St. Viator College
St. Viator College was a Catholic liberal arts college in Bourbonnais, Illinois, it is no longer in operation. St. Viator's grew out of the original Bourbonnais village school, founded in 1865 by the Viatorians, to an academy for boys with the help of Father P. Beaudoin and Brothers Martel and Bernard, on 9/6/1868 to a four-year liberal arts college with the aid of Father Thomas Roy. After nine years of work, Father Roy returned to his home in Canada, was succeeded by Father M. J. Marsile, who oversaw the college for another 25 years. In 1906, several buildings were destroyed by fire, but courses continued in improvised quarters and new buildings were erected. Father Marsile afterward resigned, Reverend John Patrick O'Mahoney C. S. V. was appointed president. Under financial pressure, it closed in 1939. Roy Memorial Chapel was named for Father Thomas Roy. Marsile Alumni Hall was named in honour of Father M. J. Marsile, college president for 25 years. After St. Viator's closed in 1938, the campus was purchased by Olivet Nazarene College from Olivet, Illinois.
Four buildings on the Olivet Nazarene campus are original from the days of St. Viator's 39-acre campus. St. Viator College had a preparatory department and high school in addition to the college and seminary and, for most of its years, had an enrollment of over 300 students. During its existence, St. Viator was the host of the Catholic State Basketball Tournament for Illinois. St. Viator College was a member of the Illinois Intercollegiate Athletic Conference from 1916 to 1938. Many of the college's graduates were priests, but more entered the professions of law and medicine. Notable alumni included John Tracy Ellis, Sam J. McAllister, Fulton J. Sheen, G. Raymond Sprague, Bernard James Sheil. and Joseph James Smith, youngest son of the notorious bad man "Soapy" Smith. Graduates entering the entertainment field include Jack Berch, popular singer and personality on four networks during the Golden Age of Radio. Clerics of St. Viator Media related to Annual catalog St. Viator College at Wikimedia Commons "PREPAREDNESS IN CATHOLIC SCHOOLS" by JOSEPH F. SMITH.
New York Times, August 26, 1917, Sunday. Section: Instruction, Page 68, 1338 words
Wheaton College (Illinois)
Wheaton College is a Christian, residential liberal arts college and graduate school in Wheaton, Illinois. The Protestant college was founded by evangelical abolitionists in 1860. Wheaton College was a stop on the Underground Railroad and graduated one of Illinois' first African-American college graduates. Wheaton is noted for its "twin traditions of quality academics and deep faith," according to Time magazine and is ranked 20th among all national liberal arts colleges in the number of alumni who go on to earn PhDs. Wheaton is included in Loren Pope's influential book Colleges, it has been described as one of America's foremost Christian institutions. Wheaton College was ranked 8th in "Best Undergraduate Teaching" by the U. S. News & World Report for national liberal arts colleges in 2016; the school was ranked 57th overall among national liberal arts colleges by U. S. News & World Report for 2016. Forbes lists Universities in its 2015 rankings. Wheaton College was founded in 1860, its predecessor, the Illinois Institute, had been founded in late 1853 by Wesleyan Methodists as a college and preparatory school.
Wheaton's first president, Jonathan Blanchard, was a former president of Knox College in Galesburg, Illinois and a staunch abolitionist with ties to Oberlin College. Mired in financial trouble and unable to sustain the institution, the Wesleyans looked to Blanchard for new leadership, he took on the role as president in 1860, having suggested several Congregationalist appointees to the board of trustees the previous year. The Wesleyans, similar in spirit and mission to the Congregationalists, were happy to relinquish control of the Illinois Institute. Blanchard separated the college from any denominational support and was responsible for its new name, given in honor of trustee and benefactor Warren L. Wheaton, who founded the town of Wheaton after moving to Illinois from New England. A dogged reformer, Blanchard began his public campaign for abolitionism with the American Anti-Slavery Society in 1836, at the age of twenty-five. In his life, after the Civil War, he began a sustained campaign against Freemasonry.
This culminated in a national presidential campaign on the American Anti-Masonic Party ticket in 1884. Under Blanchard's leadership, the college was a stop on the Underground Railroad; the confirmation came from the letters of Daniel Studebaker, one of Blanchard's relatives by marriage, who notes that the town and college's anti-slavery beliefs were so held "that he, along with hundreds of other Wheaton residents, had seen and spoken with many fugitive slaves". Blanchard lobbied for universal co-education and was a strong proponent of reform through strong public education open to all. At this time, Wheaton was the only school in Illinois with a college-level women's program. Wheaton saw its first graduate of color in 1866, when Edward Breathitte Sellers took his degree. Additionally, he is one of the first African-American college graduates in the state of Illinois. In 1882, Charles A. Blanchard succeeded his father as president of the college. In 1925, J. Oliver Buswell, an outspoken Presbyterian, delivered a series of lectures at Wheaton College.
