In the field of road transport, an interchange is a road junction that uses grade separation, one or more ramps, to permit traffic on at least one highway to pass through the junction without interruption from other crossing traffic streams. It differs from a standard intersection. Interchanges are always used when at least one road is a controlled-access highway or a limited-access divided highway, though they are sometimes used at junctions between surface streets. Note: The descriptions of interchanges apply to countries where vehicles drive on the right side of the road. For left-side driving, layout of the junctions is the only left/right is reversed. A freeway junction or highway interchange or motorway junction is a type of road junction linking one controlled-access highway to another, to other roads, or to a rest area or motorway service area. In the UK, most junctions are numbered sequentially. In the US, interchanges are either numbered by interchange number. A highway ramp or slip road is a short section of road that allows vehicles to enter or exit a controlled-access highway.
A directional ramp tends toward the desired direction of travel: A ramp that makes a left turn exits from the left side of the roadway. Left directional ramps are uncommon, as the left lane is reserved for high-speed through traffic. Ramps for a right turn are always right directional ramps. A non-directional ramp goes opposite to the desired direction of travel. Many loop ramps are non-directional. A semi-directional ramp exits in a direction opposite from the desired direction of travel turns toward the desired direction. Many flyover ramps are semi-directional. A U-turn ramp leaves the road in one direction, turns over or under it, rejoins in the opposite direction. Weaving is an undesirable situation where traffic veering right and left must cross paths within a limited distance, to merge with traffic on the through lane; the German Autobahn system has Autobahn-to-Autobahn interchanges of two types: a four-way interchange, the Autobahnkreuz, where two motorways cross. Some on-ramps have a ramp meter, a dedicated mid-ramp traffic light that controls the flow of entering vehicles.
A complete interchange has enough ramps to provide access from any direction of any road in the junction to any direction of any other road in the junction. A complete interchange between a freeway and another road requires at least four ramps. Complete interchanges between two freeways have at least eight ramps, as having fewer would reduce capacity and increase weaving. Using U-turns, the number for two freeways can be reduced to six, by making cars that want to turn left either pass by the other road first make a U-turn and turn right, or turn right first and make a U-turn. Depending on the interchange type and the connectivity offered other numbers of ramps may be used. For example, if a highway interchanges with a highway containing a collector/express system, additional ramps can be used to link the interchanging highway with the collector and express lanes respectively. For highways with high-occupancy vehicle lanes, ramps can be used to service these carriageways directly, thereby increasing the number of ramps used.
An incomplete interchange has at least one or more missing ramps that prevent access to at least one direction of another road in the junction from any other road in the junction. A cloverleaf interchange is a two-level, four-way interchange where all turns across opposing traffic are handled by non-directional loop ramps. Assuming right-handed traffic, to go left vehicles first cross over or under the target route bear right onto a curved ramp that turns 270 degrees, merging onto the target route from the right, crossing the route just departed; these loop ramps produce the namesake cloverleaf shape. Two major advantages of cloverleaves are that they require only one bridge which makes such junctions inexpensive as long as land is plentiful, that they do not require any traffic signals to operate. However, weaving is a major shortcoming of cloverleaves, as the four total offramps and onramps are present, merge on the main routes; the capacity of this design is comparatively low. Cloverleaves use a considerable area of land, are more found along older highways, in rural areas and within cities with low population densities.
A variant design separates all turning traffic into a parallel carriageway to minimize the problem of weaving. Collector and distributor roads are similar, but are separated from the main carriageway by a divider, such as a guard rail or Jersey barrier. A stack interchange is a four-way interchange whereby a semi-directional left turn and a directional right turn are both available. Access to both turns is provided by a single offramp. Assuming right-handed driving, in order to cross over incoming traffic and go left, vehicles first exit onto an off-ramp from the rightmost lane. After demerging from right-turning traffic, they complete their left turn by crossing both highways on a flyover ramp or underpass; the penultimate step is a merge with the right-turn on-ramp traffic from the opposite quadrant of the interchange. An onramp merges both streams o
Interstate Highway System
The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways known as the Interstate Highway System, is a network of controlled-access highways that forms part of the National Highway System in the United States; the system is named for President Dwight D. Eisenhower. Construction was authorized by the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, the original portion was completed 35 years although some urban routes were cancelled and never built; the network has since been extended. In 2016, it had a total length of 48,181 miles; as of 2016, about one-quarter of all vehicle miles driven in the country use the Interstate system. In 2006, the cost of construction was estimated at about $425 billion; the United States government's efforts to construct a national network of highways began on an ad hoc basis with the passage of the Federal Aid Road Act of 1916, which provided for $75 million over a five-year period for matching funds to the states for the construction and improvement of highways.
