State highways in California
The state highway system of the U. S. state of California is a network of highways that are owned and maintained by the Highway Division of the California Department of Transportation. Each highway is assigned a Route number in the Streets and Highways Code. Most of these are numbered in a statewide system, are known as State Route X. United States Numbered Highways are labeled US X, Interstate Highways are Interstate X. Under the code, the state assigns a unique Route X to each highway, does not differentiate between state, US, or Interstate highways; the California Highway Patrol is tasked with patrolling all state highways to enforce traffic laws. California's highway system is governed pursuant to Division 1 of the California Streets and Highways Code. Since July 1 of 1964, the majority of legislative route numbers, those defined in the Streets and Highways Code, match the sign route numbers. For example, Interstate 5 is listed as "Route 5" in the code. On the other hand, some short routes are instead signed as parts of other routes — for instance, Route 112 and Route 260 are signed as part of the longer State Route 61, Route 51 is part of Interstate 80 Business.
Concurrences are not explicitly codified in the Streets and Highways Code. The state may turn them over to local control. If the relinquished segment is in the middle of the highway's route, the local jurisdiction is required to install and maintain signs directing drivers to the continuation of that highway; the state may delete a highway and turn over an entire state route to local control. Business routes are not maintained by the state unless they are assigned legislative route numbers. A few routes or sections of routes are considered unrelinquished - a new alignment has been built, or the legislative definition has changed to omit the section, but the state still maintains the roadway — and are Route XU. There are two such unrelinqushed routes, with State Route 14U, an old alignment of State Route 14, as the most recent example of such, where the process to relinquish 14U started on January 1 of 2018, along with State Route 103U being the other unrelinquished route within the system; some new alignments are considered supplemental and have a suffix of S.
Both types of suffixed routes are considered spurs. Current or former unsigned suffixed routes include State Route 156U, signed as State Route 156 Business through Hollister, State Route 180S, the freeway replacement for State Route 180 in Fresno; the first legislative routes were defined by the State Highway Bond Act in 1909, passed by the California State Legislature and signed by Governor James Gillett. These, extensions to the system, were numbered sequentially. No signs were erected for these routes; the United States Numbered Highways were assigned by the American Association of State Highway Officials in November 1926, but posting did not begin in California until January 1928. These were assigned to some of the main legislative routes in California. Signs were posted by the Automobile Club of Southern California and California State Automobile Association, active in signing national auto trails and local roads since the mid-1900s. In 1934, after the major expansion of the state highway system in 1933 by the California Legislature, California sign route numbers were assigned by the California Division of Highways.
The California sign route numbers were assigned in a geographical system independent of the legislative routes. Odd-numbered routes ran north–south and even-numbered routes ran east–west; the routes were split among southern California and central and northern California as follows: 0 or 1 modulo 4: central and northern California 2 or 3 modulo 4: southern CaliforniaFor instance, State Route 1 and State Route 4 were in central and northern California, State Route 2 and State Route 3 were in southern California. A rough grid was used inside the two regions, with the largest numbers — all less than 200 - in eastern California and near the border between the two regions; the Interstate Highway System numbers were assigned by AASHO in late 1959. In 1963 and 1964, a total renumbering of the legislative routes was made, aligning them with the sign routes; some changes were made to the sign routes related to decommissionings of U. S. Routes in favor of Interstates. Since the 1990s, many non-freeway routes in urban areas, have been deleted and turned over to local control.
This transfers the cost of maintaining them from state to local budgets, but gives local governments direct control over urban arterial roads th
Interstate Highway System
The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways known as the Interstate Highway System, is a network of controlled-access highways that forms part of the National Highway System in the United States; the system is named for President Dwight D. Eisenhower. Construction was authorized by the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, the original portion was completed 35 years although some urban routes were cancelled and never built; the network has since been extended. In 2016, it had a total length of 48,181 miles; as of 2016, about one-quarter of all vehicle miles driven in the country use the Interstate system. In 2006, the cost of construction was estimated at about $425 billion; the United States government's efforts to construct a national network of highways began on an ad hoc basis with the passage of the Federal Aid Road Act of 1916, which provided for $75 million over a five-year period for matching funds to the states for the construction and improvement of highways.
