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Intracerebral hemorrhage

Intracerebral hemorrhage known as cerebral bleed, is a type of intracranial bleed that occurs within the brain tissue or ventricles. Symptoms can include headache, one-sided weakness, seizures, decreased level of consciousness, neck stiffness. Symptoms get worse over time. Fever is common. In many cases bleeding is present in both the ventricles. Causes include brain trauma, arteriovenous malformations, brain tumors; the largest risk factors for spontaneous bleeding are amyloidosis. Other risk factors include alcoholism, low cholesterol, blood thinners, cocaine use. Diagnosis is by CT scan. Other conditions that may present include ischemic stroke. Treatment should be carried out in an intensive care unit. Guidelines recommended decreasing the blood pressure to a systolic of 140 mmHg. Blood thinners should be reversed if blood sugar kept in the normal range. Surgery to place a ventricular drain may be used to treat hydrocephalus but corticosteroids should not be used. Surgery to remove the blood is useful in certain cases.

Cerebral bleeding affects about 2.5 per 10,000 people each year. It occurs more in males and older people. About 44% of those affected die within a month. A good outcome occurs in about 20% of those affected. Strokes were first divided into their two major types and insufficient blood flow, in 1823. People with intracerebral bleeding have symptoms that correspond to the functions controlled by the area of the brain, damaged by the bleed. Other symptoms include those that indicate a rise in intracranial pressure caused by a large mass putting pressure on the brain. Intracerebral bleeds are misdiagnosed as subarachnoid hemorrhages due to the similarity in symptoms and signs. A severe headache followed by vomiting is one of the more common symptoms of intracerebral hemorrhage. Collapsing is another symptom; some people may experience continuous bleeding from the ear. Some patients may go into a coma before the bleed is noticed. Intracerebral bleeds are the second most common cause of stroke, accounting for 10% of hospital admissions for stroke.

High blood pressure raises the risks of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage by two to six times. More common in adults than in children, intraparenchymal bleeds are due to penetrating head trauma, but can be due to depressed skull fractures. Acceleration-deceleration trauma, rupture of an aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation, bleeding within a tumor are additional causes. Amyloid angiopathy is a not uncommon cause of intracerebral hemorrhage in patients over the age of 55. A small proportion is due to cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Risk factors for ICH include: Hypertension Diabetes mellitus Menopause Cigarette smoking Excessive alcohol consumption Severe migraineTraumautic intracerebral hematomas are divided into acute and delayed. Acute intracerebral hematomas occur at the time of the injury while delayed intracerebral hematomas have been reported from as early as 6 hours post injury to as long as several weeks. Both computed tomography angiography and magnetic resonance angiography have been proved to be effective in diagnosing intracranial vascular malformations after ICH.

So a CT angiogram will be performed in order to exclude a secondary cause of hemorrhage or to detect a "spot sign". Intraparenchymal hemorrhage can be recognized on CT scans because blood appears brighter than other tissue and is separated from the inner table of the skull by brain tissue; the tissue surrounding a bleed is less dense than the rest of the brain because of edema, therefore shows up darker on the CT scan. When due to high blood pressure, intracerebral hemorrhages occur in the putamen or thalamus, cerebellum, pons, or elsewhere in the brainstem. Treatment depends on the type of ICH. Rapid CT scan and other diagnostic measures are used to determine proper treatment, which may include both medication and surgery. Tracheal intubation is indicated in people with decreased level of consciousness or other risk of airway obstruction. IV fluids are given using isotonic rather than hypotonic fluids. One review found that antihypertensive therapy to bring down the blood pressure in acute phases appears to improve outcomes.

Other reviews found an unclear difference between intensive and less intensive blood pressure control. The American Heart Association and American Stroke Association guidelines in 2015 recommended decreasing the blood pressure to a SBP of 140 mmHg. However, the evidence finds tentative usefulness as of 2015. Giving Factor VIIa within 4 hours limits the formation of a hematoma. However, it increases the risk of thromboembolism, it thus overall does not result in better outcomes in those without hemophilia. Frozen plasma, vitamin K, protamine, or platelet transfusions may be given in case of a coagulopathy. Platelets however appear to worsen outcomes in those with spontaneous intracerebral bleeding on antiplatelet medication. Fosphenytoin or other anticonvulsant is given in case of seizures or lobar hemorrhage. H2 antagonists or proton pump inhibitors are given for to try to prevent stress ulcers, a condition linked with ICH. Corticosteroids, were thought to reduce swelling. However, in large controlled studies, corticosteroids have been found to increase mortality rates and are no longer recommended.

