An orchidometer is a medical instrument used to measure the volume of the testicles. The orchidometer was introduced in 1966 by Swiss pediatric endocrinologist Prof. Andrea Prader of the University of Zurich, it consists of a string of twelve numbered wooden or plastic beads of increasing size from about 1 to 25 millilitres. Doctors sometimes informally refer to them as "Prader's balls", "the medical worry beads", or the "endocrine rosary." The beads are compared with the testicles of the patient, the volume is read off the bead which matches most in size. Prepubertal sizes are 1–3 ml, pubertal sizes are considered 4 ml and up and adult sizes are 12–25 ml; the orchidometer can be used to determine size of testes. Discrepancy of testicular size with other parameters of maturation can be an important clue to various diseases. Small testes can indicate either secondary hypogonadism. Testicular size can help distinguish between different types of precocious puberty. Since testicular growth is the first physical sign of true puberty, one of the most common uses is as confirmation that puberty is beginning in a boy with delay.
Large testes can be a clue to one of the most common causes of inherited generalised learning disability, fragile X syndrome. Professor Stephen Shalet, a leading endocrinologist who works for the Christie Hospital in Manchester, is reported to have told The Observer, "Every endocrinologist should have an orchidometer. It's his stethoscope."Orchidometers are commonly used to measure testicular volume in rams. Numerous clinical scales and measurement systems exist to define genitals as normal male or female, or "abnormal", including the prader scale, quigley scale and the satirical Phall-O-Meter. Prader, A. "Testicular size: Assessment and clinical importance", Triangle, 1966, vol. 7, pp. 240 – 243 Taranger, J. Engström, I. Lichtensten, H. Svenberg-Redegren, I. "Somatic Pubertal Development", Acta Pediatr. Scand. Suppl. 1976, vol. 258, pp. 121 – 135
Legal recognition of intersex people
Intersex people are born with sex characteristics, such as chromosomes, gonads, or genitals that, according to the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, "do not fit typical binary notions of male or female bodies". According to the Asia Pacific Forum of National Human Rights Institutions, few countries have provided for the legal recognition of intersex people; the Asia Pacific Forum states that the legal recognition of intersex people is firstly about access to the same rights as other men and women, when assigned male or female. The Asia Pacific Forum, the Council of Europe, the Malta declaration of the Third International Intersex Forum have called for non-binary gender classifications to be available on a voluntary, opt-in basis; the Council of Europe has called for greater consideration of the implications of new sex classifications on intersex people, while the Third International Intersex Forum called for the long term removal of sex or gender from official identification documents.
In some countries, legal recognition may be limited, access to any form of birth certificate may be difficult, while some other countries recognise that intersex people may have non-binary gender identities. Sociological research in Australia, a country with a non-binary gender marker, has shown that 19% of people born with atypical sex characteristics may prefer that option. In European societies, Roman law, post-classical Canon law, Common law, referred to a person's sex as male, female or hermaphrodite, with legal rights as male or female depending on the characteristics that appeared most dominant. Under Roman law, a hermaphrodite had to be classed as either male or female; the 12th-century Decretum Gratiani states that "Whether an hermaphrodite may witness a testament, depends on which sex prevails". The foundation of common law, the 16th Century Institutes of the Lawes of England described how a hermaphrodite could inherit "either as male or female, according to that kind of sexe which doth prevaile."
Single cases have been described in other legal cases over the centuries. Intersex scholar Morgan Holmes states that much early anthropological material on non-European cultures described gender systems with more than two categories as "primitive", but that subsequent analysis of third sexes and genders is simplistic or romanticized: much of the existing work on cultural systems that incorporate a'third sex' portray simplistic visions in which societies with more than two sex/gender categories are cast as superior to those that divide the world into just two. I argue that to understand whether a system is more or less oppressive than another we have to understand how it treats its various members, not only its'thirds'... recognition of third sexes and third genders is not equal to valuing the presence of those who were neither male nor female, hinges on the explicit devaluation of women In recent years, civil society organization and human rights institutions have raised issues relating to legal recognition.
Research indicates a growing consensus that diverse intersex bodies are normal—if rare—forms of human biology, human rights institutions are placing increasing scrutiny on medical practices and issues of discrimination against intersex people. A 2013 first international pilot study. Human Rights between the Sexes, by Dan Christian Ghattas, found that intersex people are discriminated against worldwide: "Intersex individuals are considered individuals with a «disorder» in all areas in which Western medicine prevails, they are more or less treated as sick or «abnormal», depending on the respective society."In 2015, an Issue Paper on Human rights and intersex people by the Council of Europe highlighted several areas of concern, including legal recognition: unnecessary "normalising" treatment of intersex persons, unnecessary pathologisation of variations in sex characteristics. Unnecessary medicalisation is said to impact a right to life. Inclusion in equal treatment and hate crime law. Access to information, medical records and other counselling and support.