The nation's revenue needs associated with World War I prevented any significant implementation of this policy, which expired in 1921. In December 1918, E. J. Mehren, a civil engineer and the editor of Engineering News-Record, presented his "A Suggested National Highway Policy and Plan" during a gathering of the State Highway Officials and Highway Industries Association at the Congress Hotel in Chicago. In the plan, Mehren proposed a 50,000-mile system, consisting of five east–west routes and 10 north–south routes; the system would include two percent of all roads and would pass through every state at a cost of $25,000 per mile, providing commercial as well as military transport benefits. As the landmark 1916 law expired, new legislation was passed—the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1921; this new road construction initiative once again provided for federal matching funds for road construction and improvement, $75 million allocated annually. Moreover, this new legislation for the first time sought to target these funds to the construction of a national road grid of interconnected "primary highways", setting up cooperation among the various state highway planning boards.
The Bureau of Public Roads asked the Army to provide a list of roads that it considered necessary for national defense. In 1922, General John J. Pershing, former head of the American Expeditionary Force in Europe during the war, complied by submitting a detailed network of 20,000 miles of interconnected primary highways—the so-called Pershing Map. A boom in road construction followed throughout the decade of the 1920s, with such projects as the New York parkway system constructed as part of a new national highway system; as automobile traffic increased, planners saw a need for such an interconnected national system to supplement the existing non-freeway, United States Numbered Highways system. By the late 1930s, planning had expanded to a system of new superhighways. In 1938, President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave Thomas MacDonald, chief at the Bureau of Public Roads, a hand-drawn map of the United States marked with eight superhighway corridors for study. In 1939, Bureau of Public Roads Division of Information chief Herbert S. Fairbank wrote a report called Toll Roads and Free Roads, "the first formal description of what became the interstate highway system" and, in 1944, the themed Interregional Highways.
The Interstate Highway System gained a champion in President Dwight D. Eisenhower, influenced by his experiences as a young Army officer crossing the country in the 1919 Army Convoy on the Lincoln Highway, the first road across America. Eisenhower gained an appreciation of the Reichsautobahn system, the first "national" implementation of modern Germany's Autobahn network, as a necessary component of a national defense system while he was serving as Supreme Commander Of Allied Forces in Europe during World War II, he recognized that the proposed system would provide key ground transport routes for military supplies and troop deployments in case of an emergency or foreign invasion. The publication in 1955 of the General Location of National System of Interstate Highways, informally known as the Yellow Book, mapped out what became the Interstate Highway System. Assisting in the planning was Charles Erwin Wilson, still head of General Motors when President Eisenhower selected him as Secretary of Defense in January 1953.
The Interstate Highway System was authorized on June 29, 1956 by the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, popularly known as the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act of 1956. Three states have claimed the title of first Interstate Highway. Missouri claims that the first three contracts under the new program were signed in Missouri on August 2, 1956; the first contract signed was for upgrading a section of US Route 66 to what is now designated Interstate 44. On August 13, 1956, Missouri awarded the first contract based on new Interstate Highway funding. Kansas claims. Preliminary construction had taken place before the act was signed, paving started September 26, 1956; the state marked its portion of I-70 as the first project in the United States completed under the provisions of the new Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956. The Pennsylvania Turnpike could be considered one of the first Interstate Highways. On October 1, 1940, 162 miles of the highway now designated I‑70 and I‑76 opened between Irwin and Carlisle.