Shortly thereafter, President Charles Blanchard died and Buswell was called to be the third president of Wheaton. Upon his installation in April 1926, he became the nation's youngest college president at age 31. Buswell's tenure was characterized by expanding enrollment, a building program, strong academic development, a boom in the institution's reputation, it was known for growing divisiveness over faculty scholarship and personality clashes. In 1940, this tension led to the firing of Buswell for being, as two historians of the college put it, "too argumentative in temperament and too intellectual in his approach to Christianity." By the late 1940s, Wheaton was emerging as a standard-bearer of Evangelicalism. By 1950, enrollment at the college surpassed 1,600, in the second half of the twentieth century, enrollment growth and more selective admissions accompanied athletic success and improved facilities, expanded programs. In 1951, Honey Rock, a camp in Three Lakes, was purchased by the college.
In 2010, the public phase of The Promise of Wheaton campaign came to a close with $250.7 million raised, an "unprecedented 5-1/2 year campaign figure for Wheaton College". In 2010, Wheaton College become the first American Associate University of the Tony Blair Faith Foundation's Faith and Globalization Initiative. Tony Blair noted that the partnership will "give emerging leaders in the United States and the United Kingdom the opportunity to explore in depth the critical issues of how faith impacts the modern world today through different faith and cultural lenses" and that Wheaton's participation will "greatly enrich the Initiative"; as of 2015 the college continued to retain its Christian "Statement of Faith and Educational Purpose" and expected public statements of its faculty members to conform to it. Wheaton College is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission. According to The Princeton Review's "The Best 351 Colleges", "If the integration of faith and learning is what you want out of a college, Wheaton is arguably the best school in the nation with a Christ-based worldview."
Students may choose in the sciences. Some of the most popular in recent years have been business, English, biblical studies, political science, international relations, psychology. In 2011 it was ranked No. 1 for best cafeteria food in the nation according to the Princeton review. In 2015, U. S. News & World Report ranked Wheaton College at 56 out of 265 Best National Liberal Arts Col
Lombard College was a Universalist college located in Galesburg, Illinois. Lombard College was founded in 1853 by the Universalist Church as the Illinois Liberal Institute. In 1855, however, a major fire damaged much of the college, placing its future at risk, but a large gift from Benjamin Lombard, a Massachusetts-born farmer and businessman, rescued the institution, rechristened as Lombard University; the official name of the school was changed to Lombard College. Lombard was coeducational from its founding; the institution was the seat of the Ryder School of Divinity from sometime in the 1880s until 1913. The first chapter of the national sorority Alpha Xi Delta was founded there in 1893. Lombard College was a member of the Illinois Intercollegiate Athletic Conference from 1910 to 1929; the Great Depression proved to be too much for Lombard. While Lombard did not merge, some of its students transferred to nearby Knox College, its alumni activities take place at Knox. Sigma Nu fraternity's Delta Theta chapter, which formed at Lombard in 1867 as the Delta Theta Society and became a part of Sigma Nu in 1891, continues its activities at Knox to this day.
Until 1973, the Alpha Chapter of Alpha Xi Delta continued at Knox. The former Lombard College building and campus is used as Lombard Middle School; when the college closed in 1930, the Lombard charter was transferred to Meadville Theological School in Chicago. A Unitarian seminary, bringing with it Lombard's privilege of a tax exemption, "one of only three in Illinois granting full tax-exempt status in perpetuity for all college-owned property." In 1964 the school adopted the name "Meadville Theological School of Lombard College". The combined institution became Meadville Lombard Theological School. Ken Carpenter - radio-TV announcer Edwin H. Conger – U. S. Congressman and Minister to Brazil and Mexico Effie McCollum Jones - Universalist minister, suffragist William Bramwell Powell - educator, co-founder of National Geographic Society Carl Sandburg – author, Pulitzer Prize winner Paul Jordan Smith – editor, poet Dorothy Tilden Spoerl – theologian, educator Evar Swanson – professional baseball and football player Sewall G. Wright – geneticist Quincy Wright – educator, economist Theodore Paul Wright – engineer, first director of the Civil Aeronautics Administration Anna Groff Bryant — vocal teacher, head of music department Phillip Green Wright David Starr Jordan – ichthyologist, president of Indiana University.
