Hammond is a city in Lake County, United States. It is part of the Chicago metropolitan area. First settled in the mid-19th century, it is one of the oldest cities of northern Lake County; as of the 2010 United States census, it is the largest in population: the 2010 population was 80,830, replacing Gary as the most populous city in Lake County. From north to south, Hammond runs from Lake Michigan down to the Little Calumet River; the city is traversed by numerous railroads and expressways, including the South Shore Line, Borman Expressway, Indiana Toll Road. Notable local landmarks include the parkland around Wolf Lake and the Horseshoe Hammond riverboat casino. Part of the Rust Belt, Hammond has been industrial from its inception, but is home to a Purdue University campus and numerous historic districts that showcase the residential and commercial architecture of the early 20th century. Hammond is located at 41°36′40″N 87°29′35″W; the city's elevation above sea level ranges from 577 feet to 610 feet.
The city sits within the boundaries of the former Lake Chicago, much of its land area consists of former dune and swale terrain, subsequently leveled. Most of the city is on sandy soil with a layer of black topsoil that varies from non-existent to several feet thick. Much of the exposed sand was removed for purposes such as industrial use to make glass. According to the 2010 census, Hammond has a total area of 24.886 square miles, of which 22.78 square miles is land and 2.106 square miles is water. Grand Calumet River Lake George Lake Michigan Little Calumet River Oxbow Lake Wolf Lake IllinoisBurnham Calumet City Chicago LansingIndianaEast Chicago Gary Griffith Highland Munster Whiting As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 80,830 people, 29,949 households, 19,222 families residing in the city; the population density was 3,548.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 32,945 housing units at an average density of 1,446.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 59.4% White, 22.5% African American, 0.5% Native American, 1.0% Asian, 13.3% from other races, 3.3% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 34.1% of the population. There were 29,949 households of which 36.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.0% were married couples living together, 19.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 7.5% had a male householder with no wife present, 35.8% were non-families. 30.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.36. The median age in the city was 33.3 years. 27.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.0% male and 51.0% female. As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 83,048 people, 32,026 households and 20,880 families residing in the city; the population density was 3,630.0 per square mile. There were 34,139 housing units at an average density of 1,492.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 72.35% White, 14.57% African American, 0.41% Native American, 0.46% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 9.32% from other races, 2.81% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 21.04% of the population. There were 32,026 households out of which 31.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.9% were married couples living together, 16.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.8% were non-families. 29.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.23. In the city, the population was spread out with 27.3% under the age of 18, 9.8% from 18 to 24, 30.1% from 25 to 44, 19.8% from 45 to 64, 13.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $35,528, the median income for a family was $42,221. Males had a median income of $35,778 versus $25,180 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,254. About 12.0% of families and 14.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.7% of those under age 18 and 9.3% of those age 65 or over.
Central Hammond Hessville North Hammond Robertsdale South Hammond Woodmar Most of Hammond's streets are laid out in a grid pattern similar to Chicago's streets. While Madison Street in Chicago acts as the reference point for north-south street numbering the first "1" is removed; the state line is used as the reference point for east-west street numbering. Other cities and towns in Northwest Indiana that use the Hammond numbering system are Whiting and Highland. Dyer uses the Hammond numbering system but the first number removed from the north-south streets is a "2," as by that point the Illinois numbers across the state line start with the number 2. I-9
A cloverleaf interchange is a two-level interchange in which left turns are handled by ramp roads. To go left, vehicles first continue as one road passes over or under the other exit right onto a one-way three-fourths loop ramp and merge onto the intersecting road; the objective of a cloverleaf is to allow two highways to cross without the need for any traffic to be stopped by red lights for left and right turns. The limiting factor in the capacity of a cloverleaf interchange is traffic weaving. Cloverleaf interchanges, viewed from overhead or on maps, resemble the leaves of a four-leaf clover or less a 3-leaf clover. In the United States, cloverleaf interchanges existed long before the Interstate system, they were created for busier interchanges that the original diamond interchange system could not handle. Their chief advantage was that they were free-flowing and did not require the use of such devices as traffic signals; this not only made them a viable option for interchanges between freeways, but they could be used for busy arterials where signals could present congestion problems.