Legal recognition, including respect for self-determination in gender recognition, through expeditious access to official documents. According to the Asia Pacific Forum of National Human Rights Institutions, few countries have provided for the legal recognition of intersex people; the Asia Pacific Forum states that the legal recognition of intersex people is firstly about access to the same rights as other men and women, when assigned male or female. Like all individuals, some intersex individuals may be raised as a particular sex but identify with another in life, while most do not. A 2012 clinical review suggests that between 8.5-20% of persons with intersex conditions may experience gender dysphoria, distress or discomfort as a result of the sex and gender they were assigned at birth. Like non-intersex people, some intersex individuals may not identify themselves as either female or male. Sociological research in Australia, a country with a third'X' sex classification, shows that 19% of people born with atypical sex characteristics selected an
The Quigley scale is a descriptive, visual system of phenotypic grading that uses seven classes between "fully masculinized" and "fully feminized" genitalia. It was proposed by pediatric endocrinologist Charmian A. Quigley et al. in 1995. It is similar in function to the Prader scale and is used to describe genitalia in cases of androgen insensitivity syndrome, including complete androgen insensitivity syndrome, partial androgen insensitivity syndrome and mild androgen insensitivity syndrome; the first six grades of the scale, grades 1 through 6, are differentiated by the degree of genital masculinization. Quigley describes the scale as one depicting "severity" or "defective masculinization". Grade 1 is indicated when the external genitalia is masculinized, corresponds to mild androgen insensitivity syndrome. Grades 6 and 7 are indicated when the external genitalia is feminized, corresponding to complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. Grades 2 through 5 quantify four degrees of decreasingly masculinized genitalia that lie in the interim.
Grades 2 through 5 of the Quigley scale quantify four degrees of feminized genitalia that correspond to partial androgen insensitivity syndrome. Grade 7 is indistinguishable from grade 6 until puberty, is thereafter differentiated by the presence of secondary terminal hair. Grade 6 is indicated when secondary terminal hair is present, whereas grade 7 is indicated when it is absent. While the scale has been defined as a grading system for feminized or undermasculinized genitalia, the concept that atypical genitals are abnormal is contested. An opinion paper by the Swiss National Advisory Centre for Biomedical Ethics advises that "not infrequently" variations from sex norms may not be pathological or require medical treatment. An Australian Senate Committee report on involuntary sterilization determined that research "regarding'adequate' or'normal' genitals for women, raises some disturbing questions", including preferences influenced by doctors' specialism and gender. In a 2015 issue paper on Human rights and intersex people, the Commissioner for Human Rights of the Council of Europe recommended a review of medical classification that pathologise variations in sex characteristics.
Numerous clinical scales and measurement systems exist to define genitals as normal male or female, or "abnormal", including the orchidometer, Prader scale and the satirical Phall-O-Meter. Ambiguous genitalia Development of the reproductive system Sex assignment
Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times; the country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city; the country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, she was overthrown in 1976 by a U.
S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America; the description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, now the country is referred to as "Argentina".
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine, taking the feminine article "La" as the i
The Phall-O-meter is a satirical measure that critiques medical standards for normal male and female phalluses. The tool was developed by Kiira Triea based on a concept by Suzanne Kessler and is used to demonstrate concerns with the medical treatment of intersex bodies; the Phall-O-meter was developed by Kiira Triea based on a concept by professor of psychology Suzanne Kessler. Kessler summarized the range of medically acceptable infant penis and clitoris sizes in the book Lessons from the Intersexed. Kessler states that normative tables for clitoral length appeared in the late 1980s, while normative tables for penis length appeared more than forty years before that, she combined those standard tables to demonstrate an "intermediate area of phallic length that neither females nor males are permitted to have", that is, a clitoris larger than 9 mm or a penis shorter than 25 mm. The meter was printed by the now-defunct Intersex Society of North America as a means of demonstrating concerns with the medical treatment of intersex bodies.
Anne Fausto-Sterling described how members of the intersex rights movement had developed a phall-o-meter, in her book Sexing the Body in 2000. Fausto-Sterling noted that, despite the existence of normative tables, clinicians' practices are more subjective: "doctors may use only their personal impressions to decide" on an appropriate clitoris size. In a paper presented to the American Sociological Association in 2003, Sharon Preves cites Melissa Hendricks, writing in the Johns Hopkins Magazine, November 1993 on subjective clinical norms and their relationship to surgical management: In truth, the choice of gender still comes down to what the external genitals look like. Doctors who work with children with ambiguous genitalia sometimes put it this way, “You can make a hole but you can’t build a pole.” Surgeons can decrease the size of a phallus and create a vagina, but constructing a penis that will grow as the child grows is another matter Copies of the Phall-O-Meter are now held by the Wellcome Library in London, the Smithsonian Institution.
