Volapük is a constructed language, created in 1879 and 1880 by Johann Martin Schleyer, a Roman Catholic priest in Baden, Germany. Schleyer felt. Volapük conventions took place in 1884, 1887 and 1889; the first two conventions used German, the last conference used only Volapük. In 1889, there were an estimated 283 clubs, 25 periodicals in or about Volapük, 316 textbooks in 25 languages. Volapük was displaced in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by Esperanto. Schleyer first published a sketch of Volapük in May 1879 in Sionsharfe, a Catholic poetry magazine of which he was editor; this was followed in 1880 by a full-length book in German. Schleyer himself did not write books on Volapük in other languages. André Cherpillod writes of the third Volapük convention, In August 1889 the third convention was held in Paris. About two hundred people from many countries attended. And, unlike in the first two conventions, people spoke only Volapük. For the first time in the history of mankind, sixteen years before the Boulogne convention, an international convention spoke an international language.
The Dutch cryptographer Auguste Kerckhoffs was for a number of years Director of the Academy of Volapük, introduced the movement to several countries. The French Association for the Propagation of Volapük was authorized on 8 April 1886, with A. Lourdelet as President and a central committee that included the deputy Edgar Raoul-Duval. However, tensions arose between Kerckhoffs and others in the Academy, who wanted reforms made to the language, Schleyer, who insisted on retaining his proprietary rights; this led to schism, with much of the Academy abandoning Schleyer's Volapük in favor of Idiom Neutral and other new constructed language projects. Another reason for the decline of Volapük may have been the rise of Esperanto. In 1887 the first Esperanto book was published. Many Volapük clubs became Esperanto clubs. By 1890 the movement was with violent arguments among the members. Schleyer created a rival academy. Derived languages such as Nal Bino, Bopal, Spelin and Orba were invented and forgotten.
By 1900 there were only 159 members of Volapük clubs recognized by Schleyer. The umlauts, which may have been one of the reasons for the language's eventual decline into obscurity, were the subject of ridicule. For example, the Milwaukee Sentinel published the limerick: In the 1920s, Arie de Jong, with the consent of the leaders of the small remnant of Volapük speakers, made a revision of Volapük, published in 1931; this revision was accepted by the few speakers of the language. De Jong simplified the grammar, eliminating some used verb forms, eliminated some gendered pronouns and gendered verb endings, he rehabilitated the phoneme /r/ and used it to make some morphemes more recognizable. For instance, lömib "rain" became rein. Volapük enjoyed a brief renewal of popularity in the Netherlands and Germany under de Jong's leadership, but was suppressed in countries under Nazi rule and never recovered. Regarding the success of this artificial language, the Spanish scientist Santiago Ramón y Cajal wrote in the first edition of his Tonics of Willingness, in 1898: Nowadays, many scientific papers are published in more than six languages.
To the attempt of restoring Latin or using Esperanto as the universal language of science, wise men have responded by multiplying the number of languages in which scientific works are published. We have to acknowledge that Volapük or Esperanto are one more language to be learnt; this result was predictable because neither the popularized and democratic tendencies of modern knowledge, nor the economic views of authors and editors consent in a different way. However, some years in the third edition of the same book, he added the following footnote to the former assertion: "As it was presumable, nowadays -1920-, the brand new Volapük has been forgotten definitively. We forecast the same for Esperanto." Large Volapük collections are held by the International Esperanto Museum in Austria. In 2000 there were an estimated 20 Volapük speakers in the world. In December 2007 it was reported that the Volapük version of Wikipedia had jumped to 15th place among language editions, with more than 112,000 articles.