They are common in the United States and have been used for over 40 years as the Interstate Highway System expanded rapidly. One problem is that large trucks exceeding the area speed limit roll over. Another problem is the merging of traffic. For these reasons, cloverleaf interchanges have become a common point of traffic congestion at busy junctions. At-grade cloverleaf configurations with full four leaves and full outside slip ramps are rare, though one exists in Toms River, New Jersey. Any other intersection with one, two, or three leaf ramps with outer ramps would not be designated a "cloverleaf" and be referred to as a jughandle or parclo intersection; the first cloverleaf interchange patented in the US was by Arthur Hale, a civil engineer in Maryland, on February 29, 1916. A modified cloverleaf, with the adjacent ramps joined into a single two-way road, was planned in 1927 for the interchange between Lake Shore Drive and Irving Park Road in Chicago, but a diamond interchange was built instead.
The first cloverleaf interchange built in the United States was the Woodbridge Cloverleaf at intersection of the Lincoln Highway and Amboy—now St. Georges—Avenue in Woodbridge Township, New Jersey, it opened in 1929, has been replaced with a partial cloverleaf interchange. The original cloverleaf interchange was designed by the Rudolph and Delano building firm from Philadelphia, was modeled after a plan from Buenos Aires, Argentina; the first cloverleaf west of the Mississippi River opened on August 20, 1931, at Watson Road and Lindbergh Boulevard near St. Louis, Missouri, as part of an upgrade of U. S. 66. This interchange, has since been replaced with a diamond interchange; the cloverleaf was patented in Europe in Switzerland on October 15, 1928. The first cloverleaf in Europe opened in October 1935 at Slussen in central Stockholm, followed in 1936 by Schkeuditzer Kreuz near Leipzig, Germany; this is now the interchange between the A 9 and A 14, has a single flyover from the westbound A 14 to the southbound A 9.
Kamener Kreuz was the first in continental Europe to open in 1937, at A 1 and A 2 near Dortmund Germany. The primary drawback of the classic design of the cloverleaf is that vehicles merge onto the highway at the end of a loop before other vehicles leave to go around another loop, creating conflict known as weaving. Weaving limits the number of lanes of turning traffic. Most road authorities have since been implementing new interchange designs with less-curved exit ramps that do not result in weaving; these interchanges include the diamond and single-point urban interchanges when connecting to an arterial road in non free-flowing traffic on the crossroad and the stack or clover and stack hybrids when connecting to another freeway or to a busy arterial in free-flowing traffic where signals are still not desired. Not only are these ideas true for new interchanges, but they hold when existing cloverleaf interchanges are upgraded. In Norfolk, the interchange between US 13 and US 58 was a cloverleaf—it has since been converted to a SPUI.
Many cloverleaf interchanges on California freeways, such as U. S. 101, are being converted to parclos. In Hampton, Virginia, a cloverleaf interchange between Interstate 64 and Mercury Boulevard has been unwound into a partial stack interchange. During 2008 and 2009, four cloverleaf interchanges along I-64/US 40 in St. Louis, Missouri were replaced with SPUIs as part of a major highway-renovation project to upgrade the highway to Interstate standards. A compromise is to add a collector/distributor road next to the freeway. An example of this is the State Highway 23/Interstate 43 interchange in Sheboygan, where the exit/entrance roads on and off Highway 23 are two lanes next to the main I-43 freeway on the north and southbound sides of the road. A few cloverleaf interchanges in California have been rebuilt to eliminate weaving on the freeway while keeping all eight loop ramps, by adding bridges, similar to braided ramps. Several cloverleaf interchanges have been eliminated by adding traffic lights on the non-freeway route.
Sometimes, this is done at the intersection of two freeways when one freeway terminates at an interchange with another. An example of this is in Lakewood, Washington, at the interchange between Interstate 5 an
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States. The state's name, originates from the Ojibwe word mishigamaa, meaning "large water" or "large lake". With a population of about 10 million, Michigan is the tenth most populous of the 50 United States, with the 11th most extensive total area, is the largest state by total area east of the Mississippi River, its capital is Lansing, its largest city is Detroit. Metro Detroit is among the nation's largest metropolitan economies. Michigan is the only state to consist of two peninsulas; the Lower Peninsula is noted as shaped like a mitten. The Upper Peninsula is separated from the Lower Peninsula by the Straits of Mackinac, a five-mile channel that joins Lake Huron to Lake Michigan; the Mackinac Bridge connects the peninsulas. The state has the longest freshwater coastline of any political subdivision in the world, being bounded by four of the five Great Lakes, plus Lake Saint Clair; as a result, it is one of the leading U.