North Central College
North Central College is a private liberal arts college in Naperville, Illinois. It is affiliated with the United Methodist Church and has nearly 70 areas of study in undergraduate majors and programs through 19 academic departments organized in three undergraduate colleges/schools and a masters program. North Central College was founded in 1861 as Plainfield College in Illinois. Classes were first held on November 11 of that year. On February 15, 1864, the Board of Trustees changed the name of the school to North-Western College; the college moved to Naperville in 1870 and the name was again changed in 1926 to North Central College. In June 2017, North Central College acquired Shimer College and instituted the Shimer Great Books School of North Central College. North Central College is just 30 minutes from the Chicago Loop which allows students to have internships and other opportunities in Chicago; the college is on a 65-acre campus in downtown Naperville on Chicago Avenue. Old Main remains the focal point of campus.
In the early 1900s College President Herman J. Kiekhoefer and Judge John S. Goodwin initiated contact with philanthropist Andrew Carnegie to seek out funds for new facilities on campus. Carnegie agreed to donate $25,000 to North-Western College for a new library building. Carnegie Library, as it was called, was one of only a few academic libraries in Illinois that received funding from Carnegie; the building still is now known as Carnegie Hall. Pfeiffer Hall is North Central College's oldest fine arts building; the 4,500-square-foot building was built in 1926 and seats 1,057. This structure has been used by the college to screen films and host lectures and theatrical productions. Today Pfeiffer Hall continues to host events such as these along with live performances by popular music artists and comedians. In 2008, North Central College dedicated Fine Arts Center. Designed by the Chicago architectural firm of Loebl Schlossman & Hackl, the 57,000-square-foot facility was planned and sited with the needs of both the College and the Naperville community in mind.
Plans evolved over a 15-year period, driven by explosive growth in the college’s music and art programs, as well as the parallel transformation of the city’s downtown, which has brought more than 50 restaurants, numerous national stores and the first four- and five-story buildings within a few blocks of the North Central campus. The concert hall is named in honor of Myron Wentz, Class of 1963. Nearly $10 million in gifts from Wentz — a scientist and music lover — over the past two years have brought the facility to center stage. Plans for a new fine arts center were put on hold a decade ago when a devastating flood in Naperville forced the college to turn its attention to its damaged athletic complex instead. In addition to Wentz Concert Hall, the Fine Arts Center features the Madden Theatre, a 150-seat “black box” experimental theatre that can double as a dance studio and a facility to provide music rehearsal space, practice rooms and offices; the center houses a spacious lobby, a kitchen facility and the Schoenherr Art Gallery.
The rededication of Meiley-Swallow Hall, the old Grace Evangelical Church at Ellsworth Street and Van Buren Avenue, was a highlight during the 2007 Homecoming weekend. In 2005, the college embraced the opportunity to preserve a part of Naperville and North Central history by acquiring the former Grace Evangelical Church; the 95-year-old structure was erected by the same denomination that founded North Central College and an addition to the college's art and theatre programs. Special features of this building include nearly 23,000 square feet of space, much-needed art display area, a 225-seat thrust stage theatre, additional office space. North Central has all-college requirements, which include an intercultural seminar, a leadership and values seminar, a religion and ethics course, which are important components to the integrative curriculum; the college has opportunities for individual work, such as the Richter Independent Study Grants and the Honors program's Senior Honors Thesis. Students are encouraged to study abroad, with opportunities on five continents from three-week courses to full-time term-long or full-year programs.
North Central College garnered recognition as a top producer of Fulbright students for 2014-2015. The college is one of five schools in the world recognized with a 2015 Senator Paul Simon Award for Comprehensive Internationalization. In the 2007 through 2017 editions of the U. S. News & World Report "Best Colleges Rankings", North Central College is ranked in the top 20 Regional Universities as well as a "Best College for Veterans". Forbes magazine has rated North Central College among the top 20 percent of the nation’s colleges and universities, through the 2010-2015 ranking editions. North Central College offers majors like Music, Musical Theatre and the most created, Theatrical Design and Technology, it has four theatre venues, Madden Theatre, Wentz Concert Hall, Meiley Swallow Hall and Pfeiffer Hall. Madden Theatre is a 150-seat, black box theater which hosts college performances and visiting guests, including concerts, cabaret-style revues, theater and dance performances. Wentz Concert Hall has a capacity of 617 spectators, is home to performances of classical and contemporary music.