A few months earlier there had been only 797 articles. The massive increase in the size of "Vükiped", bringing it ahead of the Esperanto Wikipedia, was due to an enthusiast who had used a computer program to automatically create geographical articles, many on small villages; the motive was to gain visibility for the language. By March 2013 the Esperanto Wikipedia, with a active user community, had risen to 176,792 articles, while the Volapük Wikipedia had at that point 119,091 articles. There has been a continuous Volapük speaker community since Schleyer's time, with an unbroken succession of Cifals; these were: Johann Martin Schleyer 1879–1912 Albert Sleumer 1912–1948 Arie de Jong 1947–1948, 1951–1957 Jakob Sprenger 1948–1950 Johann Schmidt 1950–1977 Johann Krüger 1977–1983 Brian Bishop 1984–2014 Hermann Philipps 2014–present The alphabet is as follows: That is, the vowel letters ä, ö, ü have the pronunciations they
La Esperantisto was the first Esperanto periodical, published from 1889 to 1895. L. L. Zamenhof started it as a way to provide reading material for the then-nascent Esperanto community, its original publisher was Christian Schimdt, president of the Nuremberg International Language Club, the first Esperanto club. It was published by Wilhelm Trompeter, a major financial backer of the early Esperanto movement. L. L. Zamenhof founded La Esperantisto as a way to provide reading material to those who expressed interest in Esperanto after the publication of Unua Libro in 1887 and Dua Libro in 1888. By 1889, the name Esperanto had become the preferred name for the language, replacing Zamenhof's original name for it, international language. Zamenhof first attempted to publish a weekly newspaper in 1888 titled La Internaciulo but failed to find a publisher. After modifying his idea to the monthly La Esperantisto, he found a publisher in Christian Schmidt, president of the Nuremberg International Language Club, the first Esperanto club in the world based in Nuremberg, Germany.
The club had been a club devoted to Volapük but switched its dedication to Esperanto at its general meeting on December 18, 1888, having lost hope in the viability of Volapük. Schmidt published the periodical until 1891, when he ceased publication due to disagreements with Zamenhof; that same year, Wilhelm Heinrich Trompeter took over as publisher. La Esperantisto was published monthly, its number of subscribers peaked in 1893 at 889. In January 1894, Zamenhof proposed a radical reform to Esperanto that proved to be unpopular and led many to unsubscribe from La Esperantisto, he retracted the proposed reform and referred to 1894 as a "wasted year". Zamenhof translated and published part of Leo Tolstoy's essay "Reason or Faith" in La Esperantisto, which led to the Russian Empire banning the publication for advocating civil disobedience, resulting in hundreds of subscribers lost. Tolstoy himself appealed the ban in May 1895, but it was too late to revive the journal and its publication was permanently cancelled soon thereafter.
Lingvo Internacia, a monthly Esperanto periodical, emerged in Sweden in December 1895 and fulfilled the role of La Esperantisto after its cancellation. Although the periodical was short-lived, it played an important role in the history of Esperanto, serving as a model publication for future periodicals and providing an early basis of community among early Esperantists. List of Esperanto periodicals
Declaration of Boulogne
The Declaration on the Essence of Esperantism referred to as the Declaration of Boulogne, is a historic document that establishes several important premises for the Esperanto movement. The Declaration was written by L. L. Zamenhof and ratified in 1905 by the attendees of the first World Esperanto Congress, held in Boulogne-sur-Mer, France; the Declaration of Boulogne consists of five points. In the introduction, Zamenhof clarifies that the five points of the Declaration are necessary to establish because many people misunderstand the nature of the Esperanto movement; the five points are in response to these held misconceptions. Esperantism is a movement. No further meaning can be attached to it, it is politically and morally neutral, it does not seek to replace any existing languages, only to supplement them. Those who support Esperanto do so because it is the most realistic IAL that exists, they work to further it based on this goal. Esperanto belongs to no one. Anyone can use it for any reason.
Fundamento de Esperanto is the single, perpetual obligatory authority over Esperanto, it cannot be modified. Otherwise, Esperanto depends on no legal authority, neither a governing body nor an individual, including Zamenhof himself. If a linguistic matter is not covered in Fundamento, it is up to the individual on how to handle the matter. An Esperantist is a fluent Esperanto speaker. Involvement in the Esperanto community is encouraged but not required. Schor, Esther. Bridge of Words: Esperanto and the Dream of a Universal Language. New York: Henry Holt and Company. ISBN 978-1-42994-341-3. LCCN 2015018907. Retrieved November 16, 2017. Declaration of Boulogne, English translation
Universal Esperanto Association
The Universal Esperanto Association known as the World Esperanto Association, is the largest international organization of Esperanto speakers, with 5501 individual members in 121 countries and 9215 through national associations and in official relations with the United Nations. In addition to individual members, 70 national Esperanto organizations are affiliated with UEA, its current president is the Canadian professor Mark Fettes. The magazine Esperanto is the main organ used by UEA to inform its members about everything happening in the Esperanto community; the UEA was founded in 1908 by the Swiss journalist Hector Hodler and others and is now headquartered in Rotterdam, Netherlands. The organization has an office at the United Nations building in New York City. According to its 1980 statutes, the Universal Esperanto Association has two kinds of members: individual members join the association directly, paying a fee to the Rotterdam headquarters or to the chief delegate in their country; these members receive the UEA services.