S. states for recreational boating. Michigan has 64,980 inland lakes and ponds. A person in the state is never more than six miles from a natural water source or more than 85 miles from a Great Lakes shoreline; the area was first occupied by a succession of Native American tribes over thousands of years. Inhabited by Natives, Métis, French explorers in the 17th century, it was claimed as part of New France colony. After France's defeat in the French and Indian War in 1762, the region came under British rule. Britain ceded this territory to the newly independent United States after Britain's defeat in the American Revolutionary War; the area was part of the larger Northwest Territory until 1800, when western Michigan became part of the Indiana Territory. Michigan Territory was formed in 1805, but some of the northern border with Canada was not agreed upon until after the War of 1812. Michigan was admitted into the Union in 1837 as a free one, it soon became an important center of industry and trade in the Great Lakes region and a popular immigrant destination in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Although Michigan developed a diverse economy, it is known as the center of the U. S. automotive industry, which developed as a major economic force in the early 20th century. It is home to the country's three major automobile companies. While sparsely populated, the Upper Peninsula is important for tourism thanks to its abundance of natural resources, while the Lower Peninsula is a center of manufacturing, agriculture and high-tech industry; when the first European explorers arrived, the most populous tribes were Algonquian peoples, which include the Anishinaabe groups of Ojibwe, Odaawaa/Odawa, the Boodewaadamii/Bodéwadmi. The three nations co-existed peacefully as part of a loose confederation called the Council of Three Fires; the Ojibwe, whose numbers are estimated to have been between 25,000 and 35,000, were the largest. The Ojibwe were established in Michigan's Upper Peninsula and northern and central Michigan, inhabited Ontario and southern Manitoba, Canada; the Ottawa lived south of the Straits of Mackinac in northern and southern Michigan, but in southern Ontario, northern Ohio and eastern Wisconsin.
The Potawatomi were in southern and western Michigan, in addition to northern and central Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, southern Ontario. Other Algonquian tribes in Michigan, in the south and east, were the Mascouten, the Menominee, the Miami, the Sac, the Fox; the Wyandot were an Iroquoian-speaking people in this area. French voyageurs and coureurs des bois settled in Michigan in the 17th century; the first Europeans to reach what became Michigan were those of Étienne Brûlé's expedition in 1622. The first permanent European settlement was founded in 1668 on the site where Père Jacques Marquette established Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan as a base for Catholic missions. Missionaries in 1671–75 founded outlying stations at Saint Ignace and Marquette. Jesuit missionaries were well received by the area's Indian populations, with few difficulties or hostilities. In 1679, Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle built Fort Miami at present-day St. Joseph. In 1691, the French established a trading post and Fort St. Joseph along the St. Joseph River at the present-day city of Niles.
In 1701, French explorer and army officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or "Fort Pontchartrain on-the-Strait" on the strait, known as the Detroit River, between lakes Saint Clair and Erie. Cadillac had convinced King Louis XIV's chief minister, Louis Phélypeaux, Comte de Pontchartrain, that a permanent community there would strengthen French control over the upper Great Lakes and discourage British aspirations; the hundred soldiers and workers who accompanied Cadillac built a fort enclosing one arpent and named it Fort Pontchartrain. Cadillac's wife, Marie Thérèse Guyon, soon moved to Detroit, becoming one of the first European women to settle in what was considered the wilderness of Michigan; the town became a major fur-trading and shipping post. The Église de Saint-Anne was founded the same year. While the original building does not survive, the congregation remains active. Cadillac departed to serve as the French governor of Louisiana from 1710 to 1716.
French attempts to consol
U.S. Route 41 in Indiana
In the U. S. state of Indiana, U. S. Route 41 is a north–south highway, parallel to the Illinois state line, it enters the state south of Evansville as a four-lane divided highway passing around Vincennes and traveling north to Terre Haute. In Terre Haute, it is known as 3rd Street. North of Terre Haute, it becomes a two-lane surface road; those wanting to stay on a four-lane divided highway can use State Road 63 to the west. It passes through Rockville and Attica before returning to a four-lane divided highway when SR 63 terminates in Warren County, it remains a four-lane divided highway until Lake County where it becomes a main road known as Indianapolis Boulevard. It overlaps US 20 in Hammond and exits Indiana into the South Side of Chicago. US Route 41 is a rural road in western Indiana, it begins crossing the Ohio River using the Bi-State Vietnam Gold Star Bridges known as "The Twin Bridges", from Henderson, KY into Evansville. Through Evansville, US 41 is again a standard arterial roadway with traffic lights and urban congestion.