The nation's revenue needs associated with World War I prevented any significant implementation of this policy, which expired in 1921. In December 1918, E. J. Mehren, a civil engineer and the editor of Engineering News-Record, presented his "A Suggested National Highway Policy and Plan" during a gathering of the State Highway Officials and Highway Industries Association at the Congress Hotel in Chicago. In the plan, Mehren proposed a 50,000-mile system, consisting of five east–west routes and 10 north–south routes; the system would include two percent of all roads and would pass through every state at a cost of $25,000 per mile, providing commercial as well as military transport benefits. As the landmark 1916 law expired, new legislation was passed—the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1921; this new road construction initiative once again provided for federal matching funds for road construction and improvement, $75 million allocated annually. Moreover, this new legislation for the first time sought to target these funds to the construction of a national road grid of interconnected "primary highways", setting up cooperation among the various state highway planning boards.
The Bureau of Public Roads asked the Army to provide a list of roads that it considered necessary for national defense. In 1922, General John J. Pershing, former head of the American Expeditionary Force in Europe during the war, complied by submitting a detailed network of 20,000 miles of interconnected primary highways—the so-called Pershing Map. A boom in road construction followed throughout the decade of the 1920s, with such projects as the New York parkway system constructed as part of a new national highway system; as automobile traffic increased, planners saw a need for such an interconnected national system to supplement the existing non-freeway, United States Numbered Highways system. By the late 1930s, planning had expanded to a system of new superhighways. In 1938, President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave Thomas MacDonald, chief at the Bureau of Public Roads, a hand-drawn map of the United States marked with eight superhighway corridors for study. In 1939, Bureau of Public Roads Division of Information chief Herbert S. Fairbank wrote a report called Toll Roads and Free Roads, "the first formal description of what became the interstate highway system" and, in 1944, the themed Interregional Highways.
The Interstate Highway System gained a champion in President Dwight D. Eisenhower, influenced by his experiences as a young Army officer crossing the country in the 1919 Army Convoy on the Lincoln Highway, the first road across America. Eisenhower gained an appreciation of the Reichsautobahn system, the first "national" implementation of modern Germany's Autobahn network, as a necessary component of a national defense system while he was serving as Supreme Commander Of Allied Forces in Europe during World War II, he recognized that the proposed system would provide key ground transport routes for military supplies and troop deployments in case of an emergency or foreign invasion. The publication in 1955 of the General Location of National System of Interstate Highways, informally known as the Yellow Book, mapped out what became the Interstate Highway System. Assisting in the planning was Charles Erwin Wilson, still head of General Motors when President Eisenhower selected him as Secretary of Defense in January 1953.
The Interstate Highway System was authorized on June 29, 1956 by the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, popularly known as the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act of 1956. Three states have claimed the title of first Interstate Highway. Missouri claims that the first three contracts under the new program were signed in Missouri on August 2, 1956; the first contract signed was for upgrading a section of US Route 66 to what is now designated Interstate 44. On August 13, 1956, Missouri awarded the first contract based on new Interstate Highway funding. Kansas claims. Preliminary construction had taken place before the act was signed, paving started September 26, 1956; the state marked its portion of I-70 as the first project in the United States completed under the provisions of the new Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956. The Pennsylvania Turnpike could be considered one of the first Interstate Highways. On October 1, 1940, 162 miles of the highway now designated I‑70 and I‑76 opened between Irwin and Carlisle.
The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania refers to the turnpike as the Granddaddy of the Pikes. Milestones in the construction of the Interstate Highway System include: October 17, 1974: Nebraska becomes
San Bernardino, California
San Bernardino is a city located in the Riverside–San Bernardino metropolitan area and that serves as the county seat of San Bernardino County, United States. As one of the Inland Empire's anchor cities, San Bernardino spans 81 square miles on the floor of the San Bernardino Valley and as of 2017 has a population of 216,995. San Bernardino is the 17th-largest city in California and the 102nd-largest city in the United States. San Bernardino is home to numerous diplomatic missions for the Inland Empire, being one of four cities in California with numerous consulates; the governments of Guatemala and Mexico have established their consulates in the downtown area of the city. California State University, San Bernardino is located in the northwestern part of the city; the university hosts the Coussoulis Arena. Other attractions in San Bernardino include ASU Fox Theatre, the McDonald's Museum, located on the original site of the world's first McDonald's, California Theatre, the San Bernardino Mountains, San Manuel Amphitheater, the largest outdoor amphitheater in the United States.