The acoustics in Wentz Concert Hall were designed
Lake Forest College
Lake Forest College is a private liberal arts college in Lake Forest, Illinois. Founded in 1857 as Lind University by Presbyterian ministers, the college has been coeducational since 1876 and an undergraduate-focused liberal arts institution since 1903. Lake Forest enrolls 1,600 students representing 47 states and 81 countries. Lake Forest offers 30 undergraduate major and minor programs in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, features programs of study in pre-law, pre-medicine, business and computer science; the majority of students live on the college's wooded 107-acre campus located a half-mile from the Lake Michigan shore. Lake Forest is affiliated with the Associated Colleges of the Midwest; the college has 19 varsity teams. Lake Forest College was founded in 1857 by Reverend Robert W. Patterson as a Presbyterian alternative to the Methodist Northwestern University in Evanston, it was named Lind University after Sylvester Lind, who had given $80,000 to launch the school. Patterson and his fellow Chicago Presbyterians established the town of Lake Forest and the university halfway between Evanston and Waukegan two years after the Chicago and Milwaukee Railway began service from Chicago.
They hired St. Louis landscape architect Almerin Hotchkiss to design the town of Lake Forest with a university park at its center. Hotchkiss used the area's wooded ravines and forest as guidelines to plat a park-like, curvilinear layout for the town. Lake Forest Academy, a boys' preparatory school and the first project of the university, began offering classes in 1858. By the mid-1860s, a small New England-style village had been established with an academy building, a Presbyterian church and several homes; the school had a medical college from 1859–1863, which split off and became part of Northwestern University, now known as the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. In 1865, the name became Lake Forest University. In 1869 Ferry Hall, a girls' preparatory school and junior college, opened as a division of the university, it merged with Lake Forest Academy in 1974. In 1876 Mary Eveline Smith Farwell started Lake Forest College, a coeducational division of the university, under the leadership of the Reverend Patterson.
In 1878, College Hall was built following a fire that destroyed the former hotel being used for classes. The Reverend James Gore King McClure arrived in Lake Forest in 1881 as the pastor of the Presbyterian Church. Under his influence over the next 50 years, the college experienced a large transition "from a pluralistic graduate and professional emphasis to a singular undergraduate liberal arts focus," says Lake Forest College archivist Art Miller, who co-wrote 30 Miles North: A History of Lake Forest College, Its Town, Its City of Chicago. During this time, the college's theater group, the Garrick Players, the yearbook, student newspaper, The Stentor, were all formed. In 1890 Lake Forest established a relationship with the Chicago College of Dental Surgery, Chicago's first dental school, to serve as its dental department; this affiliation ended in 1902. The Lake Forest School of Music opened as a division of the university in 1916, incorporating and extending the courses in music hitherto given in other departments.
A summer school of landscape architecture was instituted in 1916. By 1925, Lake Forest College split from Lake Forest Academy, the school's only focus was on undergraduate liberal arts. Following World War II, the college experienced further growth, taking control of what is now South Campus and constructing the Alumni Memorial Fieldhouse. In 1960, William Graham Cole, from Williams College, took over as president and brought with him Eastern faculty and students, further diversifying the campus. During his time as president, in 1965, the school's name was changed to Lake Forest College. In March 2010, the college received $7 million from alumna Grace Groner; the teaching faculty consists of 178 members. Lake Forest has a student-to-professor ratio of 13:1, the average class size is 19. No classes at Lake Forest are taught by teaching assistants. All faculty hold a equivalent degree. See list of Lake Forest College people for notable faculty. Lake Forest professors include undergraduates in their primary research and supervise independent research projects.
Faculty members receive fellowships and grants from such notable organizations as the Fulbright Program, National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, National Endowment for the Humanities, Freeman Foundation, Mellon Foundation, MacArthur Foundation, Getty Trust, Goldsmith Foundation, Kemper Foundation. Lake Forest College was ranked #9 on the list of best colleges for internships and #12 on the best alumni network list by The Princeton Review's annual guide The Best Value Colleges: 200 Schools with Exceptional ROI for Your Tuition Investment. Lake Forest made the Top 20 list for "Most Popular Study Abroad Program" and "Best College Library" in The Princeton Review's book The Best 384 Colleges. U. S. News & World Report ranks Lake Forest in the Top 50 for "Best Value Colleges." According to the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching and U. S. News & World Report, Lake Forest is considered to be a "more selective" institution, with a lower rate of transfer-in students.
