Intersection (road)

This article reflects practice in jurisdictions where vehicles are driven on the right. If not otherwise specified, "right" and "left" can be reversed to reflect jurisdictions where vehicles are driven on the left. An intersection is an at-grade junction where two or more streets meet or cross. Intersections may be classified by number of traffic controls or lane design. One way to classify intersections is by the number of road segments. A three-way intersection is a junction between three road segments: a T junction when two arms form one road, or a Y junction, the latter known as a fork if approached from the stem of the Y. A four-way intersection, or crossroads involves a crossing over of two streets or roads. In areas where there are blocks and in some other cases, the crossing streets or roads are perpendicular to each other. However, two roads may cross at a different angle. In a few cases, the junction of two road segments may be offset from each when reaching an intersection though both ends may be considered the same street.

Six-way intersections involve a crossing of three streets at one junction. Five, seven or more approaches to a single intersection, such as at Seven Dials, are not common. Another way of classifying intersections is by traffic control technology: Uncontrolled intersections, without signs or signals. Priority rules may vary by country: on a 4-way intersection traffic from the right has priority. For traffic coming from the same or opposite direction, that which goes straight has priority over that which turns off. Yield-controlled intersections may not have specific "YIELD" signs. Stop-controlled intersections have one or more "STOP" signs. Two-way stops are common, while some countries employ four-way stops. Signal-controlled intersections depend on traffic signals electric, which indicate which traffic is allowed to proceed at any particular time. A traffic circle is a type of intersection. Types of traffic circles include roundabouts, "mini-roundabouts", "rotaries", "STOP"-controlled circles, signal-controlled circles.

Some people consider roundabouts to be a distinct type of intersection from traffic circles. A box junction can be added to an intersection prohibiting entry to the intersection unless the exit is clear; some intersections employ indirect left turns to reduce delays. The Michigan left combines a U-turn. Jughandle lefts diverge to the right curve to the left, converting a left turn to a crossing maneuver, similar to throughabouts; these techniques are used in conjunction with signal-controlled intersections, although they may be used at stop-controlled intersections. Other designs include advanced stop lines, parallel-flow and continuous-flow intersections, hook turns, seagull intersections, slip lanes, staggered junctions, Texas Ts, Texas U-turns and turnarounds. A roundabout and its variants like turbo roundabouts and distributing circles like traffic circles and right-in/right-out intersections. At intersections, turns are allowed, but are regulated to avoid interference with other traffic. Certain turns may be not allowed or may be limited by regulatory signs or signals those that cross oncoming traffic.

Alternative designs attempt to reduce or eliminate such potential conflicts. At intersections with large proportions of turning traffic, turn lanes may be provided. For example, in the intersection shown in the diagram, left turn lanes are present in the right-left street. Turn lanes allow vehicles to exit a road without crossing traffic. Absence of a turn lane does not indicate a prohibition of turns in that direction. Instead, traffic control signs are used to prohibit specific turns. Turn lanes can improve safety. Turn lanes can have a dramatic effect on the safety of a junction. In rural areas, crash frequency can be reduced by up to 48% if left turn lanes are provided on both main-road approaches at stop-controlled intersections. At signalized intersections, crashes can be reduced by 33%. Results are lower in urban areas. Turn lanes are marked with an arrow bending into the direction of the turn, to be made from that lane. Multi-headed arrows indicate that vehicle drivers may travel in any one of the directions pointed to by an arrow.

Traffic signals facing vehicles in turn lanes have arrow-shaped indications. Green arrows indicate protected turn phases. Red arrows may be displayed to prohibit turns in that direction. Red arrows may be displayed along with a circular green indication to show that turns in the direction of the arrow are prohibited, but other movements are allowed. In some jurisdictions, a red arrow prohibits a turn on red. Disadvantages to turn lanes include increased pavement area, with associated increases in construction and maintenance costs, as well as increased amounts of stormwa

Hugo Viana (fighter)

Hugo Viana is a Brazilian mixed martial artist. A professional MMA competitor since 2010, Wolverine made a name for himself competing on the first season of Globo's The Ultimate Fighter: Brazil, he is signed with the Ultimate Fighting Championship. Viana decided to begin training in mixed martial arts in 2010 after admiring the sport for several years and having trained in Tae Kwon Do since he was 12 years old and in Boxing and Wing Chun since age of 21. In 2005, he took up Brazilian jiu-jitsu before he began his MMA training with Champions Team MMA in his hometown of Salvador, Brazil. Wolverine did not spend long on the amateur circuit, only competing in one fight before turning professional only a few months later, he made his professional debut on May 26, 2010 against Marcelo Santos at a Win Fight and Entertainment event. Hugo won the fight via unanimous decision after three rounds, he fought on the next Win Fight card in August 2010 against Marcelo Palombo de Souza, winning the fight via split decision.