In addition, the city is home to the Inland Empire 66ers baseball team. In August 2012, San Bernardino became the largest city to file for protection under Chapter 9 of the U. S. Bankruptcy code. San Bernardino's case was filed on August 1. On December 2, 2015, a terrorist attack left 14 people dead and 22 injured; the city of San Bernardino, occupies much of the San Bernardino Valley, which indigenous tribespeople referred to as "The Valley of the Cupped Hand of God". The Tongva Indians called the San Bernardino area Wa'aach in their language. Upon seeing the immense geological arrowhead-shaped rock formation on the side of the San Bernardino Mountains, they found the hot and cold springs to which the "arrowhead" seemed to point. Politana was the first Spanish settlement in the San Bernardino Valley, named for Bernardino of Siena. Politana was established May 20, 1810, as a mission chapel and supply station by the Mission San Gabriel in the ranchería of the Guachama Indians that lived on the bluff, now known as Bunker Hill, near Lytle Creek.
Two years the settlement was destroyed by superstitious local tribesmen, following powerful earthquakes that shook the region. Several years the Serrano and Mountain Cahuilla rebuilt the Politana rancheria, in 1819 invited the missionaries to return to the valley, they established the San Bernardino de Sena Estancia. Serrano and Cahuilla people inhabited Politana until long after the 1830s decree of secularization and the 1842 inclusion into the Rancho San Bernardino land grant of the José del Carmen Lugo family; the city of San Bernardino is one of the oldest communities in the state of California, in its present-day location, was not settled until 1851, after California became a state. The first Anglo-American colony was established by pioneers associated with The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints or Mormons. Following the Mormon colonists purchase of Rancho San Bernardino, the establishment of the town of San Bernardino in 1851, San Bernardino County was formed in 1853 from parts of Los Angeles County.
Mormon colonists developed irrigated, commercial farming and lumbering, supplying agricultural produce and lumber throughout Southern California. The city was incorporated in 1857; that year, most of the colonists were recalled by Brigham Young in 1857 due to the Utah War. Once regarded in early California, news of the Mountain Meadows Massacre poisoned attitudes toward the Mormons; some Mormons would stay in San Bernardino and some returned from Utah, but a real estate consortium from El Monte and Los Angeles bought most of the lands of the old rancho and of the departing colonists. They sold these lands to new settlers who came to dominate the culture and politics in the county and San Bernardino became a typical American frontier town. Many of the new land owners disliked the sober Mormons, indulging in drinking at saloons now allowed in the town. Disorder and violence in the vicinity became common, reaching a climax in the 1859 Ainsworth - Gentry Affair. In 1860 a gold rush began in the mountains nearby with the discovery of gold by William F. Holcomb in Holcomb Valley early 1860.
Another strike followed in the upper reach of Lytle Creek. By the 1860s, San Bernardino had became an important trading hub in Southern California; the city on the Los Angeles – Salt Lake Road, became the starting point for the Mojave Road from 1858 and Bradshaw Trail from 1862 to the mines along the Colorado River and within the Arizona Territory in the gold rush of 1862-1864. Near San Bernardino is a formed arrowhead-shaped rock formation on the side of a mountain, it measures 1375 feet by 449 feet. According to the Native American legend regarding the landmark arrowhead, an arrow from Heaven burned the formation onto the mountainside in order to show tribes where they could be healed. During the mid-19th century, "Dr." David Noble Smith claimed that a saint-like being appeared before him and told of a far-off land with exceptional climate and curative waters, marked by a gigantic arrowhead. Smith's search for that unique arrowhead formation began in Texas, ended at Arrowhead Springs in California in 1857.