The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania refers to the turnpike as the Granddaddy of the Pikes. Milestones in the construction of the Interstate Highway System include: October 17, 1974: Nebraska becomes
St. Petersburg, Florida
St. Petersburg is a city in Pinellas County, United States; as of the 2015 census estimate, the population was 257,083, making it the fifth-most populous city in Florida and the largest in the state, not a county seat. St. Petersburg is the second-largest city in the Tampa Bay Area, after Tampa. Together with Clearwater, these cities comprise the Tampa–St. Petersburg–Clearwater Metropolitan Statistical Area, the second-largest in Florida with a population of around 2.8 million. St. Petersburg is located on the Pinellas peninsula between Tampa Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, is connected to mainland Florida to the north. St. Petersburg was founded in 1888 by John C. Williams, who purchased the land, by Peter Demens, who brought the railroad industry into the area; as a part of a coin toss bet, the winner, Peter Demens, named the land after Saint Petersburg, while Williams opted to name the first hotel built, named the Detroit Hotel, both named after their home towns respectively. St. Petersburg was incorporated as a town on February 29, 1892 and re-incorporated as a city on June 6, 1903.
The city is referred to by locals as St. Pete. Neighboring St. Pete Beach formally shortened its name in 1994 after a vote by its residents. St. Petersburg is governed by a city council. With an average of some 361 days of sunshine each year, a Guinness World Record for logging the most consecutive days of sunshine, it is nicknamed "The Sunshine City". Due to its good weather and low cost of living, the city has long been a popular retirement destination, although in recent years the population has moved in a much more youthful direction. American Style magazine ranked St. Petersburg its top mid-size city in 2011, citing its "vibrant" arts scene; the city was co-founded by John C. Williams of Detroit, who purchased the land in 1875, by Peter Demens, instrumental in bringing the terminus of the Orange Belt Railway there in 1888; the first major newspaper to debut in Tampa Bay was the St. Petersburg Times which established in 1884. St. Petersburg was incorporated as a town on February 29, 1892, when it had a population of only some 300 people.
A local legend says that John C. Williams and Peter Demens flipped a coin to see who would have the honor of naming the city; when Demens won the coin toss the city was named after Saint Petersburg, where Peter Demens had spent half of his youth, while John C. Williams named the first hotel after his birthplace, Detroit; the Detroit Hotel still has been turned into a condominium. The oldest running hotels are the historic Pier Hotel, built in 1921, formally Hotel Cordova and The Heritage Hotel, built in 1926. Philadelphia publisher F. A. Davis turned on St. Petersburg's first electrical service in 1897; the city's first major industry was born in 1899 when Henry W. Hibbs, a native of Newport, North Carolina, established his wholesale fish business at the end of the railroad pier, which extended out to the shipping channel. Within a year, Hibbs Fish Company was shipping more than 1,000 pounds of fish each day. St. Petersburg was incorporated as a city in June 1903. With this transition, the development of the downtown waterfront had dredging of a deeper shipping channel from 1906 to 1908 which opened St. Petersburg to larger shipping.
Further dredging improved the port facilities through the 1910s. By the city's population had quadrupled to a population of 4,127 citizens. F. A. Davis was instrumental to bringing the first trolley service in 1904. In 1914, the Tampa Bay area was one of the first Floridian cities that fell in love with baseball tracing its roots from Tampa and St. Petersburg; the former mayor of St. Petersburg, Al Lang, had invited the St. Louis Browns to move their spring training into the city. St. Petersburg's first library opened on December 1, 1915 which still operates till this day as the Mirror Lake Library. In 1914 an airplane service across Tampa Bay from St. Petersburg to Tampa and back was initiated considered the first scheduled commercial airline flight; the company name was the St. Petersburg-Tampa Airboat Line, the pilot was Tony Jannus, flying a Benoist XIV flying boat; the Tony Jannus Award is presented annually for outstanding achievement in the airline industry. The 1920s in St. Petersburg was big due to its major growth brought by tourists.
Tourists came from all over by automobile and railroad. Travel time from across the bay was cut due to the Gandy Bridge's opening in 1924, helping St. Petersburg increase in tourist numbers and helped grow it into the largest city in Pinellas County; the city adopted the Mediterranean-style architecture brought by Snell Isles founder Perry Snell. An attraction that brought on a great number of tourists and citizens was the Million Dollar Pier, built in 1926. Tourism declined by early 1930s due to the Great Depression; the city recovered in the 1930s with the help of the Public Works Administration, including a $10 million investment plan in 1939 which helped build the St. Petersburg City Hall. By the 1940s the city received a large population growth due to World War II. St. Petersburg was a training ground area for the U. S. Coast Guard which had a training base and used the city's Bayboro Harbor, for the Army Air Force, selected by the War Department to use the city as their technical service training station.
