A scooter is a type of motorcycle with a step-through frame and a platform for the rider's feet. Elements of scooter design were present in some of the earliest motorcycles, scooters have been made since 1914 or earlier. Scooter development continued in the United States between the World Wars; the global popularity of motor scooters dates from the post-World War II introductions of the Vespa and Lambretta models in Italy. These scooters were intended to provide economical personal transportation; the original layout is still used in this application. Maxi-scooters, with larger engines from 250 to 850 cc have been developed for Western markets. Scooters are popular for personal transportation due to being more affordable, easy to operate, more convenient to park and store than a car. Licensing requirements for scooters are easier and cheaper than for cars in most parts of the world, insurance is cheaper; the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary defines a motor scooter is a motorcycle similar to a kick scooter with a seat, a floorboard, small or low wheels.
The United States Department of Transportation defines a scooter as a motorcycle that has a platform for the operator's feet or has integrated footrests, has a step-through architecture. The classic scooter design features a flat floorboard for the rider's feet; this design is possible because most scooter engines and drive systems are attached to the rear axle or under the seat. Unlike a conventional motorcycle, in which the engine is mounted on the frame, most modern scooters allow the engine to swing with the rear wheel, while most vintage scooters and some newer retro models have an axle-mounted engine. Modern scooters starting from late-1980s use a continuously variable transmission, while older ones use a manual transmission with the gearshift and clutch control built into the left handlebar. Scooters feature bodywork, including a front leg shield and body that conceals all or most of the mechanicals. There is some integral storage space, either under the seat, built into the front leg shield, or both.
Scooters have varying engine displacements and configurations ranging from 50 cc single-cylinder to 850 cc twin-cylinder models. Traditionally, scooter wheels are smaller than conventional motorcycle wheels and are made of pressed steel or cast aluminum alloy, bolt on and are interchangeable between front and rear; some scooters carry a spare wheel. Many recent scooters use conventional front forks with the front axle fastened at both ends. Most jurisdictions do not differentiate between motorcycles. For all legal purposes in the United States of America, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration recommends using the term motorcycle for all of these vehicles. However, while NHTSA excludes the term motor scooter from legal definition, it proceeds, in the same document, to give detailed instructions on how to import a small motor scooter; the emissions of mopeds and scooters have been the subject of multiple studies. Studies have found that two-stroke 50 cc mopeds and without catalytic converters, emit ten to thirty times more hydrocarbons and particulate emissions than the outdated Euro 3 automobile standards.
In the same study, four-stroke mopeds and without catalytic converters, emitted three to eight times the hydrocarbons and particulate emissions than the Euro 3 automobile standards. Approximate parity with automobiles was achieved with NOx emissions in these studies. Emissions performance was unaffected by fuel economy. In 2011 the United States Environmental Protection Agency allowed motorcycles and mopeds with engine displacements less than 280 cc to emit ten times the NOx and six times the CO than the median Tier II bin 5 automobile regulations. An additional air quality challenge can arise from the use of moped and scooter transportation over automobiles, as a higher density of two-wheeled vehicles can be supported by existing transportation infrastructure. Scooter-like traits began to develop in motorcycle designs around the 1900s. In 1894, Hildebrand & Wolfmüller in Munich, Germany produced the first motorcycle, available for purchase, their motorcycle had a step-through frame, with its fuel tank mounted on the down tube, its parallel two-cylinder engine mounted low on the frame, its cylinders mounted in line with the frame.
It had a radiator built into the top of the rear fender. It became the first mass-produced and publicly sold powered two-wheel vehicle, among the first powered by its engine rather than foot pedals. Maximum speed was 40 km/h; the rear wheel was driven directly by rods from the pistons in a manner similar to the drive wheels of steam locomotives. Only a few hundred such bikes were built, the high price and technical difficulties made the venture a financial failure for both Wolfmüller and his financial backer, Hildebrand. In France, the Auto-Fauteuil was introduced in 1902; this was a step-through motorcycle with an armchair instead of a traditional saddle. Production continued until 1922. Predecessors to the scooter The Motoped entered production in 1915, is believed to be the first motor scooter, they were followed that year by the Autoped, whose engine was engaged by pushing the handlebar column forward and whose brake was engaged by pulling the column back. Autopeds were made in Long Island, New York from 1915 to 1921, were made under licence by Krupp in Germany from 1919 to 1922, following World War I.
The number of scoot
Ballet is a type of performance dance that originated during the Italian Renaissance in the fifteenth century and developed into a concert dance form in France and Russia. It has since become a widespread technical form of dance with its own vocabulary based on French terminology, it has been globally influential and has defined the foundational techniques used in many other dance genres and cultures. Ballet has been taught in various schools around the world, which have incorporated their own cultures and as a result, the art has evolved in a number of distinct ways. See glossary of ballet. A ballet, a work, consists of the music for a ballet production. Ballets are performed by trained ballet dancers. Traditional classical ballets are performed with classical music accompaniment and use elaborate costumes and staging, whereas modern ballets, such as the neoclassical works of American choreographer George Balanchine are performed in simple costumes and without the use of elaborate sets or scenery.
Ballet is a French word which had its origin in Italian balletto, a diminutive of ballo which comes from Latin ballo, meaning "to dance", which in turn comes from the Greek "βαλλίζω", "to dance, to jump about". The word came into English usage from the French around 1630. Ballet originated in the Italian Renaissance courts of the sixteenth centuries. Under Catherine de' Medici's influence as Queen, it spread to France, where it developed further; the dancers in these early court ballets were noble amateurs. Ornamented costumes were meant to impress viewers, but they restricted performers' freedom of movement; the ballets were performed in large chambers with viewers on three sides. The implementation of the proscenium arch from 1618 on distanced performers from audience members, who could better view and appreciate the technical feats of the professional dancers in the productions. French court ballet reached its height under the reign of King Louis XIV. Louis founded the Académie Royale de Danse in 1661 to establish standards and certify dance instructors.
In 1672, Louis XIV made Jean-Baptiste Lully the director of the Académie Royale de Musique from which the first professional ballet company, the Paris Opera Ballet, arose. Pierre Beauchamp served as Lully's ballet-master. Together their partnership would drastically influence the development of ballet, as evidenced by the credit given to them for the creation of the five major positions of the feet. By 1681, the first "ballerinas" took the stage following years of training at the Académie. Ballet started to decline in France after 1830, but it continued to develop in Denmark and Russia; the arrival in Europe of the Ballets Russes led by Sergei Diaghilev on the eve of the First World War revived interest in the ballet and started the modern era. In the twentieth century, ballet had a wide influence on other dance genres, Also in the twentieth century, ballet took a turn dividing it from classical ballet to the introduction of modern dance, leading to modernist movements in several countries. Famous dancers of the twentieth century include Anna Pavlova, Galina Ulanova, Rudolf Nureyev, Maya Plisetskaya, Margot Fonteyn, Rosella Hightower, Maria Tall Chief, Erik Bruhn, Mikhail Baryshnikov, Suzanne Farrell, Gelsey Kirkland, Natalia Makarova, Arthur Mitchell.
Stylistic variations and subgenres have evolved over time. Early, classical variations are associated with geographic origin. Examples of this are Russian ballet, French ballet, Italian ballet. Variations, such as contemporary ballet and neoclassical ballet, incorporate both classical ballet and non-traditional technique and movement; the most known and performed ballet style is late Romantic ballet. Classical ballet is based on vocabulary. Different styles have emerged in different countries, such as French ballet, Italian ballet, English ballet, Russian ballet. Several of the classical ballet styles are associated with specific training methods named after their creators; the Royal Academy of Dance method is a ballet technique and training system, founded by a diverse group of ballet dancers. They merged their respective dance methods to create a new style of ballet, unique to the organization and is recognized internationally as the English style of ballet; some examples of classical ballet productions are: the Nutcracker.
Romantic ballet was an artistic movement of classical ballet and several productions remain in the classical repertoire today. The Romantic era was marked by the emergence of pointe work, the dominance of female dancers, longer, flowy tutus that attempt to exemplify softness and a delicate aura; this movement occurred during the early to mid-nineteenth century and featured themes that emphasized intense emotion as a source of aesthetic experience. The plots of many romantic ballets revolved around spirit women who enslaved the hearts and senses of mortal men; the 1827 ballet La Sylphide is considered to be the first, the 1870 ballet Coppélia is considered to be the last. Famous ballet dancers of the Romantic era include Marie Taglioni, Fanny Elssler, Jules Perrot. Jules Perrot is known for his choreography that of Giselle considered to be the most celebrated romantic ballet. Neoclassical ballet is abstract, with no clear plot, costumes or scenery. Music choice can be diverse and will include music, neoclassical.
Kwon Yu-ri, better known by her mononym Yuri, is a South Korean singer and actress. She debuted as a member of girl group Girls' Generation in August 2007, which went on to become one of the best-selling artists in South Korea and one of South Korea's most popular girl groups worldwide. Apart from her group's activities, she has been in several television dramas such as Fashion King, Local Hero, The Starry Night, Innocent Defendant. In 2013, she made her film debut in No Breathing. In 2018, she released her debut solo album The First Scene. Yuri was born in Goyang, South Korea, on December 5, 1989, she has Kwon Hyuk-joon. She auditioned at the SM Entertainment Casting System and joined the company in 2001 after finishing in second place in the 2001 SM Youth Best Dancer Contest, she underwent training for 5 years and 11 months before her debut. She graduated from Neunggok High School in 2008, she and Sooyoung were appointed as Chung-Ang University new ambassadors on May 20, 2014. On February 15, 2016, she graduated with a degree in Theater and Film as well as receiving a Lifetime Achievement Award as Honorary Ambassador of the school at the graduation ceremony.
Yuri made her official debut as a member of the 9-member girl group, Girls' Generation in August 2007. Aside from her group's activities, she had a small role in a television segment, The King's Boyfriend, part of the documentary Super Junior Show by S. M Entertainment's boy group Super Junior, she made a cameo appearance as a ballerina in the film, Attack on the Pin-Up Boys, which stars the members of Super Junior. In 2008, Yuri had a recurring role in the 2008 KBS2 sitcom, Unstoppable Marriage, where she played as a high school student along with fellow member Sooyoung. In June, she sang a duet called "Kkok" with Sooyoung for the soundtrack of SBS television series, Working Mom. Yuri became a cast member in the second season of Kko Kko Tours Single♥Single, a dating show between celebrities. In 2009, she was announced to be a host of MBC music program, Show! Music Core with fellow member Tiffany. In April, K. Will released the music video of "Dropping The Tears", she performed a special stage with him for one of his performances of the song on Show!
Music Core. At the end of the year, Yuri was cast alongside Sunny as one of the 7 girl group members, dubbed as'G7' in the KBS2 reality variety show, Invincible Youth, for which she earned a nomination as Best Female MC at the 2010 KBS Entertainment Awards; as Girls' Generation started preparing for their Japanese debut, their schedules became busier. Because of this and Sunny left Invincible Youth in June 2010. For the same reason and Tiffany had to leave Show! Music Core in the following month to focus on the group's activities. Yuri made her first contribution as a songwriter for Girls' Generation's third mini album, where she wrote the lyrics for the track, "Mistake". In September, she was featured in the track "Like A Soap", from TVXQ's sixth Korean studio album Catch Me. In October 2011, Tiffany and Yuri returned to Show! Music Core and hosted the show until January 2012 when Yuri left the show once again to focus on her drama debut. In 2012, Yuri made her acting debut in SBS drama series Fashion King alongside actor Yoo Ah-in.
Yuri received nominations at the 5th Korea Drama Awards and the 2012 SBS Drama Awards for her acting performance, received the New Star Award at the latter on December 31. In 2013, Girls' Generation released their fourth Korean studio album, I Got a Boy, which has two of its tracks' lyrics co-written by Yuri. "Baby Maybe" was co-written by Yuri and her fellow members Sooyoung and Seohyun, while "XYZ" was penned with Seohyun. In June, she appeared alongside Hyoyeon in Mnet's global dance survival show, Dancing 9; the two coached the show's contestants as "K-pop dance masters" along with other notable stars who appeared as dance masters in their specific fields. Yuri made her film debut in the same year, when she was cast as the female lead in South Korea's first swimming-themed film, No Breathing. In the coming-of-age film, Yuri portrayed the role of Jung-eun, a girl who dreams of becoming a musician, the love interest of the two male leads played by Lee Jong-suk and Seo In-guk. Aside from learning how to play the guitar for her character, Yuri sang two songs for the film's soundtrack, "Bling Star" and "Twinkle Twinkle" which she performed in the film.
In October 2014, she acted as a couple with Lee Ji-hoon in the music video of "Without You" by S, the group's comeback single after 11 years. In January 2015, Yuri joined MBC's variety show, becoming the only female member of the cast. Yuri was a guest on the programs Star With Two Job and Dating Alone. In May, Yuri was chosen to host Olive TV's travel program MAPS with Choi Kang-hee, she joined the cast of Our Neighborhood Arts and Physical Education for its swimming special, showing off her swimming skills for the first time. On July 23, it was revealed that Yuri was cast as a host in an SBS reality show about rally drivers called The Rallyist alongside announcer Bae Sung-jae. Yuri returned to acting in January 2016, playing the female lead in the OCN spy thriller, Local Hero, she joined the new cast of SBS' reality-documentary show Law of the Jungle for its new season, filmed in New Caledonia. The first episode of the show aired on July 2, 2016. In July 2016, Yuri starred as the female lead alongside Kim Young-kwang in the web drama Gogh, The Starry Night In August 2016, Yuri released a single titled "Secret" with fellow member Seohyun as part of SM Station.
In January 2017, she starred in the SBS' drama Innocent Defendant and played a lawyer for which
Super Junior known as SJ or SUJU, is a South Korean boy band formed on November 6, 2005, by producer Lee Soo-man of SM Entertainment, the group comprised a total of thirteen members at its peak. Super Junior debuted with twelve members, consisting of leader Leeteuk, Hangeng, Kangin, Sungmin, Siwon, Donghae and Kibum. Kyuhyun joined the group in 2006. Super Junior launched into international recognition following the release of their best-selling single "Sorry, Sorry" in 2009, the title song of their most critically successful album, Sorry. Over the years, they have been divided into smaller groups targeting different music industries and audiences. Individually, the members have branched out into hosting and acting and their successes and popularity as all-rounded entertainers have led other Korean entertainment managements to begin training their music groups in other aspects of the entertainment industry. Super Junior was the best-selling K-pop artist for four years in a row. Super Junior have earned thirteen music awards from the Mnet Asian Music Awards, nineteen from the Golden Disc Awards, are the second singing group to win Favorite Artist Korea at the 2008 MTV Asia Awards after jtL in 2003.
In 2012, they were nominated for "Best Asian Act" in MTV Europe Music Awards. In 2015, they won "Best Fandom" in the Teen Choice Awards, their fandom name is E. L. F, which stands for Ever Lasting Friends. In 2000, SM Entertainment held their first overseas casting auditions in Beijing 101, China and recruited Hankyung, who auditioned against three thousand applicants; that same year, Leeteuk and Eunhyuk were recruited after auditioning for the company's annual casting system in Seoul. Sungmin and Donghae became trainees after jointly winning first place in an SM-sponsored contest in 2001. In 2002, Heechul and Kangin were recruited along with Kibum, discovered in Los Angeles, California by a casting agent. Siwon became a trainee after being scouted in 2003. Shindong became a trainee in 2004. Ryeowook won the 2004 Chin Chin Youth Festival singing competition and became a trainee just two months before debut in 2005. Kyuhyun joined the group in 2006, after winning third place in the 2005 Chin Chin Youth Festival.
In early 2005, Lee Soo-man announced that he had been preparing for an all-boy project group of twelve members to debut at the end of the year. He called this singing group to be "The Gateway to Stardom of Asia," as most of the members in this group were chosen for their experiences as actors, MCs, radio hosts prior debut. Heechul and Kibum were established actors at the time, most of the other members had made various kinds of appearances in television and media. Inspired by the rotational concept of Japan's girl group Morning Musume, Lee said that his new group would experience line-up changes, with new members replacing selected members every year to keep the group young and all-rounded; this concept was newly introduced to the K-pop market. For a while the group was rumoured to be called O. V. E. R, the acronym for "Obey the Voice for Each Rhythm." However, before the group settled with their current name, the company referred to them as juniors, a representation of the members' young ages when they first became SM trainees.
After the members' showcased their different talents to the company at a picnic, the company finalized their group name to Super Junior, became Super Junior'05, the first generation of Super Junior. Super Junior 05 made their pre-debut performance on the Korean channel Mnet on September 11, 2005. At the showcase, they performed various styles of hip-hop dancing, where they danced to B2K's "Take It to the Floor". Hankyung and Donghae performed a separate dance together, dancing to Usher's "Caught Up." However, the performance did not air on television until May 16, 2006, as a segment in the Super Junior Show, the group's first television documentary. The group debuted on SBS' music program Popular Song on November 6, 2005, performing their first single "Twins". A digital single with "Twins", "You Are the One", three additional tracks were released online on November 8, followed by the release of their debut album Twins on December 6, 2005; the album sold 28,536 copies in the first month of release and debuted at number three in the monthly chart of December 2005.
In February 2006, Super Junior 05 began performances for "Miracle", the second promotional single from their debut album. "Miracle" topped the music charts of Thailand. As promotions for "Miracle" ended, SM Entertainment began selecting new members for Super Junior's second generation, Super Junior 06; the company prepared a list of chosen members that were to graduate from the group. However, the company abandoned the rotational concept after adding a thirteenth member, Kyuhyun, in 2006; the group became known as just Super Junior, without the suffix "05". After the addition of Kyuhyun, Super Junior released their single "U" for free download on May 25, 2006, on their official website. "U" exceeded 400,000 downloads within five hours of release and surpassed 1.7 million downloads, crashing the server. The physical single of "U" with a total of three tracks was released on June 6 selling over 81,000 units in South Korea; the single became one of Korea's most popular songs of the year, taking up number one spots for five consecutive weeks on two of Korea's top music programs.
By the end of the year, Super Junior collected over seven awards in five of South Korea's top music award ceremonies, was one of the thre
K-pop is a genre of popular music originating in South Korea. While the modern form of K-pop can be traced back to the early 90s, the term itself has been popularized since the 2000s, replacing the term Gayo, which refers to domestic pop music in South Korea. Although it indicates "popular music" within South Korea, the term is used in a narrower sense to describe a modern form of South Korean pop, influenced by styles and genres from around the world, such as experimental, jazz, hip hop, R&B, electronic dance, folk and classical on top of its traditional Korean music roots; the more modern form of the genre emerged with the formation of one of the earliest K-pop groups, Seo Taiji and Boys, in 1992. Their experimentation with different styles and genres of music and integration of foreign musical elements helped reshape and modernize South Korea's contemporary music scene. Modern K-pop "idol" culture began with the boy band H. O. T. in 1996, as K-pop grew into a subculture that amassed enormous fandoms of teenagers and young adults.
After a slump in early K-pop, from 2003 TVXQ and BoA started a new generation of K-pop idols that broke the music genre into the neighboring Japanese market and continue to popularize K-pop internationally today. With the advent of online social networking services and Korean TV shows, the current spread of K-pop and Korean entertainment, known as the Korean Wave, is seen not only in East Asia and Southeast Asia, but in India, Latin America, North Africa, Southern Africa, the Middle East and throughout the Western world, gaining a widespread global audience. Although K-pop refers to South Korean popular music, some consider it to be an all-encompassing genre exhibiting a wide spectrum of musical and visual elements; the French Institut national de l'audiovisuel defines K-pop as a "fusion of synthesized music, sharp dance routines and fashionable, colorful outfits". Songs consist of one or a mixture of pop, hip hop, R&B and electronic music genres. Management agencies in South Korea offer binding contracts to potential artists, sometimes at a young age.
Trainees live together in a regulated environment and spend many hours a day learning music, foreign languages and other skills in preparation for their debut. This "robotic" system of training is criticized by Western media outlets. In 2012, The Wall Street Journal reported that the cost of training one Korean idol under SM Entertainment averaged US$3 million. K-pop is a cultural product that features “values and meanings that go beyond their commercial value.” It is characterized by a mixture of modern Western sounds and African-American influences with a Korean aspect of performance. It has been remarked. For some, the transnational values of K-pop are responsible for its success. A commentator at the University of California has said that "contemporary Korean pop culture is built on transnational flows taking place across and outside national and institutional boundaries." Some examples of the transnational values inherent in K-pop that may appeal to those from different ethnic and religious backgrounds include a dedication to high-quality output and presentation of idols, as well as their work ethic and polite social demeanour, made possible by the training period.
Modern K-pop is marked by its use of English phrases. Jin Dal Yong of Popular Music and Society wrote that the usage may be influenced by "Korean-Americans and/or Koreans who studied in the U. S. take full advantage of their English fluency and cultural resources that are not found among those who were raised and educated in Korea." Korean pop music from singers or groups who are Korean-American such as Fly to the Sky, g.o.d, Yoo Seung-jun, Drunken Tiger has both American style and English lyrics. These Korean-American singers' music has a different style from common Korean music, which attracts the interest of young people. Foreign songwriters and producers are employed to work on songs for K-pop idols, such as will.i.am and Sean Garrett. Foreign musicians, including rappers such as Akon, Kanye West and Snoop Dogg, have featured on K-pop songs; the entertainment companies help to expand K-pop to other parts of the world through a number of different methods. Singers need to use English since the companies want to occupy markets in the other parts of Asia, which enables them to open the Western market in the end.
Most of the K-pop singers learn English because it is a common language in the world of music, but some singers learn other foreign languages such as Japanese to approach the Japanese market. Increasing numbers of K-pop bands use English names rather than Korean ones; this allows artists to be marketed to a wider audience around the world. However, the use of English has not guaranteed the popularity of K-pop in the North American market. For some commentators, the reason for this is because the genre can be seen as a distilled version of Western music, making it difficult for K-pop to find acceptance in these markets. Furthermore, Western audiences tend to place emphasis on authenticity and individual expression in music, which the idol system can be seen as suppressing. According to Elaine W. Chun's research though hybridity appears more and more in K-pop, sometimes may make fans admire K-pop stars more because it is fresh
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
Ewha Womans University
Ewha Womans University is a private women's university in Seoul, South Korea founded in 1886 by Mary F. Scranton under Emperor Gojong, it is the world's largest female educational institute and is one of the most prestigious universities in South Korea. Ewha Womans University traces its roots back to Mary F. Scranton's Ewha Haktang mission school for girls, which opened with one student on May 31, 1886; the name Ewha, which means “Pear Blossoms”, was bestowed by the Emperor Gojong the following year. The image of the pear blossom is incorporated in the school's logo; the school began providing college courses in 1910, professional courses for women in 1925. The high school section, now known as Ewha Girls' High School, separated from the college section and is located in Jung-gu, Seoul. Both institutions share the "pear blossoms" image in their logos. Following liberation of Korea on August 15, 1945, the college received government permission to become a university, it was the first South Korean university to be organized.