By 1889, word of the springs, along with the hotel on the site had grown considerably. H
Riverside County, California
Riverside County is one of fifty-eight counties in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 2,189,641, making it the 4th-most populous county in California and the 11th-most populous in the United States; the name was derived from the city of Riverside, the county seat. Riverside County is included in the Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area known as the Inland Empire; the county is included in the Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA Combined Statistical Area. There is a high concentration of sprawling tract housing communities around Riverside and along the Interstate 10, 15, 215 freeways. Rectangular, Riverside County covers 7,208 square miles in Southern California, spanning from the Greater Los Angeles area to the Arizona border. Geographically, the county is desert in the central and eastern portions, but has a Mediterranean climate in the western portion. Most of Joshua Tree National Park is located in the county; the resort cities of Palm Springs, Palm Desert, Indian Wells, La Quinta, Rancho Mirage, Desert Hot Springs are all located in the Coachella Valley region of central Riverside County.
Large numbers of Los Angeles area workers have moved to the county in recent years to take advantage of affordable housing. Along with neighboring San Bernardino County, it was one of the fastest growing regions in the state prior to the recent changes in the regional economy. In addition, but significant, numbers of people have been moving into Southwest Riverside County from the San Diego-Tijuana metropolitan area; the cities of Temecula and Murrieta accounted for 20% of the increase in population of the county between 2000 and 2007. Riverside County was named for the Santa Ana River in 1870; the indigenous peoples of what is now Riverside County are Cupeño and Cahuilla Indians. The Luiseño lived in the Aguanga and Temecula Basins, Elsinore Trough and eastern Santa Ana Mountains and southward into San Diego County; the Cahuilla lived to the east and north of the Luiseño in the inland valleys, in the Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains and the desert of the Salton Sink. The first European settlement in the county was a Mission San Luis Rey de Francia estancia or farm, at the Luiseño village of Temecula.
Grain and grapes were grown here. In 1819, the Mission granted land to Leandro Serrano, mayordomo of San Antonio de Pala Asistencia for the Mission of San Luis Rey for Rancho Temescal. Following Mexican independence and the 1833 confiscation of Mission lands, more ranchos were granted. Rancho Jurupa in 1838, El Rincon in 1839, Rancho San Jacinto Viejo in 1842, Rancho San Jacinto y San Gorgonio in 1843, Ranchos La Laguna, Temecula in 1844, Ranchos Little Temecula, Potreros de San Juan Capistrano in 1845, Ranchos San Jacinto Sobrante, La Sierra, La Sierra, Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Nuevo y Potrero in 1846. New Mexican colonists founded the town of La Placita on the east side of the Santa Ana River at the northern extremity of what is now the city of Riverside in 1843; when the initial 27 California counties were established in 1850, the area today known as Riverside County was divided between Los Angeles County and San Diego County. In 1853, the eastern part of Los Angeles County was used to create San Bernardino County.
Between 1891 and 1893, several proposals and legislative attempts were put forth to form new counties in Southern California. These proposals included one for one for a San Jacinto County. None of the proposals were adopted until a measure to create Riverside County was signed by Governor Henry H. Markham on March 11, 1893; the new county was created from parts of San Diego County. On May 2, 1893, seventy percent of voters approved the formation of Riverside County. Voters chose the city of Riverside as the county seat by a large margin. Riverside County was formed on May 9, 1893, when the Board of Commissioners filed the final canvass of the votes. Riverside County is the birthplace of lane markings, thanks to Dr. June McCarroll in 1915 when she suggested her idea to the state government; the county is the location of the March Air Reserve Base, one of the oldest airfields continuously operated by the United States military. Established as the Alessandro Flying Training Field in February 1918, it was one of thirty-two U.
S. Army Air Service training camps established after the United States entry into World War I in April 1917; the airfield was renamed March Field the following month for 2d Lieutenant Peyton C. March, Jr. the deceased son of the then-Army Chief of Staff, General Peyton C. March, killed in an air crash in Texas just fifteen days after being commissioned. March Field remained an active Army Air Service U. S. Army Air Corps installation throughout the interwar period becoming a major installation of the U. S. Army Air Forces during World War II. Renamed March Air Force Base in 1947 following the establishment of the U. S. Air Force, it was a major Strategic Air Command installation throughout the Cold War. In 1996, it was transferred to the Air Force Reserve Command and gained its current name as a major base for the Air Force Reserve and the California Air National Guard. Riverside county was a major focal point of the Civil Rights Movements in the US the African-American sections of Riverside and Mexican-American communities of the Coachella Valley visited by Cesar Chavez of the farm labor union struggle.
