Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around 1870. Its origins are attributed to the philosophers William James, John Dewey, Charles Sanders Peirce. Peirce described it in his pragmatic maxim: "Consider the practical effects of the objects of your conception. Your conception of those effects is the whole of your conception of the object."Pragmatism considers words and thought as tools and instruments for prediction, problem solving and action, rejects the idea that the function of thought is to describe, represent, or mirror reality. Pragmatists contend that most philosophical topics—such as the nature of knowledge, concepts, meaning and science—are all best viewed in terms of their practical uses and successes; the philosophy of pragmatism "emphasizes the practical application of ideas by acting on them to test them in human experiences". Pragmatism focuses on a "changing universe rather than an unchanging one as the Idealists and Thomists had claimed". Pragmatism as a philosophical movement began in the United States in the 1870s.
Charles Sanders Peirce is given credit for its development, along with twentieth century contributors, William James and John Dewey. Its direction was determined by The Metaphysical Club members Charles Sanders Peirce, William James, Chauncey Wright, as well as John Dewey and George Herbert Mead; the first use in print of the name pragmatism was in 1898 by James, who credited Peirce with coining the term during the early 1870s. James regarded Peirce's "Illustrations of the Logic of Science" series as the foundation of pragmatism. Peirce in turn wrote in 1906 that Nicholas St. John Green had been instrumental by emphasizing the importance of applying Alexander Bain's definition of belief, "that upon which a man is prepared to act". Peirce wrote. John Shook has said, "Chauncey Wright deserves considerable credit, for as both Peirce and James recall, it was Wright who demanded a phenomenalist and fallibilist empiricism as an alternative to rationalistic speculation."Peirce developed the idea that inquiry depends on real doubt, not mere verbal or hyperbolic doubt, said, in order to understand a conception in a fruitful way, "Consider the practical effects of the objects of your conception.
Your conception of those effects is the whole of your conception of the object", which he called the pragmatic maxim. It equates any conception of an object to the general extent of the conceivable implications for informed practice of that object's effects; this is the heart of his pragmatism as a method of experimentational mental reflection arriving at conceptions in terms of conceivable confirmatory and disconfirmatory circumstances—a method hospitable to the generation of explanatory hypotheses, conducive to the employment and improvement of verification. Typical of Peirce is his concern with inference to explanatory hypotheses as outside the usual foundational alternative between deductivist rationalism and inductivist empiricism, although he was a mathematical logician and a founder of statistics. Peirce further wrote on pragmatism to make clear his own interpretation. While framing a conception's meaning in terms of conceivable tests, Peirce emphasized that, since a conception is general, its meaning, its intellectual purport, equates to its acceptance's implications for general practice, rather than to any definite set of real effects.
Peirce in 1905 coined the new name pragmaticism "for the precise purpose of expressing the original definition", saying that "all went happily" with James's and Schiller's variant uses of the old name "pragmatism" and that he nonetheless coined the new name because of the old name's growing use in "literary journals, where it gets abused". Yet in a 1906 manuscript he cited as causes his differences with Schiller. And, in a 1908 publication, his differences with James as well as literary author Giovanni Papini. Peirce in any case regarded his views that truth is immutable and infinity is real, as being opposed by the other pragmatists, but he remained allied with them on other issues. Pragmatism enjoyed renewed attention after Willard Van Orman Quine and Wilfrid Sellars used a revised pragmatism to criticize logical positivism in the 1960s. Inspired by the work of Quine and Sellars, a brand of pragmatism known sometimes as neopragmatism gained influence through Richard Rorty, the most influential of the late twentieth century pragmatists along with Hilary Putnam and Robert Brandom.