An image of the Phall-O-Meter has been used to illustrate a report on the numbers of surgeries on intersex children in Germany between 2005 and 2014. While the scale as used by the Intersex Society of North America was a satirical tool for activism, numerous clinical scales and measurement systems exist to define genitals as normal male or female, or "abnormal", including the orchidometer, Prader scale and Quigley scale. Intersex medical interventions Intersex human rights Intersex rights in the United States Sex assignment
In biology, a hermaphrodite is an organism that has complete or partial reproductive organs and produces gametes associated with both male and female sexes. Many taxonomic groups of animals do not have separate sexes. In these groups, hermaphroditism is a normal condition, enabling a form of sexual reproduction in which either partner can act as the "female" or "male." For example, the great majority of tunicates, pulmonate snails, opisthobranch snails and slugs are hermaphrodites. Hermaphroditism is found in some fish species and to a lesser degree in other vertebrates. Most plants are hermaphrodites; the term hermaphrodite has been used to describe ambiguous genitalia and gonadal mosaicism in individuals of gonochoristic species human beings. The word intersex has come into preferred usage for humans, since the word hermaphrodite is considered to be misleading and stigmatizing, as well as "scientifically specious and clinically problematic."A rough estimate of the number of hermaphroditic animal species is 65,000.
The percentage of animal species that are hermaphroditic is about 5%.. Most hermaphroditic species exhibit some degree of self-fertilization; the distribution of self-fertilization rates among animals is similar to that of plants, suggesting that similar processes are operating to direct the evolution of selfing in animals and plants. The term derives from the Latin: hermaphroditus, from Ancient Greek: ἑρμαφρόδιτος, translit. Hermaphroditos, which derives from Hermaphroditus, the son of Hermes and Aphrodite in Greek mythology. According to Ovid, he fused with the nymph Salmacis resulting in one individual possessing physical traits of male and female sexes; the word hermaphrodite entered the English lexicon as early as the late fourteenth century. Alexander ab Alexandro stated, using the term hermaphrodite, that the people who bore the sexes of both man and woman were regarded by the Athenians and the Romans as monsters, thrown into the sea at Athens and into the Tiber at Rome. Sequential hermaphrodites occur in species in which the individual is born as one sex, but can change into the opposite sex.
This contrasts simultaneous hermaphrodites, in which an individual may possess functional male and female genitalia. Sequential hermaphroditism is common in fish and many gastropods, some flowering plants. Sequential hermaphrodites can only change sex once. Sequential hermaphroditism can best be understood in terms of behavioral ecology and evolutionary life history theory, as described in the size-advantage mode first proposed by Michael T. Ghiselin which states that if an individual of a certain sex could increase its reproductive success after reaching a certain size, it would be to their advantage to switch to that sex. Sequential hermaphrodites can be divided into three broad categories: Protandry: Where an organism is born as a male, changes sex to a female. Example: The clownfish are colorful reef fish found living in symbiosis with sea anemones. One anemone contains a'harem', consisting of a large female, a smaller reproductive male, smaller non-reproductive males. If the female is removed, the reproductive male will change sex and the largest of the non-reproductive males will mature and become reproductive.
It has been shown that fishing pressure can change when the switch from male to female occurs, since fishermen prefer to catch the larger fish. The populations are changing sex at a smaller size, due to natural selection. Protogyny: Where the organism is born as a female, changes sex to a male. Example: wrasses are a group of reef fish in which protogyny is common. Wrasses have an uncommon life history strategy, termed diandry. In these species, two male morphs exists: a terminal phase male. Initial phase males do not spawn in groups with other females, they are not territorial. They are female mimics. Terminal phase males have a distinctively bright coloration. Individuals are born as males or females, but if they are born males, they are not born as terminal phase males. Females and initial phase males can become terminal phase males; the most dominant female or initial phase male replaces any terminal phase male when those males die or abandon the group. Bidirectional Sex Changers: where an organism has female and male reproductive organs, but act as either female or male during different stages in life.