North of Evansville, the road becomes a rural four-lane non-Interstate-standard highway. The highway reaches Interstate 64 has an interchange with SR 64 near Princeton, as it heads north towards Vincennes. South of Vincennes, US 41 turns into an Interstate-standard freeway and bypasses the east side of Vincennes with interchanges and grade separations. In the middle of this bypass there is a modern three-level stack interchange with US 50 and US 150 eastbound, headed for Washington, Cincinnati, OH, Louisville, KY. US 50 splits to the west in the city, heading for Lawrenceville, IL, St. Louis, MO, while US 41 and US 150 continue north. North of Vincennes, the expressway turns into a four-lane divided highway, a older pre–Interstate-era highway coated with asphalt and a narrow median. US 41 and US 150 pass through Sullivan before entering Terre Haute. US 150 leaves the multiplex in the south end of the city, headed west towards Danville and Moline, IL, while US 41 continues north through Terre Haute.
Through town, US 41 is an urban arterial road with traffic lights, approaches an interchange with Interstate 70 passing Honey Creek Mall and Indiana State University. Past Terre Haute, SR 63 splits to the northwest as an Interstate-standard four-lane highway towards Clinton. US 41 heads northeast as a rural two-lane US Highway, passing through the communities of Rockville and Bloomingdale; the road reaches Interstate 74 at Veedersburg, where it divides into a four-lane highway. US 41 again continues north, going past Rob Roy and Attica. Past Attica, US 41 turns northwest and rejoins the four-lane highway near Kramer, at the northern terminus of SR 63. US 41 continues northbound as a divided highway with a few crossovers at SR 26, SR 352 at Boswell, SR 18; the southbound lanes are the original concrete from the early 1970s while the northbound lanes contain a thin asphalt overlay, which tends to provide a bumpy ride. Past SR 63, US 41 has an interchange with US 52 eastbound, which heads southeast towards Lafayette and Indianapolis as a four-lane divided rural highway.
US 52 westbound joins with US 41 heading north towards Kentland In 2008, a wind farm was built next to the highway near Earl Park. In Kentland, the road junctions with US 24. US 52 westbound leaves the multiplex here with US 24, heading for Watseka, IL, Kankakee, IL, Peoria, IL, while US 24 east heads to Logansport and Huntington. US 41 becomes a four-lane divided US highway past this junction, it is an older divided highway with a narrow median. This highway used to be a two-lane route. One side of the highway is rolling and wavy, while the other half of the highway is built flat and to more modern standards; this portion of the route is asphalt. According to the Indiana Department of Transportation, the twinning of US 41 in Indiana was begun in 1951, with construction progressing from south to north. Up until the mid-1990s, many older styled bridges existed on the route, including a 1930s-era truss bridge across the Kankakee River in Schneider and some pre-Interstate-era concrete bridges at the railroad overpass near Morocco and the Iroquois River bridge.
All of these bridges have since been updated to INDOT's latest standards using concrete latex overlays and new concrete bridge decks. Traffic volumes on this section of highway are low and many intersections contain 1940s- and 1950s-era former gas stations and businesses associated with the highway before Interstate 65 was built in the early 1960s. Many of these businesses have been converted to new uses, such as used car dealerships and offices, while some have been abandoned, which provides an experience similar to U. S. Route 66. US 41 is sometimes considered an alternate to Interstate 65 due to its low traffic volumes. From Kentland, US 41 passes through the towns and villages of Ade, Lake Village, Schneider, before entering Cedar Lake. Once in Cedar Lake, US 41 becomes an undivided four-lane arterial road; the road passes through the bedroom communities of St. John and Highland. Entering the urban core of Northwest Indiana, the route through Hammond and Whiting before exiting Indiana and entering Illinois in Chicago.