Riverside county has been a focus of modern Native American Gaming enterprises. In the early 1980s, the county government attempted to shut down small bingo halls operated by the Morongo Band of Cahuilla Mission In
Grand Terrace, California
Grand Terrace is a city in San Bernardino County, United States. The population was 12,040 at the 2010 census, up from 11,626 at the 2000 census. Grand Terrace is located between Highgrove and Colton, along the 215 and Aqua Mansa industrial corridors; the city is situated between two mountain ridges: Blue Mountain to the east and the La Loma Hills to the west. Grand Terrace's roots go back to Mexican land grants dating from the period between 1830 and 1840. Mormon settlers came shortly after, arriving during the 1850s. According to the Riverside Press, in 1876, there were nine buildings in the Terrace-Colton area; the area was referred to as "the Terrace", but the word "Grand" was added around 1898 due to the beautiful views which surround the city. In 1905, Seventh-day Adventists, whose medical university is now located in nearby Loma Linda, settled in the area. Grand Terrace, at the time known as "South Colton", experienced continued growth and development during the Southern California suburbia and sunbelt periods in the late half of the 20th century.
The development of Grand Terrace, or East Riverside, as the Grand Terrace-Highgrove area was called, became a reality with the construction of the Gage Canal. This 22-1/2-mile canal, built at a cost of 2 million dollars, brought water from the Santa Ana River marshlands below The Terrace. With plenty of irrigation water, Grand Terrace became an agricultural community featuring fine, quality citrus. However, the severe "freeze" of 1913 destroyed many groves. Walnuts, a hardier tree, were planted as replacements along with peaches as a quick-profit crop; the social activities in the early 1900s centered around the Farm Bureau Extension Service and the Women's Club, followed by the PTA, in the 1930s. Since there were no local churches, people traveled to surrounding communities for worship and other church activities. In 1962, the Grand Terrace Chamber of Commerce was organized. From the beginning the Chamber was interested in preserving the local identity of the area, therefore, was a strong supporter of cityhood.
This group did much of the groundwork, which led to the formation of a local governing body in 1976, called the Municipal Advisory Council or MAC. After nearly two years of meetings and negotiations with the County, the residents went to the polls to decide the issue of cityhood; the response was an 82% vote for incorporation. On November 30, 1978, the Charter City Council was installed at Terrace Hills Junior High and Grand Terrace became the 16th city in San Bernardino County. Grand Terrace was named one of the "Top 100 Cities to Live In" by Money magazine in 2007; this 3.6-square-mile community has an average elevation of 1,065 feet. Its motto, inscribed on the city flag, is "The Blue Mountain City", refers to the Blue Lupine flower that used to grow on Blue Mountain in the spring. According to the city's web site, the 2000 census revealed that Grand Terrace has the highest median income in the Inland Empire region at $61,068. According to an article in The Press-Enterprise dated May 31, 2002, "Its clean streets, quiet neighborhoods and no violent crime are big draws for its middle-income population."