Surgery is required if the hematoma is greater than 3 cm, if there is a structural vascular lesion or lobar hemorrhage in a young patient. A catheter may be passed into the brain vasculature to close off or dilate blood vessels, avoiding invasi

Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 282

Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 282 is a fragment of a Complaint against a Wife, in Greek. It was discovered in Oxyrhynchus; the manuscript, written on papyrus in the form of a sheet, is dated between 26 January 29 – 22 May 37. It is housed in the Beinecke Rare Manuscript Library of the Yale University in New Haven; the measurements of the fragment are 175 by 97 mm. The document is mutilated; the document was written by Tryphon, son of Dionysius, was addressed to the strategus. This papyrus was discovered by Hunt in 1897 in Oxyrhynchus; the text was published by Grenfell and Hunt in 1899. The fragment is used by palaeographers and papyrologists for dating ancient documents, which do not have dates added by their scribes. Young Kyu Kim used it to date biblical manuscript Papyrus 46 to the end of the 1st century, it is a petition addressed to the strategus by Tryphon, complaining that his wife Demetrous had left him and carried off various articles belonging to him. A list of the stolen property was added; the document, like other Greek documents of ancient time does not distinguish between theft and removal of husband's property, in both cases is used αποφερειν.

Demetrous was the first wife of Tryphon, who married Saraeus in the year 36. The date of papyrus, written in a large uncial hand. Other surviving ancient petitions submitted by husbands are P. Heid. I. 13. 2 and 3. V 1651 and P. Tebt. I 51. Oxyrhynchus Papyri Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 281 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: B. P. Grenfell. Oxyrhynchus Papyri II. London: Egypt Exploration Fund

Jewry Wall Museum

The Jewry Wall Museum is a museum in Leicester. It was built in the 1960s, it housed artefacts from Iron Age and medieval Leicester. With the ending of Vaughan College's use of the building in 2013, the whole site was acquired by the city council, expansion and improvement plans were put in place; the area west of the Jewry Wall was excavated by Kathleen Kenyon between 1936 and 1939, resulting in a set of bath house foundations a considerable depth below street level. When post-war reconstruction got underway, what became Vaughan Way required the destruction of the old Vaughan Working Men's College, the outcome was that the area alongside the Roman foundations was used for a new building which combined both the Adult learning college and a new museum to house Leicester's growing collection of Roman and medieval archaeological finds; the building, completed in 1962, is Grade II listed and until 2013 the museum was located below Vaughan College, part of Leicester University's Institute for Lifelong-Learning.

Construction finished two years later. The museum is free to enter. In 2004, as part of a scheme of cost-cutting on the part of Leicester City Council, it was proposed that the opening hours at the Jewry Wall Museum would be reduced. An interest group was created in response, the Friends of Jewry Wall Museum have been promoting the museum since. Regardless of this, Leicester City Council reduced the museum's opening times to save money, the museum is closed for several months over the winter. Councillor John Mugglestone rationalised the decision at the time, saying: "At Jewry Wall, we have more curators than visitors"; the museum was threatened again in 2011, when Leicester City Council announced plans to close the museum to save money. This decision was overturned following a motion by the City Council's backbench Labour Councillors, led by former Labour Council leader Ross Willmott; the University of Leicester had been the owner of the building, with the museum holding a secure long-term tenancy of the ground floor, In 2013 the University announced that it was no longer to use the building for its lifelong learning activities an put it up for sale.