With both stations occupying the city, more than 100,000 troops occupied all hotels in St. Petersburg. After the war, most troops who were stationed in St. Petersburg returned as tourists. In the 1950s, St. Petersburg experienced another population increase with residen
Interstate 275 (Florida)
Interstate 275, located in Florida, is a 60-mile-long highway serving the Tampa Bay Area. Its southern terminus is at Interstate 75 near Palmetto, where I-275 heads west towards the Sunshine Skyway Bridge crossing over Tampa Bay. From that point, I-275 passes through St. Petersburg before crossing Tampa Bay again on the Howard Frankland Bridge continues through the city of Tampa, where it connects to an interchange with Interstate 4 in Downtown Tampa. After the interchange, I-275 passes north through the Tampa suburbs to its northern terminus at Interstate 75 in Wesley Chapel. Interstate 275 and its parent route Interstate 75 follow the opposite of the usual conventions of freeway routing; the parent route runs through a metropolitan area while an interstate with a three-digit number serves as the bypass route. However, in this case I-275 runs through Tampa and St. Petersburg, while I-75 serves as the bypass route. Interstate 275 begins at exit 228 of Interstate 75 with two lanes in either direction in rural Palmetto.
275 heads west of its parent interstate and has an interchange US 41 2 miles up the road. I-275's next interchange is beginning a concurrency that lasts 13 miles. After this exit, I-275 reaches the Southern toll plaza for the Sunshine Skyway Bridge. There is a corresponding Northern toll plaza for southbound travelers; the Sunshine Skyway Bridge is a 4.1-mile-long bridge. After reaching the northern end of the bridge, 275 enters St. Petersburg. At the northern end of the bridge, drivers drive on the left side as the freeway's lanes invert for about half a mile before US 19 exits the freeway, serving as a local road in St. Petersburg. I-275 has multiple exits in the city, each of them serving the residential neighborhoods that the freeway passes through. At this point, the interstate widens to 3 lanes in either direction. 275's next major interchange is with Interstate 175, which provides access to Albert Whitted Airport and Tropicana Field, home of the Tampa Bay Rays. The next major interchange occurs less than a mile down the road with Interstate 375, providing access to the waterfront along Tampa Bay.
After this exit, I-275 continues through residential neighborhoods until it passes beside Sawgrass Lake Park and through an area of marshland. The freeway widens to four lanes in either direction before reaching its last interchange in St. Petersburg with SR 687. After traveling 19 miles in St. Petersburg, I-275 crosses the Howard Frankland Bridge over Old Tampa Bay into Tampa. I-275 has an interchange with SR 589, allowing access to Tampa International Airport. At this point, I-275 thins down to three lanes in either direction, remains this way for the rest of the freeway. 275 has an interchange with US 92, the first of two interchanges with the road, allowing access to downtown Tampa. 275 crosses the Hillsborough River for the first time along its route. Afterwards, 6 miles from its entry into Tampa, I-275 has its next major interchange with Interstate 4, a junction known locally as Malfunction Junction; this junction was subsequently overhauled. This interchange serves as I-4's western terminus, allows access to Orlando and the east coast of Florida.
After this major exit, 275 reaches an interchange with US 92 again allowing access to US 41. After this interchange, US 41 acts as the local road for the freeway for the rest of its route. 275 enters residential neighborhoods within Tampa. 275 travels due north and parallel to US 41 for 4 miles before turning northeast towards Interstate 75. At this point, 275 exits enters Lutz, a suburb of Tampa. I-275 reconnects with its parent interstate highway and reaches its northern terminus. Between southern terminus and Exit 17: two lanes each way excluding the toll plaza Between Exit 17 and Exit 30: three lanes each way Between Exits 22 and 23A: two lanes each way Between Exits 25 and 26: four lanes each way, with the right lane in both directions designated "exit only" Between Exits 30 and 39, including the Howard Frankland Bridge: four lanes each way Between Exit 39 and northern terminus: three lanes each way Through Exit 39 two lanes in each way Southbound I-275 two lanes for most I-275 I-4 interchange I-275 opened in 1962 as a segment of I-75, from the present northern terminus to a diamond interchange at Bearss Avenue.