In total, US 41 covers nearly 280 miles from Evansville on the south end to Whiting in the north. US 41 in Indiana was featured in the famous crop duster scene in the 1959 Alfred Hitchcock film North by Northwest, although the scene was filmed near Bakersfield, California; until the designation of US 41 on October 1, 1926, the alignment was called SR 10. U. S. Roads portal Indiana Highway Ends
Lake County, Indiana
Lake County is a county located in the U. S. state of Indiana. In 2010, its population was 496,005; the county seat is Crown Point. This county is part of Northwest Indiana and the Chicago metropolitan area, contains a mix of urban and rural areas, it is the home to a portion of the Indiana Dunes and to Marktown, Clayton Mark's planned worker community in East Chicago. Inhabited by Potawatomi tribes, Lake County was established on February 16, 1837. From 1832 to 1836 the area, to become Lake County was part of La Porte County. From 1836 to 1837 it was part of Porter County, it was named for its location on Lake Michigan. The original county seat was Liverpool until Lake Court House, which became Crown Point, was chosen in 1840. Lake County's population grew before the 1850s, when the railroads arrived to link Chicago to the rest of the country, enabled tens of thousands of settlers and immigrants to buy land. Small-scale industrialization began, but was relegated to the northern coast of the county.
The 1900 Census gives a population of 37,892 residents. The arrival of Inland Steel Company to East Chicago in 1903 and U. S. Steel to Gary in 1906 jump-started the county's population explosion. Immigrants poured into the area from all over Central and Eastern Europe and from many regions of the United States, such as Appalachia and the South. By 1930, Lake County's population surpassed 260,000, with first- and second-generation Americans constituting a majority of the population. Like the rest of Indiana, the Ku Klux Klan gained a large following in the 1920s in response to changing demographics. While the steel industry reigned supreme, other industries found the county to be an ideal location for cheap land and well-developed transportation networks, such as automobiles, chemicals, consumer goods, food processing, construction supply companies; the Great Depression was devastating to Lake County, as it was to any other area that relied on heavy industry. The Depression, combined with industrial strife, changing demographics, unionization, caused Lake County to become a stronghold of the Democratic Party.
World War II restored prosperity, as industry revived to support the war effort, good economic times continued into the 1970s. More immigrants were attracted by the promise of middle-class industrial jobs, in addition to refugees and immigrants from Europe, black Americans and Mexicans arrived in larger numbers than they had in the 1910-1930 period; as minority populations exploded in industrial cities like East Chicago and Gary, racial tensions surfaced once again, white flight from the industrial cities took place, aided in large part by the construction of state and federal highways. Lake County's population peaked at 546,000 in 1970. Severe industrial decline took place during the 1973-1991 period, brought on by foreign competition, new management philosophies that called for major workforce reductions, productivity gains from technology; the decline was intense in the steel industry: steel employment exceeded 60,000 in the 1960s, declined progressively to just 18,000 by 2015. Lake County's population declined 13% to bottom out at 475,000 in 1990.
The industrial decline of the 1980s cast a long shadow over Lake County: the county did not regain the level of employment it had in 1980 until 1996, after which the employment level flatlined. The county's economic output peaked in 1978, has not since recovered, remaining 15-20% below the peak after adjusting for inflation; as prosperity declined, so did the immigration that powered the county's explosive population growth before 1950: per the 2000 census, only 5.3% of Lake County's residents were foreign-born, compared to over 11% for the United States as a whole. The population recovered somewhat as the local economy adjusted. Suburban growth has been driven by commuter populations of workers who are employed in Chicago and commute via expressways or the South Shore Line. In 2007, it was estimated that 44,000 workers commuted from Lake County, Indiana, to Chicago for work; the decline of industrial cities and growth of suburbs has been so sharp, that by 1990 a majority of the County's population lived outside of the four traditional industrial cities.