Asociaj membroj, those members of the organizations that joined UEA. These members are administered by their respective organizations, it can be a specialist organization. This kind of membership is for the person in question a mere symbolical membership; the highest organ of UEA, the Komitato, has members elected in three different ways: An organization sends at least one komitatano, plus one more for every 1,000 national members, to the Komitato. Most national organizations have only one komitatano. Per 1,000 individual members, the individual members can choose one member to the Komitato. Both previous groups by-elect more komitatanoj, up to one third of their numbers; the Komitato elects the Estraro. The Estraro sometimes additionally a director; the general director and his staff work at Oficejo de UEA, in Rotterdam. An individual member can become a delegito, a'delegate'; this means that he serves as a local contact person for UEA members in his town. A ĉefdelegito is someone installed by the UEA headquarters, but with the task to collect the member fees in a given country.
TEJO, the World Esperanto Youth Organization, is the youth section of the UEA. Similar to the World Congress, TEJO organizes an International Youth Congress of Esperanto each year in a different location; the IJK is a week-long event of concerts, excursions attended by hundreds of young people from all over the world. The youth section has a Komitato and national and specialist affiliated organizations, just as UEA itself. A TEJO volunteer works at the Rotterdam headquarters; the first national Esperanto organization was founded in 1898 in France as a potential international association. In 1903 the second one followed, in Switzerland. Within a couple of years, many of the now still existing national organizations came into existence. Since 1933/1934 they send representatives into the UEA Komitato, making it a federation of national organizations; the term in Esperanto was mostly Naciaj Societoj, since 1933 Landaj Asocioj. When UEA accepted national organizations in 1933/1934 for the first time, it required them to have at least 100 national members, be'organized in an orderly manner', be neutral, meaning having no political or religious aims, being open to all citizens of the country.
The last prerequisite caused serious problems, e.g. to the German national association coming in those months under national socialist rule. For example, the Cuban association was refused because its statutes claimed to respect the leading role of the communist party in Cuba. In 1980, the UEA statutes were altered. Since a national organization need not be neutral itself, but must respect the neutrality of UEA. Specialist organizations are similar to the national organizations, they are divided into two groups: neutral organizations, that can join UEA in the same way as a national organizations. In Esperanto they are called aliĝintaj fakaj asocioj. Examples are the Esperanto teachers. Other organizations in collaboration with UEA, they do not send representatives to the Komitato but are mentioned in the Yearbook and can have a room at the World Congress. Some of them refuse to be affiliated because of financial reasons, others because they are non-neutral and cannot join UEA. Examples are the Esperanto Catholics and the Esperanto communists.
The youth section TEJO has two affiliated specialist groups, the cyclists and the lovers of rock music. UEA is the publisher of the most important Esperanto periodical, it was started in 1905 by Paul Berthelot. UEA founder Hector Hodler took it over in 1907 and made it the official UEA magazine in 1908. In 1920 he left the magazine to the association. Since the 1950s it has a paid editor-in-chief. Next to Esperanto, the Yearbook is the oldest continuous publication of the association. UEA has the largest mail-order Esperanto bookstore in the world, it maintains an information center and an important Esperanto library, called the Hector Hodler Library. The organisation has a network of local representatives from around the world, the Delegita Reto, who are available to provide information about their geographical area or professional field; the yearly World Esperanto Congress, which attracts 1500–3000 people to a
The language Interlingue, known as Occidental until 1949, is a planned international auxiliary language created by Edgar de Wahl, a Balto-German naval officer and teacher from Tallinn and published in 1922. The vocabulary is based on existing words from various languages and a system of derivation using recognized prefixes and suffixes; the language is thereby naturalistic, at the same time. Occidental was quite popular in the years up to, shortly after the Second World War, but declined thereafter. Occidental is devised so that many of its derived word forms reflect the forms common to a number of Western European languages those in the Romance family, along with a certain amount of Germanic vocabulary. Words were formed through application of de Wahl's rule, a set of rules for regular conversion of verb infinitives into derived nouns and adjectives including double-stem verbs of Latin origin; the result is a language easy to understand at first sight for individuals acquainted with several Western European languages.