Contemporary pragmatism may be broadly divided into a strict analytic tradition and a "neo-classical" pragmatism that adheres to the work of Peirce and Dewey. Inspiration for various pragmatists included: Francis Bacon who coined the saying ipsa scientia potestas est David Hume for his naturalistic account of knowledge and action Thomas Reid, for his direct realism Immanuel Kant, for his idealism and from whom Peirce derives the name "pragmatism" G. W. F. Hegel who introduced temporality into philosophy J. S. Mill for his nominalism and empiricism George Berkeley for his project to eliminate all unclear concepts from philosophy Henri Bergson who influenced William James to renounce intellectualism and logical methods A few of the various but interrelated positions characteristic
Inductive reasoning is a method of reasoning in which the premises are viewed as supplying some evidence for the truth of the conclusion, this is in contrast to deductive reasoning. While the conclusion of a deductive argument is certain, the truth of the conclusion of an inductive argument may be probable, based upon the evidence given. Many dictionaries define inductive reasoning as the derivation of general principles from specific observations, though some sources find this usage "outdated". Inductive reasoning is a form of argument that—in contrast to deductive reasoning—allows for the possibility that a conclusion can be false if all of the premises are true. Instead of being valid or invalid, inductive arguments are either strong or weak, according to how probable it is that the conclusion is true. We may call an inductive argument plausible, reasonable, justified or strong, but never certain or necessary. Logic affords no bridge from the probable to the certain; the futility of attaining certainty through some critical mass of probability can be illustrated with a coin-toss exercise.
Suppose someone tests to see if the coin is either a fair one or two-headed. She flips it ten times, ten times it comes up heads. At this point, there is a strong reason to believe. After all, the chance of ten heads in a row is.000976: less than one in one thousand. After 100 flips, every toss has come up heads. Now there is "virtual" certainty. Still, one can neither empirically rule out that the next toss will produce tails. No matter how many times in a row it comes up heads this remains the case. If one programmed a machine to flip a coin over and over continuously at some point the result would be a string of 100 heads. In the fullness of time, all combinations will appear; as for the slim prospect of getting ten out of ten heads from a fair coin—the outcome that made the coin appear biased—many may be surprised to learn that the chance of any sequence of heads or tails is unlikely and yet it occurs in every trial of ten tosses. That means all results for ten tosses have the same probability as getting ten out of ten heads, 0.000976.
If one records the heads-tails sequences, for whatever result, that exact sequence had a chance of 0.000976. An argument is deductive; that is, the conclusion cannot be false if the premises are true. If a deductive conclusion follows duly from its premises it is valid. An examination of the following examples will show that the relationship between premises and conclusion is such that the truth of the conclusion is implicit in the premises. Bachelors are unmarried. Socrates is mortal; the conclusion for a valid deductive argument is contained in the premises since because its truth is a matter of logical relations. It cannot say more than its premises. Inductive premises, on the other hand, draw their substance from fact and evidence, the conclusion accordingly makes a factual claim or prediction, its reliability varies proportionally with the evidence. Induction wants to reveal something new about the world. One could say. To better see the difference between inductive and deductive arguments, consider that it would not make sense to say: "all rectangles so far examined have four right angles, so the next one I see will have four right angles."
This would treat logical relations as something factual and discoverable, thus variable and uncertain. Speaking deductively we may permissibly say. "All unicorns can fly. This deductive argument is valid. Inductive reasoning is inherently uncertain, it only deals in the extent to which, given the premises, the conclusion is credible according to some theory of evidence. Examples include a many-valued logic, Dempster–Shafer theory, or probability theory with rules for inference such as Bayes' rule. Unlike deductive reasoning, it does not rely on universals holding over a closed domain of discourse to draw conclusions, so it can be applicable in cases of epistemic uncertainty. Another crucial difference between these two types of argument is that deductive certainty is impossible in non-axiomatic systems such as reality, leaving inductive reasoning as the primary route to knowledge of such systems. Given that "if A is true that would cause B, C, D to be true", an example of deduction would be "A is true therefore we can deduce that B, C, D are true".
An example of induction would be "B, C, D are observed to be true therefore A might be true". A is a reasonable explanation for B, C, D being true. For example: A large enough asteroid impact would create a large crater and cause a severe impact winter that could drive the non-avian dinosaurs to extinction. We observe that there is a large crater in the Gulf of Mexico dating to near the time of the extinction of the non-avian dinosaurs. Therefore, it is possible. Note, that the asteroid explanation for the mass extinction is not correct. Other events with the potential to affect global climate coincide with
Thermodynamics is the branch of physics that deals with heat and temperature, their relation to energy, work and properties of bodies of matter. The behavior of these quantities is governed by the four laws of thermodynamics, irrespective of the specific composition of the material or system in question; the laws of thermodynamics are explained in terms of microscopic constituents by statistical mechanics. Thermodynamics applies to a wide variety of topics in science and engineering physical chemistry, chemical engineering and mechanical engineering. Thermodynamics developed out of a desire to increase the efficiency of early steam engines through the work of French physicist Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot who believed that engine efficiency was the key that could help France win the Napoleonic Wars. Scots-Irish physicist Lord Kelvin was the first to formulate a concise definition of thermodynamics in 1854 which stated, "Thermo-dynamics is the subject of the relation of heat to forces acting between contiguous parts of bodies, the relation of heat to electrical agency."