From November 2010 to September 2011 Hugo fought three times, winning all three fights via unanimous decision to bring his record to 5-0. He was selected. In March 2012, it was revealed that Wolverine was selected to be a participant on The Ultimate Fighter: Brazil, he defeated Alexandre Ramos via TKO in the first round to move into the Ultimate Fighter house, become an official cast member. Viana was selected as the second pick by Vitor Belfort. In the first round of the tournament, Hugo was selected to fight Marcos Vina of Team Wanderlei. After two close rounds, Wolverine was announced the winner via unanimous decision. In the semi-finals, Hugo fought Rony Mariano Bezerra, losing the fight via unanimous decision, thus eliminating him from the tournament. Viana made his UFC debut on June 2012 at UFC 147 against John Teixeira; the fight was contested at a catchweight of 150 lbs. after Teixeira missed weight. He won the fight via split decision. Viana dropped down to the Bantamweight division for his next fight on December 15, 2012 at The Ultimate Fighter 16 Finale against Reuben Duran.

He won the fight via KO in the first round. Viana was expected to face Francisco Rivera on April 20, 2013 at UFC on Fox 7. However, Rivera was forced out of the bout with an injury and replaced by T. J. Dillashaw, he lost the fight via TKO in the first round. Viana was expected to face Johnny Bedford on September 4, 2013 at UFC Fight Night 28. However, Bedford was replaced by Wilson Reis. However, just days before the event, Viana was forced out of the bout with an injury, removing their fight from the card altogether. Viana faced Junior Hernandez at UFC on Fox 10, he won the fight via unanimous decision. Viana faced Aljamain Sterling on July 16, 2014 at UFC Fight Night 45, he lost the fight via TKO in the third round. Viana faced Guido Canetti on August 1, 2015 at UFC 190, he was subsequently released from the promotion. List of current UFC fighters List of male mixed martial artists Hugo Viana at UFC Professional MMA record for Hugo Viana from Sherdog

Frédéric Cuvier

Georges-Frédéric Cuvier was a French zoologist and paleontologist. He was the younger brother of zoologist Georges Cuvier. Frederic was the head keeper of the menagerie at the Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris from 1804 to 1838, he named the red panda in 1825. The chair of comparative physiology was created for him at the Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle in 1837, he was elected as a foreign member of the Royal Society in 1835. He is mentioned in Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species as having worked on animal behaviour and instinct the distinction between habit and instinct, he is mentioned in Herman Melville's Moby-Dick as having written on the topic of whales. Cuvier has been described as the first scientist to use terms "héréditaire" in 1807 and "heredity” in 1812 in their now biological context, he used both words in promoting the inheritance of acquired characteristics based on his studies of animal behaviour. Although an advocate of the inheritance of acquired characteristics, similar to his brother he denied the transmutation of species.

He believed that behavioral patterns in animals change over time in relation to environmentally induced needs. Historian Robert J. Richards has written that Cuvier "did not believe that the anatomical patterns of species were modified over time (though he did admit they changed in nonessential ways through the inheritance of acquired characteristics... He was a behavioral evolutionist, if a modest one." Books Histoire naturelle des mammifères De l’histoire naturelle des cétacés. Roret, Paris 1836 Dictionnaire des sciences naturelles, Strasbourg & Paris, 60 volumes, under his leadership, 1816-1830 Observations préliminaires, pp. i–xxiv in Recherches sur les ossemens fossiles, by G. Cuvier, ed. 4, vol. 1. E. d’Ocagne, Paris, 1834. Papers Cuvier, F.. Observations sur le chien des habitans de la Nouvelle-Hollande, précédés de quelques réflexions sur les facultés morales des animaux. Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. 11: 458–476. Cuvier, F.. Essais sur les facultés intellectuelles des brutes. Nouv. Bull. Sci. Soc. Philomat.

3: 217–218 Richard W. Burkhardt.. Lamarck and the Inheritance of Acquired Characters. Genetics 194: 793–805. Robert J. Richards.. Influence of Sensationalist Tradition on Early Theories of the Evolution of Behavior. Journal of the History of Ideas 40: 85-105