In March 2016 Leicester City Council was able to buy the building, began a process of improvements and expansion of the Museum, which could be spread over both floors and improve access and visibility of both the museum and Roman ruins. The quantity of Roman material has expanded in recent years as developers have been required to carry out full archaeological works while redeveloping sites across the city. "Jewry Wall Museum". Leicester City Council. Retrieved 20 April 2015

Volcanic dam

A volcanic dam is a type of natural dam produced directly or indirectly by volcanism, which holds or temporarily restricts the flow of surface water in existing streams, like a man-made dam. There are two main types of volcanic dams, those created by the flow of molten lava, those created by the primary or secondary deposition of pyroclastic material and debris; this classification excludes other larger and longer lived dam-type geologic features, separately termed crater lakes, although these volcanic centers may be associated with the source of material for volcanic dams, the lowest portion of its confining rim may be considered as such a dam if the lake level within the crater is high. Volcanic dams occur worldwide, in association with former and active volcanic provinces, are known to have existed in the geologic record, in historic times and occur in the present day, their removal or failure is recorded. The longevity, extent varies having periods ranging from a few days, weeks or years to several hundred thousand years or more, dimensions ranging from a few meters to hundreds, to several thousand.

The emplacement, internal structure and longevity of such dams can be related variously to the amount and duration of geothermal energy released, the rock material made available. Depositional modes include gravity flow of molten lava at the surface, gravity flow or fall of pyroclastics through the air, as well as the redistribution and transportation of those materials by gravity and water. Lava dams are formed by lava flowing or spilling into a river valley in sufficient quantity and height to temporarily overcome the explosive nature of its contact with water, the erosive force of flowing water to remove it; the latter depends on the quantity of stream gradient. The lava may flow during numerous successive or repetitive eruptions and may emanate from single or numerous vents or fissures. Lava of this nature, like basalt, is associated with less explosive eruptions. Once established, continued lava flow creates a steeper upstream face as it battles the rising water, but with most lava flowing unimpeded downstream covering the now-dried river bed and its alluvial sediments, sometimes for miles.

Thus emplaced, the shape of a lava dam resembles an elongated blob, wedged in the valley bottom. At the same time, the water continues to flow, the lake continues to rise and accumulate sediment, which had migrated unimpeded downstream. Sediment filling, over-topping, downward erosion and under-cutting follow, unless an alternative outlet is established, for water and sediment elsewhere in the drainage. Large examples of lava dams from the geologic record include those developed from the western side of the Grand Canyon, with the largest remnant now termed Prospect Dam, in several locations within the Snake River drainage; the former'Lake Idaho', which existed for more than 6.5 million years, filled the western portion of the behind such a structure and created the western section of the Snake River Plain, accumulated 4000 ft of lake sediments. Other locations include near American Falls and numerous others. Many of these were overtopped, washed out, or skirted by the outburst flood originating from ancestral Lake Bonneville.

Many other examples exist globally including, Caburgua Lake in Chile, Mývatn in Iceland and Lake Reporoa in New Zealand. Examples in western Canada and others in northwestern United States include, Lava Lake and The Barrier, which still impounds Garibaldi Lake, Lava Butte. Pyroclastic dams are created in an existing drainage either by their direct emplacement or by the accumulation of variable pyroclastic particles, broadly termed tephra. Unlike lava dams, which are formed by coherent, molten liquid gravity surface flow, filling the valley bottom directly and solidifying from the outside inward, pyroclastic dams are produced by less coherent airborne gravity currents or falls of tephra particles from the atmosphere, which solidify on the surface more from the inner portion outward, their airborne nature is less restricted to the immediate drainage and they may roil over drainage boundaries. The explosiveness of pyroclastic eruptions, both laterally and vertically, range from fiery surges, to hot flows, to warm falls of tephra.

Unless violently expelled and speaking, larger sized tephra falls closest to the crater and smaller tephra landing farther away, with its distribution more influenced by prevailing wind velocity and direction. Once established, a pyroclastic dam's continued longevity remains a balance between its consolidating hardness and toughness, the amount and velocity of flowing water's erosive capacity to remove it from its outset. Unconsolidated tephra is moved by precipitation and flowing water in drainages, at times creating a lahar. Upstream of the dam this material would accumulate to fill the lake, downstream it would tend to erode its slopes and base; the r