The portion of Interstate 4 that would become a part of I-275, the Howard Frankland Bridge, its short freeway stubs at the bridge's endpoints, opened to traffic about a year earlier. In 1964, the stub of what was known as I-4 between 50th St. and Armenia Avenue was completed. "Malfunction Junction's" northern end was a pair of ramp stubs that would be filled in by I-75. In 1965, the segment of I-75 from "Malfunction Junction" to about Sligh Avenue was completed, by 1967, the remaining gaps in I-4 and I-75 were filled and opened to traffic. Around 1970, plans for the extension of I-75 into Pinellas County began. However, the first round of local opposition would lead to the eventual delays of I-75 through St. Petersburg; the first setback was led by 4th Street business owners and residents who demanded that construction on I-75 be stopped, since the bridge was funneling unwanted traffic into the corridor. It has since seen many unforeseen business and residential booms, due to the building of this bridge.
At the same time, construction began on I-75 from Roosevelt Boulevard to about 38th Avenue North. By this time, I-4 was truncated to "Malfunction Junction," allowing the I-75 designa
Interstate 375 (Florida)
Interstate 375 in St. Petersburg, Florida known as North Bay Drive, is a 1.2-mile-long spur route from Interstate 275 into downtown. It is designated as the unsigned State Road 592. There is a sibling segment of freeway nearby, designated I-175. Interstate 375 begins at an interchange with Interstate 275, heading east towards downtown St. Petersburg, with interchanges with 8th Street North/9th Street North, before ending at 4th Avenue North west of 4th Street North. Westbound I-375 begins with a split of 5th Avenue North west of 4th Street North with no exits until reaching I-275. Along with its sister highway I-175, I-375 lacks exit numbers. Interstate 375 was planned as a much longer, state highway, extending west of Interstate 275 and following a CSX rail line towards a proposed toll road near Clearwater; when I-75 was relocated in the late 1970s/early 1980s, five miles of additional interstate became available, thus the St. Pete feeder sections of I-375 and the neighboring I-175 were upgraded to Interstate status.
However, the Interstate Highway standards at the time would not allow the I-375 extension to receive Federal Interstate Highway funding, leaving only the section east of I-275 built to freeway standards. The planned freeway extension of I-375 was canceled by officials at the Department of Transportation in the mid 1970s; the cancellation of the rest of Interstate 375 resulted in US 19 between Gandy Boulevard and the Pinellas-Pasco line being upgraded to freeway standards. Contrary to popular belief, the ramp stub at the I-375 interchange was not a result of the failed freeway extension. A connection to 20th St N was planned from this stub. However, the 20th St N and 5th Ave N Intersection was convoluted prior to I-275's construction and the Florida Department of Transportation decided not to build the connection as a result. On March 27, 2007, a tanker entering I-375 east from I-275 south's left exit lost control and hit the retaining wall, catching fire and burning for several hours; the resulting fire became so intense, that it damaged a large section of the I-375 overpass from southbound I-275.
Intense flames fell to a city-owned construction equipment yard and destroyed 8 to 10 city vehicles, causing an estimated $500,000 in damage to the yard. The fire spread to St. Petersburg's stormwater system, blowing off manhole covers within the vicinity. One St. Petersburg police officer was injured as a result being struck by one of those manhole covers. In the end, the driver of the tanker died on-scene due to the fire; the I-375 overpass remained closed for four weeks while Florida Department of Transportation rebuilt the damaged sections of the bridge, reopening to traffic on the morning of April 22, 2007, about one week ahead of schedule. Reconstruction of the I-375 overpass included the rebuilding of one entire span, plus 11 concrete beams. In addition, one of the support columns underwent significant repairs to ensure its strength in supporting the roadway. FDOT placed signs along I-275 south, indicating the left exit onto I-375, due to this, as well as other fatal incidents that have occurred on the interchange.
The entire route is in Pinellas County. Florida portal U. S. Roads portal Kurumi - I-375 Florida General Info Interstate 375 Florida page at Interstate275Florida.com History and Photos
Pinellas County, Florida
Pinellas County is a county located in the state of Florida. As of the 2010 census, the population was 916,542; the county is part of the Tampa–St. Petersburg–Clearwater, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area. Clearwater is the county seat, St. Petersburg is the largest city. Prior to European exploration and settlement the Pinellas peninsula, like all of Tampa Bay, was inhabited by the Tocobaga Indians, who built a town and large temple mound overlooking the bay in what is now Safety Harbor; the modern site can be visited as part of the County's Philippe Park. During the early 16th century Spanish explorers discovered and began exploring Florida, including Tampa Bay. In 1528 Panfilo de Narvaez landed in Pinellas, 10 years Hernando de Soto is thought to have explored the Tampa Bay Area. By the early 18th century the Tocobaga had been annihilated, having fallen victim to European diseases from which they had no immunity, as well as European conflicts. Spanish explorers named the area Punta Piñal.