This readability and simplified grammar along with the regular appearance of the magazine Cosmoglotta made Occidental popular in Europe during the 15 years before World War II. In The Esperanto Book, Don Harlow says that Occidental had an intentional emphasis on European forms, that some of its leading followers espoused a Eurocentric philosophy, which may have hindered its spread. Still, Occidental gained adherents in many nations including Asian nations. Occidental survived World War II, undergoing a name change to Interlingue, but faded into insignificance following the appearance in 1951 of a competing naturalistic project, which attracted among others the notable Occidentalist Ric Berger; the emergence of Interlingua occurred around the same time that Edgar de Wahl, who had opted to remain in Tallinn, was sent to a sanitarium by Soviet authorities and was not permitted to correspond with Occidentalists in Western Europe. His death was confirmed in 1948; the proposal to change the name from Occidental to Interlingue was twofold: to attempt to demonstrate to the Soviet Union the neutrality of the language, in hopes of a union with Interlingua.
The activities of Occidental and its users can be seen through the magazine Cosmoglotta, which began publication in February 1922 in Tallinn, Estonia under the name Kosmoglott. The language announced that year was a product of years of personal experimentation by de Wahl under the name Auli, which he used during the period from 1906 to 1921 and on gained the nickname proto-Occidental. During the development of the language de Wahl explained his approach in a letter to an acquaintance the Baron d'Orczy written in Auli: "My direction in the creation of a universal language seems quite regressive to you... I understand that quite well. I do not begin with the alphabet and the grammar and have to adopt the vocabulary to it, but just the other way around: I take all international material of words, endings, grammatical forms etc. and I work to organize that material, put it in order, interpolate and sift through it." During the development of Occidental through Auli, de Wahl corresponded with the Italian mathematician and creator of Latino sine flexione Giuseppe Peano and gained an appreciation for the international vocabulary in that language, writing that "I believe the "Vocabulario commune" book by Professor Peano to be a more valuable and scientific work than the entire scholastic litterature of Ido on imaginary things evoked by the "fundamento" of Zamenhof."
Occidental was announced in 1922 at a stage of near but not total completion. De Wahl did not intend to announce the language for another few years but did so through the publication of Kosmoglott and the name Occidental for the language after hearing that the League of Nations had begun an inquiry into the question of an international auxiliary language, it began gathering followers despite a complete lack of grammars and dictionaries due to its readability. Two years de Wahl wrote that he was in correspondence with some 30 people "in good Occidental" despite the lack of learning material; the first dictionary was published the next year in 1925, the radicarium directiv, a collection of Occidental root words and their equivalents in 8 languages. For a number of years Kosmoglott was a forum for various other planned languages, while still written in Occidental; until 1924 the magazine was affiliated with the Academia pro Interlingua, which promoted Peano's Latino sine flexione. In 1927 the name was changed to Cosmoglotta as it began to promote Occidental in lieu of other languages, in January of the same year the magazine's editorial and administrative office was moved to Vienna, Austria in the region of Mauer, now part of Liesing.