Heike Langguth

Heike Langguth is a German two times vice-champion in Muay Thai. Heike Langguth began her athletic career as a boxer and trained a little in Weimar kickboxing. In 2004, she started at the 1 SSV Hall Field 92 eV with Muay Thai; that same year she became German Vice-champion and could repeat their success 2005th In 2006, she founded the association'Bareknuckle eV', which operates a training center for Muay Thai and traditional Boxing Eckartsberga malls village. Langguth is effective for the training center Bareknuckle Gym Germany. Sources at the anti-fascist movement has been pointed out that Heike Langguth was active in the extreme right-wing of the black metal scene. Together with her then-boyfriend Ronald Möbus, singer of Germany's most infamous Black metal and Pagan metal band Absurd and older brother of the band and founder Hendrik Möbus. Möbus and Langguth founded the pagan metal record label Nebelfee Klangwerke, a mail order and retail shop for New Age and Neo-Pagans article and right-wing literature.

For a solidarity campaign for the detainees at the time Hendrik Moebus is Langguth have acted as the owner of the donation account. In addition, she was 1998-2002 editor of the extreme right fanzines'Germanenorden' and contact person of the "Germanischen Freyfrauen Bundes", worked with the extreme right and neo-pagan Deutsche Heidnische Front, it belonged to the neo-pagan Artgemeinschaft - Germanic Faith Community Association. Langguth organized concerts with neo-Nazi black metal bands such as Funeral ), Magog and Absurd. Criticism provoked including an interview with Langguth in the Saalfeld city magazine Marcus. Since 2003, according to her own data, is not involved with far-right activities, since there would be no staff or organisational links between Langguth and the far-right scene. Christian Dornbusch/Hans-Peter Killguss: Unheilige Allianzen. Black Metal zwischen Satanismus, Heidentum und Neonazismus, Unrast Verlag, Hamburg/Münster 2005. Official website Profil bei www.womenkickboxing.com Martina Renner: Leichtes Spiel.

Thüringer Neonazis nutzen den Sport als Einfallstor. Der Rechte Rand Nr. 100. Michael Klarmann: Aus Hass wird Ernst. „Unheilige Allianzen“ zwischen der Musikwelt des Black Metal und jener der Neonazis Telepolis vom 14. Februar 2006

Klāra Kalniņa

Klāra Anna Luīze Kalniņa, née Veilande, was a Latvian feminist, suffragette and politician, a long-time member of the Latvian Social Democratic Workers' Party. Kalniņa was born in the village of Vanči in Courland Governorate, Russian Empire on 24 February 1874, she finished four grades of schooling in 1890 in Jelgava, where the language of instruction was German, not Latvian. She was admitted into the sixth grade of the Jelgava Gymnasium at the age of 20 and graduated in 1897 having completed the seventh grade. In the meantime, she had gone to St Petersburg, the capital of the Russian Empire, in an attempt to further her education, but was forced to return home in 1896 by financial difficulties. Kalniņa met her future husband, Pauls Kalniņš, in 1895 and they married three years later, they had one son, the politician Brūno Kalniņš. During the German occupation of Latvia during World War II, she and her husband participated in the pro-independence Latvian Central Council. After her husband's death in 1945, she fled to Sweden and lived there until she died in 1964.

While still a student, Kalniņa was one of the founders of a literary group, that rejected the bourgeois idea that women's roles in life were limited to Kinder, Küche, Kirche. In the mid-1890s, she became involved in the New Current and the beginnings of the social democratic movements. While in St Petersburg, she participated in the activities of the Social Democrats there and became active in organizing the social democratic group in Kurzeme from 1901 to 1903. Kalniņa and her husband left Russia that same year and lived in Germany and Switzerland until the outbreak of the 1905 Russian Revolution prompted their temporary return, she was elected to the Constitutional Assembly of Latvia in 1920. Alongside Aspazija, Apolonija Laurinoviča, Valērija Seile and Berta Vesmane, she was one of five women elected to the proto-parliament. Novikova, Irina. "Kalniņa, Klāra". In Haan, Francisca de. Biographical Dictionary of Women's Movements and Feminisms in Central and South Eastern Europe: 19th and 20th Centuries.

New York: Central European University Press. ISBN 978-963-7326-39-4