Grand Terrace is located at 34°1′52″N 117°19′0″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.5 square miles, all land. The 2010 United States Census reported that Grand Terrace had a population of 12,040; the population density was 3,438.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of Grand Terrace was 7,912 White, 673 African American, 120 Native American, 778 Asian, 32 Pacific Islander, 1,898 from other races, 627 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4,708 persons; the census reported that 11,927 people lived in households, 50 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 63 were institutionalized. There were 4,403 households, of which 1,548 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 2,214 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 599 had a female householder with no husband present, 254 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 285 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 26 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 1,026 households were made up of individuals and 395 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.71. There were 3,067 families. 2,781 people were under the age of 18, 1,244 people aged 18 to 24, 3,320 people aged 25 to 44, 3,195 people aged 45 to 64, 1,500 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36.1 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.6 males. There were 4,649 housing units at an average density of 1,327.5 per square mile, of which 2,790 were owner-occupied, 1,613 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.7%. 7,848 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 4,079 people lived in rental housing units. According to the 2010 United States Census, Grand Terrace had a median household income of $64,073, with 6.5% of the population living below the federal poverty line. At the 2000 census, there were 11,626 people, 4,221 households and 3,051 families residing in the city; the population density was 3,352.3 per square mile. The
San Bernardino County, California
San Bernardino County the County of San Bernardino, is a county located in the southern portion of the U. S. state of California, is located within the Greater Los Angeles area. As of the 2010 U. S. Census, the population was 2,035,210, making it the fifth-most populous county in California, the 12th-most populous in the United States; the county seat is San Bernardino. While included within the Greater Los Angeles area, San Bernardino County is included in the Riverside–San Bernardino–Ontario metropolitan statistical area, as well as the Los Angeles–Long Beach combined statistical area. With an area of 20,105 square miles, San Bernardino County is the largest county in the United States by area, although some of Alaska's boroughs and census areas are larger; the county is close to the size of West Virginia. It is larger than each of the nine smallest states, larger than the four smallest states combined, larger than 70 sovereign nations; this vast county stretches from where the bulk of the county population resides (in two Census County Divisions, holding 1,422,745 people as of the 2010 Census, covering the 450 square miles, across the thinly populated deserts and mountains.
It spans an area from south of the San Bernardino Mountains in San Bernardino Valley, to the Nevada border and the Colorado River. Spanish Missionaries from Mission San Gabriel Arcángel established a church at the village of Politania in 1810. Father Francisco Dumetz named the church San Bernardino on May 20, 1810, after the feast day of St. Bernardino of Siena; the Franciscans gave the name San Bernardino to the snowcapped peak in Southern California, in honor of the saint and it is from him that the county derives its name. In 1819, they established the San Bernardino de Sena Estancia, a mission farm in what is now Redlands. Following Mexican independence from Spain in 1821, Mexican citizens were granted land grants to establish ranchos in the area of the county. Rancho Jurupa in 1838, Rancho Cucamonga and El Rincon in 1839, Rancho Santa Ana del Chino in 1841, Rancho San Bernardino in 1842 and Rancho Muscupiabe in 1844. Agua Mansa was the first town in what became San Bernardino County, settled by immigrants from New Mexico on land donated from the Rancho Jurupa in 1841.
Following the purchase of Rancho San Bernardino, the establishment of the town of San Bernardino in 1851 by Mormon colonists, San Bernardino County was formed in 1853 from parts of Los Angeles County. Some of the southern parts of the county's territory were given to Riverside County in 1893. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 20,105 square miles, of which 20,057 square miles is land and 48 square miles is water, it is the largest county by the largest in the United States. It is larger than the states of New Jersey, Connecticut and Rhode Island combined, it borders both Arizona. The bulk of the population two million, live in the 480 square miles south of the San Bernardino Mountains adjacent to Riverside and in the San Bernardino Valley. Over 300,000 others live just north of the San Bernardino Mountains, agglomerating around Victorville covering 280 square miles in Victor Valley, adjacent to Los Angeles County. Another 100,000 people live scattered across the rest of the sprawling county.
The Mojave National Preserve covers some of the eastern desert between Interstate 15 and Interstate 40. The desert portion includes the cities of Needles next to the Colorado River and Barstow at the junction in Interstate 15 and Interstate 40. Trona is at the northwestern part of the county west of Death Valley; this national park within Inyo County has a small portion of land within the San Bernardino County. The largest metropolitan area in the Mojave Desert part of the county is Victor Valley, with the incorporated localities of Adelanto, Apple Valley and Victorville. Further south, a portion of Joshua Tree National Park overlaps the county near the High Desert area, in the vicinity of Twentynine Palms; the remaining towns make up the remainder of the High Desert: Pioneertown, Yucca Valley, Joshua Tree and Morongo Valley. The mountains are home to the San Bernardino National Forest, include the communities of Crestline, Lake Arrowhead, Running Springs, Big Bear City, Forest Falls, Big Bear Lake.
The San Bernardino Valley is at the eastern end of the San Gabriel Valley. The San Bernardino Valley includes the cities of Ontario, Chino Hills, Fontana, Colton, Grand Terrace, Rancho Cucamonga, San Bernardino, Loma Linda, Highland and Yucaipa. Angeles National Forest Death Valley National Park Havasu National Wildlife Refuge Joshua Tree National Park Mojave National Preserve San Bernardino National Forest There are at least 35 official wilderness areas in the county that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System; this is the largest number of any county in the United States. The majority are managed by the Bureau of Land Management, but some are integral components of the above listed national protected areas. Most of these wilderness areas lie within the county, but a few are shared with neighboring counties. Except as noted, these wilderness areas are managed by the Bureau of Land Management and lie within San Bernardino County: The 2010 United States Census reported that San Bernardino County had a population of 2,035,210.
The racial makeup of San Bernardino County was 1,153,16
Perris is a city in Riverside County, United States, located 71 miles east-southeast of Los Angeles, 80.9 miles north of San Diego, California. It is known for Lake Perris, which houses many fauna; the city is most recognized for having many choices involving aerial activities, such as skydiving and hot-air ballooning. Perris is within the Inland Empire metropolitan area of Southern California; the Perris Valley was settled in the 1880s, a boom period for Southern California. Prior to 1880, the land was used for pastures; the coming of the California Southern Railroad led to the founding of the city around the new depot. The California Southern was built through the future town site in 1882 to open a rail connection between the present day cities of Barstow and San Diego. Due to a land title dispute at Pinacate, most of its citizens moved two miles north on the railroad and established Perris in 1885; the city is named in honor of chief engineer of the California Southern Railroad. The city of Perris was incorporated in 1911.
It was part of San Diego County, but in 1892 was transferred to the newly established Riverside County. Perris now incorporates Pinacate Station, the home of the Orange Empire Railway Museum - the largest operating museum of its kind on the West Coast of the United States. On March 20, 2007, Perris was featured on ABC's Nightline news show during its "Realty Check" segment; the story dealt with the rising trend of home foreclosures in Riverside County, Perris was referred to as the "epicenter". The Farmer Boys restaurant chain, which has many locations throughout the Inland Empire, was started in Perris in 1981. Perris is known for the Rock Castle house set on a hill above town. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 31.5 square miles, of which, 31.4 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water. Perris has a Mediterranean climate, with cool winters. In the summer, highs average in the mid to high 90s, during the winter, the lows can get as cold as 25, with averages in the mid to upper 30s.
The climate in this area is described by the Köppen Climate Classification System as "dry-summer subtropical" referred to as "Mediterranean" and abbreviated as Csa. The 2010 United States Census reported that Perris had a population of 68,386; the population density was 2,170.7 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Perris was 28,937 White, 8,307 African American, 589 Native American, 2,461 Asian, 286 Pacific Islander, 24,345 from other races, 3,461 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 49,079 persons; the Census reported that 68,146 people lived in households, 140 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 100 were institutionalized. There were 16,365 households, out of which 10,836 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 9,778 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 3,128 had a female householder with no husband present, 1,441 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 1,314 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 120 same-sex married couples or partnerships.
1,442 households were made up of individuals and 383 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.16. There were 14,347 families; the population was spread out with 25,288 people under the age of 18, 7,951 people aged 18 to 24, 20,088 people aged 25 to 44, 11,711 people aged 45 to 64, 3,348 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 25.9 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.9 males. There were 17,906 housing units at an average density of 568.4 per square mile, of which 10,854 were owner-occupied, 5,511 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 5.5%. 44,695 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 23,451 people lived in rental housing units. According to the 2010 United States Census, Perris had a median household income of $46,435, with 28.2% of the population living below the federal poverty line. At the 2000 census, there were 36,189 people, 9,652 households, 8,117 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,153.5 per square mile. There were 10,553 housing units at an average density of 336.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was predominately Hispanic, with figures as follows: 22% White, 30.9% African American, 1.5% Native American, 2.8% Asian, 0.3% Pacific Islander, 32.6% from other races, 5.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 76.2% of the population. The median household income was $35,522, the median family income was $36,063. Males had a median income of $31,891 versus $24,634 for females; the per capita income for the city was $11,425. About 18.1% of families and 20.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.3% of those under age 18 and 14.2% of those age 65 or over. There were 9,652 households out of which 56.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.2% were married couples living together, 18.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 15.9% were non-families. 12.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.