The initial application of thermodynamics to mechanical heat engines was extended early on to the study of chemical compounds and chemical reactions. Chemical thermodynamics studies the nature of the role of entropy in the process of chemical reactions and has provided the bulk of expansion and knowledge of the field. Other formulations of thermodynamics emerged in the following decades. Statistical thermodynamics, or statistical mechanics, concerned itself with statistical predictions of the collective motion of particles from their microscopic behavior. In 1909, Constantin Carathéodory presented a purely mathematical approach to the field in his axiomatic formulation of thermodynamics, a description referred to as geometrical thermodynamics. A description of any thermodynamic system employs the four laws of thermodynamics that form an axiomatic basis; the first law specifies that energy can be exchanged between physical systems as work. The second law defines the existence of a quantity called entropy, that describes the direction, thermodynamically, that a system can evolve and quantifies the state of order of a system and that can be used to quantify the useful work that can be extracted from the system.
In thermodynamics, interactions between large ensembles of objects are categorized. Central to this are the concepts of its surroundings. A system is composed of particles, whose average motions define its properties, those properties are in turn related to one another through equations of state. Properties can be combined to express internal energy and thermodynamic potentials, which are useful for determining conditions for equilibrium and spontaneous processes. With these tools, thermodynamics can be used to describe how systems respond to changes in their environment; this can be applied to a wide variety of topics in science and engineering, such as engines, phase transitions, chemical reactions, transport phenomena, black holes. The results of thermodynamics are essential for other fields of physics and for chemistry, chemical engineering, corrosion engineering, aerospace engineering, mechanical engineering, cell biology, biomedical engineering, materials science, economics, to name a few.
This article is focused on classical thermodynamics which studies systems in thermodynamic equilibrium. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics is treated as an extension of the classical treatment, but statistical mechanics has brought many advances to that field; the history of thermodynamics as a scientific discipline begins with Otto von Guericke who, in 1650, built and designed the world's first vacuum pump and demonstrated a vacuum using his Magdeburg hemispheres. Guericke was driven to make a vacuum in order to disprove Aristotle's long-held supposition that'nature abhors a vacuum'. Shortly after Guericke, the English physicist and chemist Robert Boyle had learned of Guericke's designs and, in 1656, in coordination with English scientist Robert Hooke, built an air pump. Using this pump and Hooke noticed a correlation between pressure and volume. In time, Boyle's Law was formulated, which states that pressure and volume are inversely proportional. In 1679, based on these concepts, an associate of Boyle's named Denis Papin built a steam digester, a closed vessel with a fitting lid that confined steam until a high pressure was generated.
Designs implemented a steam release valve that kept the machine from exploding. By watching the valve rhythmically move up and down, Papin conceived of the idea of a piston and a cylinder engine, he did not, follow through with his design. In 1697, based on Papin's designs, engineer Thomas Savery built the first engine, followed by Thomas Newcomen in 1712. Although these early engines were crude and inefficient, they attracted the attention of the leading scientists of the time; the fundamental concepts of heat capacity and latent heat, which were necessary for the development of thermodynamics, were developed by Professor Joseph Black at the University of Glasgow, where James Watt was employed as an instrument maker. Black and Watt performed experiments together, but it was Watt who conceived the idea of the external condenser which resulted in a large increase in steam engine efficiency. Drawing on all the previous work led Sadi Carnot, the "father of thermodynamics", to publish Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire, a discourse on heat, power and engine efficiency.
The book outlined the basic energetic relations between the Carnot engine, the Carnot cycle, motive power. It marked the start of thermodynamics as a modern scien