After trading hands multiple times between the British and the Spanish, Spain ceded Florida to the United States in 1821, in 1823 the U. S. Army established Fort Brooke. In 1834 much of west central Florida, including the Pinellas peninsula, was organized as Hillsborough County; the next year Odet Philippe became the first permanent, non-native resident of the peninsula when he established a homestead near the site of the Tocobaga village in Safety Harbor. It was Philippe who first introduced both citrus cigar-making to Florida. Around the same time, the United States Army began construction of Fort Harrison, named after William Henry Harrison, as a rest post for soldiers from nearby Fort Brooke during the Second Seminole War; the new fort was located on a bluff overlooking Clear Water Harbor, which became part of an early 20th-century residential development called Harbor Oaks. University of South Florida archaeologists excavated the site in 1977 after Alfred C. Wyllie discovered an underground ammunition bunker.
Clearwater would become the first organized community on the peninsula as well as the site of its first post office. The Armed Occupation Act, passed in 1842, encouraged further settlement of Pinellas, like all of Florida, by offering 160 acres to anyone who would bear arms and cultivate the land. Pioneer families like the Booths, the Coachmans, the Marstons, the McMullens established homesteads in the area in the years following, planting more citrus groves and raising cattle. During the American Civil War, many residents fought for the Confederate States of America. Brothers James and Daniel McMullen were members of the Confederate Cow Cavalry, driving Florida cattle to Georgia and the Carolinas to help sustain the war effort. John W. Marston served in the 9th Florida Regiment as a part of the Appomattox Campaign. Many other residents served in other capacities. Otherwise the peninsula had no significance during the war, the war passed the area by. Tarpon Springs became West Hillsborough's first incorporated city in 1887, in 1888 the Orange Belt Railway was extended into the southern portion of the peninsula.
Railroad owner Peter Demens named the town that grew near the railroad's terminus St. Petersburg in honor of his hometown; the town would incorporate in 1892. Other major towns in the county incorporated during this time were Clearwater and Largo. Construction of Fort De Soto, on Mullet Key facing the mouth of Tampa Bay, was begun in 1898 during the Spanish–American War to protect Tampa Bay from potential invading forces; the fort, a subpost of Fort Dade on adjacent Egmont Key, was equipped with artillery and mortar batteries. Into the early years of the 20th century, West Hillsborough had no paved roads, transportation posed a major challenge. A trip to the county seat, across the bay in Tampa, was an overnight affair and the automobiles that existed on the peninsula at that time would become bogged down in the muck after rainstorms. Angry at what was perceived as neglect by the county government, residents of Pinellas began a push to secede from Hillsborough, they succeeded, on January 1, 1912 Pinellas County came into being.
The peninsula, along with a small part of the mainland were incorporated into the new county. Aviation history was made in St. Petersburg on January 1, 1914 when Tony Jannus made the world's first scheduled commercial airline flight with the St. Petersburg-Tampa Airboat Line from St. Petersburg to Tampa; the popular open-air St. Petersburg concert venue Jannus Live memorializes the flight; the early 1920s saw the beginning of a land boom including Pinellas. During this period municipalities issued a large number of bonds to keep pace with the needed infrastructure, such as roads and bridges; the travel time to Tampa was cut in half—from 43 to 19 miles —by the opening of the Gandy Bridge in 1924, along the same route Jannus' airline used. It was the longest automobile toll bridge in the world at the time. Prohibition was unpopular in the area and the peninsula's countless inlets and islands became havens for rumrunners bringing in liquor from Cuba. Others distilled moonshine in the County's still plentiful woods.
As was the case in much of Florida, the Great Depression came early to Pinellas with the collapse of the real estate boom in 1926. Local economies came into severe difficulties, by 1930, St. Petersburg defaulted on its bonds. Only after World War II would significant growth