Lake Forest College's admissions selectivity rank according to The Princeton Review is 88 out of 99. This ranking is determined by several institutionally-reported factors, including: the class rank, average standardized test scores, average high school GPA of entering freshmen.
Knox College (Illinois)
Knox College is a private liberal arts college in Galesburg, Illinois. It is one of 40 schools featured in Loren Pope's influential book Colleges. Knox College was founded in 1837 by anti-slavery social reformers, led by George Washington Gale. Many of the founders, including the Rev. Samuel Wright supported the Underground Railroad; the original name for the school was Knox Manual Labor College, but it has been known by its present name since 1857. The college's name came about through a compromise among its founders. Though founded by a colony of Presbyterians and Congregationalists, the county in which the college is located was named Knox County, after Henry Knox, the first United States Secretary of War. Arguments have been made that the college was named for Calvinist leader John Knox, but it is not certain for which Knox it was named. George Candee Gale, a great-great-grandson of two of the founders, explains that contrary to general belief, Knox was not named for either General Knox or the Scottish Presbyterian Knox, according to my father...
Some wanted the college named for some for the other. Most of them were pious enough to want the churchman and fighters enough to want the soldier as well." The presidency of Jonathan Blanchard led the school out of debt, but ignited a controversy about whether the school was loyal to the Congregational church or the Presbyterians. Both Gale and Blanchard were forced out of the school as a result. Knox was the site of the fifth debate between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas in 1858; the Old Main building is the only site from the debates. Two years after the debates, during his presidential campaign, Lincoln was awarded the first honorary doctorate conferred by Knox College—a Doctor of Laws degree, announced at the commencement exercises of 5 July 1860. Knox College was ranked 71st among liberal arts colleges by the 2011 edition of America's Best Colleges in U. S. News & World Report. In August 2010, Knox was listed as one of the "Best-Kept Secrets: 10 Colleges You Should Know About" by the Huffington Post, based on a Unigo survey completed by over 30,000 students.
In the August 11, 2010 issue of Forbes magazine, Knox was ranked among the Top 100 liberal arts colleges listed and over 600 evaluated. The Princeton Review cites Knox on its "Best of" lists, most in 2010 as one of the Best 371 Schools, one of the Best Midwestern Colleges; the Kiplinger private colleges rankings for 2010 placed Knox 47th on its list of 50 best values in liberal arts, measuring academic quality and affordability. And in 2010 Washington Monthly named Knox among the Top 50 best liberal arts colleges, calling their list "a guide not just to what colleges can do for you, but what colleges are doing for the country." Knox College is one of 40 schools featured in the book Colleges That Change Lives by former New York Times Education Editor Loren Pope. In the 2009–2010 academic year, The Chronicle of Higher Education noted Knox as one of nine bachelor-level institutions to produce two or more Fulbright Awards for U. S. Scholars. In 2009, a Knox study of itself found that the college ranks in the top 3% of colleges based upon graduates who go on to earn a Ph.
D. Knox employs a 3–3 academic calendar rather than a traditional semester-based approach. In each of the three 10-week terms, students take only three courses. Faculty members teach only two courses each term. No matter what course of study students decide to pursue, education at Knox contains common elements, including an educational plan that students design. Knox College introduced the school's honor code in 1951. All students are held responsible for the integrity of their own work, students are required to abide by the code; because of this policy, tests are not proctored, in many cases students may take their exams in any open, public place within the same building. Any cases of students caught disobeying the system are evaluated by their peers through the Honor Board, a committee consisting of three seniors, three juniors, three sophomores, three faculty members. With the implementation of Renewed Knox, the 2003 curriculum overhaul, the school expanded its academic offerings to meet the needs of a liberal arts education in the 21st century.
In 2003, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute awarded the school a $1 million grant to create a new major in neuroscience. Knox is known for its Green Oaks term, an interdisciplinary program at the 700-acre Green Oaks Biological Field Station, during which students and faculty spend an entire term conducting research and creative projects and participating in courses in biology, anthropology-sociology, English, as well as workshops in outdoor skills, first aid, photography. Knox promotes top-notch undergraduate research, annually awarding students more than $250,000 in grants to support research and creative projects. Among the programs are the Ford Foundation Research Fellows Program, which funds the scientific and creative projects of 20 s
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl