An intramolecular force is any force that binds together the atoms making up a molecule or compound, not to be confused with intermolecular forces, which are the forces present between molecules. The subtle difference in the name comes from the Latin roots of English with inter meaning between or among and intra meaning inside. Chemical bonds are considered to be intramolecular forces, for example; these forces are stronger than intermolecular forces, which are present between atoms or molecules that are not bonded. The classical model identifies three main types of chemical bonds — ionic and metallic — distinguished by the degree of charge separation between participating atoms; the characteristics of the bond formed can be predicted by the properties of constituent atoms, namely electronegativity. They differ in the magnitude of their bond enthalpies, a measure of bond strength, thus affect the physical and chemical properties of compounds in different ways. % of ionic character is directly proportional difference in electronegitivity of bonded atom.
An ionic bond can be approximated as complete transfer of one or more valence electrons of atoms participating in bond formation, resulting in a positive ion and a negative ion bound together by electrostatic forces. Electrons in an ionic bond tend to be found around one of the two constituent atoms due to the large electronegativity difference between the two atoms; this type of bond is formed between a metal and nonmetal, such as sodium and chlorine in NaCl. Sodium would give an electron to chlorine, forming a positively charged sodium ion and a negatively charged chloride ion. In a true covalent bond, the electrons are shared evenly between the two atoms of the bond. Covalent bonds are formed between two nonmetals. There are several types of covalent bonds: in polar covalent bonds, electrons are more to be found around one of the two atoms, whereas in nonpolar covalent bonds, electrons are evenly shared. Homonuclear diatomic molecules are purely covalent; the polarity of a covalent bond is determined by the electronegativities of each atom and thus a polar covalent bond has a dipole moment pointing from the partial positive end to the partial negative end.
Polar covalent bonds represent an intermediate type in which the electrons are neither transferred from one atom to another nor evenly shared. Metallic bonds form within a pure metal or metal alloy. Metallic electrons are delocalized. Bonds are formed by atoms. Free atoms will have more energy than a bonded atom; this is because some energy is released during bond formation, allowing the entire system to achieve a lower energy state. The bond length, or the minimum separating distance between two atoms participating in bond formation, is determined by their repulsive and attractive forces along the internuclear direction; as the two atoms get closer and closer, the positively charged nuclei repel, creating a force that attempts to push the atoms apart. As the two atoms get further apart, attractive forces work to pull them back together, thus an equilibrium bond length is a good measure of bond stability. Intramolecular forces are important in the field of biochemistry, where it comes into play at the most basic levels of biological structures.
Intramolecular forces such as disulfide bonds give proteins and DNA their structure. Proteins derive their structure from the intramolecular forces that shape them and hold them together; the main source of structure in these molecules is the interaction between the amino acid residues that form the foundation of proteins. The interactions between residues of the same proteins forms the secondary structure of the protein, allowing for the formation of beta sheets and alpha helices, which are important structures for proteins and in the case of alpha helices, for DNA. Chemical bond Intermolecular force
Reckless is the third book in The It Girl novels by the German American author Cecily von Ziegesar. The series is ghostwritten from the original idea by Ziegesar; the series, aimed toward young adults, is a spin-off from the bestselling Gossip Girl series. It was released in 2006 by Brown; as punishment for being off-campus, the girls are split up into separate rooms: Callie and Jenny are kept in their original room while Tinsley and Brett move to another. They spend most of their energy avoiding each other. Callie tries to deal with her breakup but is surprised when Easy asks her to go to dinner with him and his father during Trustee's Weekend because his father adores Callie and is unaware that they have broken up. Easy, who does not get along with his father, hopes to protect Jenny from his overly critical nature and believes that taking Callie would be much simpler. Callie accepts his invitation but wonders if it means that Easy is having second thoughts about their breakup. Jenny, on the other hand, is blissfully unaware of Easy's action and continues to spend time with Brett, who decides to lose her virginity with her boyfriend Jeremiah Mortimer during Trustee's Weekend, after a big football game for St. Lucius.
However, Tinsley helps Heath Ferro and the hot new freshman, Julian hide kegs of beer on the roof of the Dumbarton dorm and under the bed of a quiet girl who lives in a single known as The Girl In Black. After the boys leave, Tinsley throws and all girls party on the roof for all of the Dumbarton residents. A staff member passing by hears the girls on the roof and attempts to a stop to it. All the girls hide in their respective rooms so no one can be blamed but the administration insists that the keg left on the roof is more than enough to hold against the dorm as a whole. Due to the Trustee Weekend event, the administration does not want to draw too much attention to the incident so the punishment is light- all Dumbarton residents are under lockdown for the weekend. No one can leave the dorm, thus ruining Brett's plans with Jeremiah. Upon hearing this, the guys of Waverly decide to make history by sneaking into Dumbarton while it is still on lock-down through secret tunnels built during the Cold War.
Led by Heath Ferro, Easy Walsh, Brandon Buchanan, Alan St. Girard, Jeremiah Mortimer, Julian McCafferty make it to Dumbarton unseen by the administration. Upon arrival, they break out the kegs stored under The Girl In Black's room, who turns out to be Kara Whalen, a chubby girl, teased mercilessly by Heath Ferro her freshman year. In the spirit of generosity, Tinsley suggests that the girls of Dumbarton open their closets to the other residents so everyone can borrow each other's clothes. Tinsley, on a hunt for the hottest threads, checks on the kegs in Kara's room and discovers Kara has a fantastic wardrobe, thanks to her designer mother, she offers to help Kara with her make up but forgets as the party begins. Jenny and Easy are reunited at the party but he still doesn't mention his dinner with his father and Callie the previous night before. Jenny leaves him in her room to grab drinks but a rumor spreads that a teacher is roaming the hallways, he is found by Callie who joins him. After she does so, the two begin to kiss but Easy realizes he has strong feelings for Jenny but is confused as to why he is still so attracted to Callie.