Lake County still continues to struggle with urban decline and poverty, suburban sprawl and traffic jams, a stagnating population. According to the 2010 census, the county has a total area of 626.56 square miles, of which 498.96 square miles is land and 127.60 square miles is water. The northern and southern portions of the county are low and flat, except for a few sand ridges and dunes and were both once marshy and had to be drained; the lowest point, at 585 feet, is along the Lake Michigan shoreline. The central part of the county is hillier; as you travel south from the low and flat lake plain in the northern part of the county, the land rises in elevation until the peak of the Valparaiso Moraine. The highest point, at 801 feet, is in northeastern Winfield Township near 109th Street and North Lakeshore Drive in Lakes of the Four Seasons. From here the land descends south into the Kankakee Outwash Plain until the Kankakee River is reached; the geographic center of Lake County is 200 feet northwest of Burr Stree
Portage is a city in Portage Township, Porter County, in the U. S. state of Indiana. The population was 36,828 as of the 2010 census, it is the largest city in Porter County, third largest in Northwest Indiana. Prior to European settlement, Native Americans lived in Northwest Indiana. Mound Builders left a mound in the area now known as McCool, though the mound was destroyed in the early 1900s. Following the Mound Builders, the Wea tribe inhabited the area; the Wea were forced south by the Potawatomi. Jacques Marquette, Louis Jolliet, Louis Hennepin or François Pétis de la Croix may have explored the area. Potawatomi chief, Leopold Pokagon, encouraged his tribe to sell tribal lands to European settlers. In 1812, Garyton became one of the first communities in Portage Township. Samuel Putnam Robbins was among the first settlers, coming from Hocking County, he settled near modern-day Robbins Road between McCool Road and Indiana Highway 149. In 1834, Joseph Wolf squatted on land near the modern-day community of South Haven and operated dairy and beef farms there.
Other early settlers included Berret Door, Reuben Hurlburt, Wilford Parrott, the Spurloch brothers, William McCool, Benjamin James, his son Allen James, William Holmes and Jacob Blake. Jacob Blake arrived in Portage in 1833. Before Portage became a town, it consisted of three separate communities in addition to much farmland, they were named McCool and Garyton. In 1950, those communities only had 2,116 residents. La Porte County maintained jurisdiction over Porter County in 1835, founded Portage Township that year. Portage Township was a farming community until railroad development began in the 1850s and 1860s; the first railroad to build in the area was the Michigan Central, completed in 1852. The Michigan Central connected Detroit to Chicago; this enabled local farmers to ship livestock and crops to Chicago and any other stop along the way. It enabled them to buy more land for farming; the Michigan Central was bought by the New York Central Railroad. The next railroad to build through the Portage area was the Baltimore and Ohio in 1874.
This railroad crossed the Michigan Central near the village of Crisman. Despite the apparent success of the early railroads, the area remained agrarian and relied on the railroads to sustain its economy. Sand was an industry in Portage due to demand in the growing city of Chicago; the railroads enabled sand to be delivered to Chicago more efficiently. Between the 1870s and the depression era, Portage did not grow much, it has been estimated that between 1880 and 1950, the growth rate averaged only about 64 people per year. This is despite the growth of towns to the west such as Gary and East Chicago due to the industrialization of steel mills. Portage was not unaffected by the Great Depression. Due to the steel mills being in economic trouble, the farmers of Portage did not have demand to produce their products; as a result of this, the farmers had no money. Many lost their farms. Like many communities in the country, World War I and World War II affected the economy of Portage in a big way. Steel mills geared into high production and labor was in high demand, thus drawing many people to the area.
After the war, the economy remained strong because of the high demand for automobiles and appliances, both of which the steel was produced at the steel mills. The population of post-war Portage grew quickly. In the early 1950s, people came from Illinois. Most were seeking the steady salary available in the related industries. National Steel opened a plant along the shore of Lake Michigan in Portage in 1959; this brought in about 1,600 new jobs. The Port of Indiana was built in 1961 to accommodate trade with the world via Lake Michigan. In 1963, Bethlehem Steel began construction of a plant, located in Portage; this project brought about 6,000 jobs to the area. In 1959, Portage was incorporated as a town. Ogden Dunes and South Haven were excluded because the residents of these areas did not wish to be included in the town. Due to the surge of population after the war, many farmers were selling land to be subdivided into lots for families to build homes. In 1967, Portage became a city. During the 1950s and 1960s, the city of Gary was going through a time of racial strife.
White people of Gary were seeking a way out of the turmoil, which drew many people to Portage during this time. Portage is still a industrial city. While dependent on the Steel Industry, the 1980s brought a decline in the steel industry; as a result, C. O. I. L was formed; this organization promotes diversified industry in the area. They have had part in developing the Coca-Cola bottling plant and further development of the Port of Indiana. Few farms are still active in the Portage area. However, many original descendants of founding families are still in the area. Portage has seen many new green technology industries locate to the community since the early 2000s including Fronius USA. In 2016, the City opened a new Police Fire Station in the downtown corridor; the new Police Station is triple the size of the former station on Irving Street. Portage is located at 41°34′55″N 87°11′12″W. According to the 2010 census, Portage has a total area of 27.614 square miles, of which 25.63 square miles is land and 1.984 square miles is water.
