musulin Kavieff, Paul; the Violent Years: Prohibition and the Detroit Mobs. Barricade Books. ISBN 1-56980-210-6

Chris Beard (basketball)

Christopher Michael Beard is an American basketball coach and the current head coach of the Texas Tech Red Raiders. He coached Little Rock, Angelo State, McMurry. Beard graduated from high school from McCullough High School in The Texas, he was a manager at the University of Texas at Austin under Texas Longhorns coach Tom Penders, graduating in 1995 with a Bachelor of Science degree in Kinesiology. He received a Masters of Education from Abilene Christian University where he served as a graduate assistant in 1998. Under Beard's watch, the Red Raiders have made the deepest. In 2019, the Raiders won a school-record 31 games on the way to the 2019 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Championship Game against the Virginia Cavaliers, he was recognized as the 2019 AP National Coach of the Year, After serving as a student assistant at Texas and a graduate assistant at Incarnate Word and Abilene Christian, Beard was an assistant coach at North Texas 1997–1999. From there, he was hired as head coach at Fort Scott Community College where he coached the team to a 19–12 record and its first winning season in 8 years.

In 2000, he was hired as the head coach at Seminole State College. In his one-year there he went 25–6 and finished ranked 14th in the country. Following that season, he was hired as an assistant and associate head coach at Texas Tech to work under the legendary Bob Knight. During his time at Texas Tech, the Red Raiders made four NCAA Tournament appearances along with a trip to the NIT Final Four. Chris Beard spent 10 years coaching at Texas Tech under Bob Knight and his son Pat Knight citing the influence of the two men as his keys to success. Beard spent one year as head coach for the South Carolina Warriors of the American Basketball Association, where he led the team to a 29–2 record. In 2012, he was hired as head coach at McMurry University in Abilene, Texas where he spent one season. In March 2013, he was hired as the sixth head coach at Angelo State. In two years with the Rams, he went 47–15. On April 8, 2015, Beard was named the head coach of Arkansas–Little Rock. In his first and only season at UALR, the Trojans went 30–5 and won the regular season and Sun Belt tournament titles to clinch an automatic bid to the NCAA Tournament.

Little Rock was awarded a 12 seed and knocked off fifth-seeded Purdue 85–83 in double overtime to advance to the Second Round, where they fell to Iowa State. Beard was named Sun Belt Coach of the Year for his efforts. On March 27, 2016, Beard accepted the head coaching job at UNLV; when the Texas Tech head coaching job was made vacant by Tubby Smith's departure to Memphis, Beard took the Texas Tech job on April 15, 2016. Beard cited his 10 years as an assistant coach at Texas Tech University under Bob Knight and Pat Knight amongst the reasons that he took the job and the proximity to his daughters who live a few hours away from Lubbock. On January 3, 2017, Beard led Texas Tech to upset #7 West Virginia leading the Red Raiders to their first regular-season win over the Mountaineers in program history; the following year he again led Texas Tech to a 72-71 win over #2 WVU. His 2017-18 team was the first Texas Tech team to win at Kansas, snapping a 17-game road losing streak against the Jayhawks.

Beard won the Big 12 Co-Coach of the Year in 2018. On March 23, 2018 Beard coached Texas Tech to its first-ever Elite Eight berth in program history with a 78–65 win over the Purdue Boilermakers. On March 9, 2019 under Beard's leadership Texas Tech won a share of the Big 12 regular season title, Texas Tech's first title in the Big 12 conference and its first conference title since 1996 when the team played in the Southwest Conference. At the conclusion of the 2019 season, Beard earned Big 12 coach of the year honors as he led Texas Tech to a 26-5 regular season record, second only to Tech's 30-1 record in 1995-96. On March 30, 2019 Beard led Texas Tech to the first Final Four appearance in school history with a 75-69 victory over Gonzaga to win the West Regional. On April 6, 2019 Beard led the Red Raiders to a 61-51 victory over Michigan State to earn the school’s first National Championship berth; the Red Raiders would finish runners-up to Virginia in the losing 85-77 in overtime. For his efforts, on April 29, 2019 Beard signed a six-year extension worth more than $4.5 million a season, becoming the third-highest-paid college basketball coach in the country.

Beard has three daughters, Avery and Margo. Texas Tech profile Little Rock profile

Union of Congolese Patriots

The Union of Congolese Patriots is a political and militia group in Ituri, northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, formed towards the end of the Second Congo War. It was founded by Thomas Lubanga in 2001 and was one of six such groups that sprung up in the mineral-rich Ituri region on the border with Uganda in the Ituri conflict; the UPC supported and was composed of the Hema ethnic group. What began as a struggle for control over land and resources, broke out into ethnic warfare as atrocities increased and as arms from Uganda and Rwanda became available, units of the Ugandan army became involved. By February 2003, the UPC was said to have fielded an estimated 15,000 soldiers; the UPC carried out numerous attacks upon civilians and other serious human rights abuses in pursuit of its policies. In August 2002, the UPC took control of the town of Bunia with the help of Ugandan forces, following which it received support from Rwanda. In late 2003, the UPC split into several factions: one led by Kisembo Bahemuka and known as the UPC-Kisembo, another under Thomas Lubanga and known as the UPC-Lubanga, the Parti pour l'unité et la sauvegarde de l'intégrité du Congo - Party for Unity and Safeguarding of the Integrity of Congo, formed by Mandro Panga Kahwa.

The UPC-L was militarily stronger as most of the militia stayed with Lubanga. After the 2004 accords most of the UPC-K merged into PUSIC; the UPC-L was implicated in the deaths of nine Bangladeshi MONUC peacekeepers on 25 March 2005. Lubanga was arrested along with Floribert Ndjabu, leader of the Nationalist and Integrationist Front. In March 2006, Lubanga was arrested under a warrant issued by the International Criminal Court for the alleged war crime of using child soldiers, was flown to the Netherlands. Bosco Ntaganda was named its leader in his absence. Human Rights Watch states that between August 2002 and March 2003, the UPC arrested and tortured over 100 opponents, was responsible for the murder of a Kenyan peacekeeper in January 2004 and the kidnapping of a Moroccan peacekeeper that year. In January 2005, Commander Bosco Ntaganda was offered a position as a general in the national Forces Armées de la République Démocratique du Congo, but had refused the post; the UPC won three National Assembly seats in the 2006 general elections.

The military wing of the party was called the Patriotic Forces for the Liberation of Congo and was under the command of Thomas Lubanga with Bosco Ntaganda as Deputy Chief of the General Staff. Upon Lubanga's arrest, Ntaganda assumed the rank of Commander of the FPLC; the Curse of Gold: Ch III. Methodology, Human Rights Watch, June 2005 D. R. Congo: Army Should Not Appoint War Criminals, 14 January 2005