Example: Lythrypnus dalli are a group of coral reef fish in which bidirectional sex change occurs. Once a social hierarchy is established a fish changes sex according to its social status, regardless of the initial sex, based on a simple principle: if the fish expresses subordinate behavior it changes its sex to female, if the fish expresses dominant or not subordinate behavior the fish changes its sex to male. Dichogamy can have both conservation-related implications for humans, as mentioned above, as well as economic implications. For instance, groupers are favoured fish for eating in many Asian countries and are aquacultured. Since the adults take several
Intersex in history
Intersex, in humans and other animals, describes variations in sex characteristics including chromosomes, sex hormones, or genitals that, according to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, "do not fit typical binary notions of male or female bodies". Intersex people were termed hermaphrodites, "congenital eunuchs", or congenitally "frigid"; such terms have fallen out of favor, now considered to be stigmatizing. Intersex people have been treated in different ways by different cultures. Whether or not they were tolerated or accepted by any particular culture, the existence of intersex people was known to many ancient and pre-modern cultures and legal systems, numerous historical accounts exist. A Sumerian creation myth from more than 4,000 years ago has Ninmah, a mother goddess, fashioning humanity out of clay, she boasts that she will determine the fate – good or bad – for all she fashions: Enki answered Ninmah: "I will counterbalance whatever fate – good or bad – you happen to decide.
Ninmah took clay from the top of the abzu in her hand and she fashioned from it first a man who could not bend his outstretched weak hands. Enki looked at the man who cannot bend his outstretched weak hands, decreed his fate: he appointed him as a servant of the king.... Sixth, she fashioned one with vagina on its body. Enki looked at the one with neither penis nor vagina on its body and gave it the name Nibru, decreed as its fate to stand before the king. In traditional Jewish culture, intersex individuals were either androgynos or tumtum and took on different gender roles, sometimes conforming to men's, sometimes to women's. By the eighth century CE, records of Islamic legal rulings discuss individuals known in Arabic as khuntha; this term, translated as "hermaphrodite," was used to apply to individuals with a range of intersex conditions, including mixed gonadal disgenesis, male hypospadias, partial androgen insensitivity syndrome, 5-alpha reductase deficiency, gonadal aplasia, congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
In premodern Islamic law, inheritance was determined based on sex, so it was sometimes necessary to attempt to determine the biological sex of sexually ambiguous heirs. The first recorded case of this sort has been attributed to the seventh-century Rashidun caliph named'Ali, who attempted to settle an inheritance case between five brothers in which one brother had both a male and female urinary opening.'Ali advised the brothers that sex could be determined by site of urination in a practice called hukm al-mabal. If it exited both openings as it did in this case, the heir would be given half of a male inheritance and half of a female inheritance. In the thirteenth century CE, Shafi'i law expert Abu Zakariya al-Nawawi ruled that an individual whose sex could not be determined by hukm al-mabal, such as those with urination from both openings or those with no identifiable sex organs, was assigned the intermediary sex category khuntha mushkil. Both Hanafi and Hanbali lawmakers recognized that puberty could clarify a new dominant sex in intersex individuals who were labeled khuntha, male, or female in childhood.
If a khuntha or male developed female secondary sex characteristics, performed vaginal sex, menstruated, or conceived, this person's legal sex could change to female. Conversely, if a khuntha or female developed male secondary sex characteristics, performed penetrative sex with a woman, or had an erection, their legal sex could change to male; this understanding of the effect of puberty on intersex conditions appears in Islamic law as early as the eleventh century CE, notably by Ibn Qudama. In the sixteenth century CE, Ibrahim al-Halabi, a member of the Hanafi school of jurisprudence in Islam, directed slave owners to use special gender-neutral language when freeing intersex slaves, he recognized that language manumitting. The Tirumantiram Tirumular recorded the relationship between intersex people and Shiva. Ardhanarishvara, an androgynous composite form of male deity Shiva and female deity Parvati, originated in Kushan culture as far back as the first century CE. A statue depicting Ardhanarishvara is included in India's Meenkashi Temple.
Due to the presence of intersex traits, Ardhanarishvara is associated with the hijra, a third sex category, accepted in South Asia for centuries. After interviewing and studying the hijra for many years, Serena Nanda writes in her book Neither Man Nor Woman: The Hijras of India as follows: "There is a widespread belief in India that hijras are born hermaphrodites and are taken away by the hijra community at birth or in childhood, but I found no evidence to support this belief among the hijras I met, all of whom joined the community voluntarily in their teens."According to Herdt, the hijra differentiate between "born" and "made" individuals, or those who have physical intersex traits by birth and those who become hijra through penectomy, respectively. According to Indian tradition, the hijra perform a traditional song and dance as part of a family's celebration of the birth of a male child. Herdt states that it is accepted that if the child is intersex, the hijra have a right to claim it as part of their community.
However and Raza argue that an association between inte