Much of the early success for Occidental in this period came from the office's new central location, along with the efforts of Engelbert Pigal from Austria, whose article Li Ovre de Edgar de Wahl led to interest in Occidental from users of the Ianguage Ido. Besides the new location in a city much closer to the centre of Europe, the Vienna period was marked by financial stability for the first time due to the support given by a number of backers Hans Hörbiger from Vienna, G. A. Moore from London, from which "Cosmoglotta was able to live without difficulty and gained a circle of readers despite the economic crisis". Hörbiger and Moore died at "nearly the same time" in 1931, Cosmoglotta was again forced to rely on revenue from subscriptions, publications and th
Esperanto vocabulary was defined in Unua Libro, published by L. L. Zamenhof in 1887, it contained around 900 root words. The rules of the language allow speakers to borrow words as needed, recommending only that they look for the most international words, that they borrow one basic word and derive others from it, rather than borrowing many words with related meanings. In 1894, Zamenhof published the first Esperanto dictionary, Universala vortaro, written in five languages and supplied a larger set of root words. Since many words have been borrowed from other languages those of Western Europe. In recent decades, most of the new borrowings or coinages have been scientific terms. There are frequent debates among Esperanto speakers about whether a particular borrowing is justified or whether the need can be met by derivation or extending the meaning of existing words. Esperanto occupies a middle ground between "naturalistic" constructed languages such as Interlingua, which take words en masse from their source languages with little internal derivation, a priori conlangs such as Solresol, in which the words have no historical connection to other languages.
In Esperanto, root words are borrowed and retain much of the form of their source language, whether the phonetic form or orthographic form. However, each root can form dozens of derivations that may bear little resemblance to equivalent words in the source languages, such as registaro, derived from the Latinate root reg. One of the ways Zamenhof made Esperanto easier to learn than ethnic languages was by creating a regular and productive derivational morphology. Through the judicious use of lexical affixes, the core vocabulary needed for communication was reduced, making Esperanto a more agglutinative language than most European languages, it has been estimated that on average one root in Esperanto is the communicative equivalent of ten words in English. However, a contrary tendency is apparent in cultured and Greco-Latin technical vocabulary, which most Europeans see as "international" and therefore take into Esperanto en masse, despite the fact they are not universal. Many Asians consider this to be an onerous and unnecessary burden on the memory, when it is so easy to derive equivalent words internally.
This sparks frequent debates as to whether a particular root is justified, sometimes results in duplicates of native and borrowed vocabulary. An example is "calligraphy", which occurs both as a calqued belskribo and as the direct borrowing kaligrafio. A similar development has occurred in English, Japanese, Spanish and other languages. However, although the debates in ethnic languages are motivated by nationalism or issues of cultural identity, in Esperanto the debates are motivated by differing views on how to make the language practical and accessible. One of the most useful derivational affixes for the beginner is the prefix mal-, which derives antonyms: peza, malpeza. However, except in jokes, this prefix is not used when an antonym exists in the basic vocabulary: suda, not "malnorda" from'north'; the creation of new words through the use of grammatical suffixes, such as nura from nur, tiama from tiam, or vido from vidi, is covered in the article on Esperanto grammar. What follows is a list of what are called "affixes".
Most of them, are lexical roots, in that they can be used as independent words and their relative order in a compound is determined by semantics, not grammar. They are called "affixes" because they derive from affixes in Esperanto's source languages; some are true affixes in that, although they may be used independently, their order within a word is fixed by the grammar. Only a few can not be used independently and so correspond to; when a root receives more than one affix, their order matters, because affixes modify the entire stem they are attached to. That is. Most affixes are themselves roots, as such have an inherent part of speech; this is indicated by the final part-of-speech vowel in the suffix list below. A few affixes do not affect the part of speech of the root. There are, in addition, affixes not listed here: technical affixes, such as the biological family suffix -edo seen in numidedo, a few taken from Ido, such as -oza in montoza, poroza. A proposed suffix -ala makes adjectives out of nouns made from adjectives: varmala, ŝtataligi.
Lexical affixes may act as roots by taking one of the grammatical suffixes: mala, ano, eble, iĝi, ero. Through compounding, lexical roots
The Pasporta Servo is a hospitality service for Esperanto speakers. It is maintained by the World Esperanto Youth Organization, which publishes an annual online and print directory of people within the Esperanto culture who are willing to host other Esperanto speakers in their residences for free for up to 3 nights; the platform is a gift economy. Free lodging via Pasporta Servo is one of the benefits of learning Esperanto. Guests using the service are encouraged to speak only Esperanto with their hosts. In 1966, psychologist Rubén Feldman González started the Programo Pasporto, a hospitality service for Esperanto speakers, in Argentina. In 1974, under the guidance of Jeanne-Marie Cash in France, the Pasporta Servo directory in its current form was first published, listing 40 hosts. Both founders are still hosts in the Pasporta Servo. In August 2008, TEJO launched an online version of the service. Official website