As of the census of 2010, there were 36,828 people, 13,992 households, 9,751 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,436.9 inhabitant
Lake Station, Indiana
Lake Station is a city in Lake County, United States. The population was 12,572 at the 2010 census; the site of modern Lake Station was the starting point of two Amerind trails leading to Fort Dearborn. It became an early stagecoach depot stop, as the Fort Dearborn-Detroit Stagecoach Route passed through the site during the wet season; the location became known as Lake Station as far back as 1851 when it began to serve as a depot, the western terminus of the Michigan Central Railroad. This was the first train station in Lake County; the Michigan Central Railroad built a railroad shops around its two-story depot. A year in April 1852, George Earle mapped out and platted a town of about 6,500 acres on the site, continuing its name of Lake Station. Being a bedroom community, Lake Station welcomed Abraham Lincoln to its Audubon Hotel on more than one occasion, according to oral history, but George Pullman, who tried to negotiate for land in Lake Station for his proposed railcar company, never struck a deal and set up shop on the south side of Chicago instead.
Prior to its current location in Crown Point, the county seat was located on what is now the west end of Lake Station in a section called Liverpool, although it was a separate settlement at the time. The name of Lake Station was changed to East Gary in 1908 in an attempt to lure executives from the nearby US Steel plant in Gary, Indiana into creating a suburban community. With another name change in 1977 to disassociate itself from the urban decay and crime of Gary, the city reverted to its historical designation of Lake Station. Lake Station plays host to some events such as the Fuzz Follies, a car show that takes place in Riverview Park every year since 1984. Since 2004 The Heritage Days Festival has taken place in Riverview Park. Both events are in June; the city's newest event held for the first time in September 2009 is Septemberfest, held around Labor Day weekend. In September 2015, the mayor of Lake Station, Keith Soderquist, his wife, Deborah Soderquist, were found guilty of conspiracy, wire fraud and filing false income tax returns.
Under state law, a mayor convicted of a felony forfeits his elected office. Lake Station remains a residential community; this is a list of mayors that served the city of Indiana. 1964–1972: Leo Meister 1972–1980: Carl Jacobs 1980–1984: Carl Miller 1984–1988: Arthur Hartley 1988–1992: Carl Miller 1992–1996: Dewey Lemley 1996–2007: Shirley A. Wadding 2008–September 11, 2015: Keith W. Soderquist September 11, 2015 – September 28, 2015: John McStashNuts September 28, 2015 to December 31, 2015: Dewey Lemley January 1, 2016 to Present: Christopher Anderson Lake Station is located at 41°34′11″N 87°15′35″W. According to the 2010 census, Lake Station has a total area of 8.431 square miles, of which 8.3 square miles is land and 0.131 square miles is water. The city lies on the Calumet Shoreline, seen today as a sand ridge. Interstate 65 Interstate 80 Interstate 90 Interstate 94 U. S. Route 6 U. S. Route 20 Indiana State Road 51 Grand Boulevard Lake Deep River Hobart Gary Portage Miller Beach Four Winds Park Columbus Park Riverview Park Miller Park Mock Park Deep River Outdoor Recreation Center Johnson Park Bicentennial Park Warrick Park Riley Park As of the census of 2010, there were 12,572 people, 4,577 households, 3,067 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,514.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 5,137 housing units at an average density of 618.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 79.7% White, 3.6% African American, 0.5% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 11.7% from other races, 4.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 28.0% of the population. There were 4,577 households of which 35.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.4% were married couples living together, 17.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 7.5% had a male householder with no wife present, 33.0% were non-families. 26.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.72 and the average family size was 3.28. The median age in the city was 35.4 years. 26.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 50.0% male and 50.0% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 13,948 people, 5,041 households, 3,528 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,681.0 people per square mile. There were 5,328 housing units at an average density of 642.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 86.23% White, 0.77% African American, 0.50% Native American, 0.30% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 9.31% from other races, 2.85% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 20.61% of the population. There were 5,041 households out of which 33.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.9% were married couples living together, 14.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.0% were non-families. 23.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.24. In the city, the population was spread out with 27.1% under the age of 18, 10.5%