According to figures provided by the university in April 2018, there are 21,596 enrolled students at the university. While figures on the student body's gender breakdown are not available, Korea JoongAng Daily reported in 2003 there were 10 male students enrolled at the time. In 2009, Asian Correspondent reported that male students make up 30% of all foreign international students at the university; the university collaborates with around 830 partners in 64 countries including Australian National University, Cornell University, Freie University of Berlin, Ghent University, Harvard University, Indiana University, King’s College London, Nanyang Technological University, Peking University, University of Kuala Lumpur, University of California, University of British Columbia, University of Edinburgh, University of Hong Kong, University of South Carolina, Uppsala University, Waseda University, a direct exchange program with Mills College in Oakland, California. The university now explains its peculiar name by saying that while the lack of an apostrophe in "Womans University" is unconventional, the use of "Woman's" rather than "Women's" was normal in the past.
It claims the use of "Womans" carries special meaning in that the early founders of the college thought that every woman is to be respected. The claim has not been substantiated. Helen Kim, the seventh principal and first Korean principal of Ewha, is considered to be pro-Japanese, she is known to have encouraged young men to enlist in the Japanese army. The statue of Helen Kim and the building named after her on campus has been criticized. Students have protested many times to take down the statue. While Ewha Womans University has been the center of women's rights movements that had positive impacts on Korean society, this feminist feature created controversies in Korea, where misogyny is deep-seated. One example of controversies was men's benefit from military service. Getting extra points on employment and being paid for higher step in the salary class were available to males who had done their mandatory military service. Yet, in 1999, Ewha Womans University students and one male student, a disabled student at Yonsei University, protested that this was sexist and discriminatory toward disabled people.
This case went to court, the court ruled that this was, indeed and discrimination toward the disabled. Ewha Womans University became embroiled in the 2016 South Korean political scandal, because a former student, Chung Yoo-ra, was admitted under a special rule change by virtue of her mother's close connections to South Korean President Park Geun-hye despite not meeting requirements. Students had been protesting against some of the university's unilateral changes to the degree system and departments before the political scandal blew up; as a result, the university's president, Choi Kyunghee, was ousted and convicted and Chung Yoo-ra's degree was rescinded. Among the women lawmakers appointed to the 19th National Assembly, 27.6% are Ewha alumnae. The only Korean university participating as a partner in the Harvard College in Asia Program and Ewha-Harvard Summer School Program. Produced the 6th highest number of successful candidates in National Judicial Exam and the 7th highest number in Civil Service Exam in 2013.
First among all private Korean universities in the number of citations per research paper in the 2012 Chosun-QS Evaluation of Asian Universities. 321st in the 2013 Leiden Ranking, a qualitative assessment of faculty research in the world’s top 500 universities. 299th in the QS World University Rankings in 2018. Ninth among all Korean universities in the Chosun-QS Evaluation of Asian Universities in 2016. Hillary Clinton — Former United States Secretary of State. Drew Gilpin Faust — President of Harvard University. Tarja Halonen — The 11th President of Finland. Muhammad Yunus — President of Grameen Bank and the 2006 Nobel Peace Prize recipient. George Smoot — Recipient of Nobel Prize in Physics in 2006. Robert Howard Grubbs — American chemist and a Nobel laureate. Jane Goodall — British anthropologist. Jocelyn Bell Burnell — Professor of Astrophysics at Oxford University. Han Myeong-sook — former Prime Minister of South Korea. Jeon Yeo-ok — South Korean politician. Kim Yoon-ok — former First Lady, the wife of South Korean President Lee Myung-bak.
Lee Tai-Young — first Korean female lawyer and first female judge. Son Myung-soon — former First Lady