Jenny, in the meanwhile, gets pulled into Kara's room after the rumors of a teacher in Dumbarton reach her. Kara and Jenny become fast friends and begin to chat when they are interrupted by Heath Ferro, looking for a place to hide as well. Heath is attracted to Kara and does not recognize her as'The Whale', the nickname he gave her freshman year and attempts to pick her up. Kara, however, is unimpressed and throws her mug of beer into Heath's face, making her one of the coolest chicks at the party. Brandon, unaware of the rumors about a teacher, bumps into a girl from St. Lucius, it becomes apparent that the rumors about a teacher are about Elizabeth who has followed Jeremiah from St. Lucius. Brandon and Elizabeth bond as they go around the rooms and coax the residents to continue partying as there is no threat of a teacher. Brett and Jeremiah find each other at the beginning of the party and are about to have sex when they are interrupted by Tinsley who announces a game of'I Never' is starting in the common room.
Deciding to forgo sex for a more romantic occasion and Brett agree to join the game. During the game, Yvonne Stidder starts with saying; the people who have done it do a shot, led by Heath Ferro. Jeremiah and Elizabeth each do a shot which causes Brett and Jeremiah to break up. Shockingly, who has implied that she has had sex multiple times, does not take a shot which prompts accusations from her friends that she is a liar. Unwilling to be thrown into the spotlight for the wrong reasons, Tinsley announces in front of everybody that Easy took Callie to the Trustee Dinner instead of Jenny. Which prompts Jenny to flee the room. Callie becomes angry at Tinsley for revealing such a big secret in front of everyone though she hoped it would cause Easy and Jenny to break up, reconciles with Brett, with Kara, comforting Jenny. Jenny, to Callie's surprise, forgives her and both girls await Easy's next move. After the game of I Never, the party slows down as the party-goers gossip about the recent events.
During so, Elizabeth and Brandon sneak off to the tunnels and make out which makes Brandon believe that he is over Callie
The Josiah Smith Tennent House is a National Register property located at 727 East Bay St. at the intersection of Drake Street in Charleston, South Carolina. The house was built by Josiah Smith Tennent in 1859 and placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1979. In 1993, the city gave the property known as the Josiah Smith Tennent House to nonprofit Elpis Inc. At the time, the house was little more than a shell, the nonprofit intended to restore the building as a community center. A restoration followed, aided by the community development grants from the city, private donations estimated in the millions, a $1.73 million mortgage that Elpis took out on the building in 2003. The restoration received a South Carolina Historic Preservation Award in 2004. Elpis outfitted part of the building as a dental clinic, helped established a day care center there, housed other nonprofit groups in the building. In March 2008, it was announced that Charleston would spend $1.4 million to buy the house when a nonprofit that received more than $1 million in municipal grants toward renovating the building as a community center defaulted on its mortgage.
Tomokazu Harimoto is a Japanese table tennis player. In August 2017, he became the youngest winner of an ITTF World Tour men's singles title, winning the Czech Open title at the age of 14 years and 61 days. In December 2018, he became the youngest player to win the ITTF World Tour Grand Finals at the age of 15 years and 172 days. Harimoto was born as Zhang Zhihe in Sendai in Miyagi Prefecture, his father Zhang Yu and mother Zhang Ling are both former professional table tennis players from Sichuan province, China. Zhang Ling, at the peak of her career, represented China at the 43rd World Table Tennis Championships in Tianjin. Harimoto began playing table tennis at the age of two, he became a naturalized citizen of Japan in 2014 and changed his surname to Harimoto. After graduating from East Miyagi Elementary School in 2016, he relocated to Tokyo to join the JOC Elite Academy, his pastimes include reading. Harimoto first won the All-Japan Table Tennis Championships Juniors title in 2010 as a first grader.
He would continue to win the tournament for all 6 years of his elementary school years. In 2015, he was chosen to represent Japan at the World Junior Table Tennis Championships in France, becoming the youngest Japanese player to be chosen. However, due to the November 2015 Paris attacks, Harimoto was not able to participate in the tournament. Aged 12 years and 355 days, Harimoto defeated seasoned professionals Ho Kwan Kit, Hugo Calderano, teammate Kohei Sambe to win the 2016 U-21Japan Open title. With the win, he became the youngest winner ITTF World Tour under-21 men's singles title; that year, Harimoto won gold medals in the boys' singles and teams at the World Junior Table Tennis Championships in Cape Town, South Africa. This win was historic, as Harimoto became the youngest winner of the World Junior Championships aged 13 years and 163 days. Harimoto achieved an Under-21 ranking of No. 10 in the world in December 2016. Harimoto began the year in February at the revamped India Open, he reached the finals with victories over Álvaro Robles, Sakai Asuka, Robert Gardos, local favorite Sharath Kamal, before losing to defending champion Dimitrij Ovtcharov in straight sets.
June 2016: Youngest winner of an ITTF World Tour under-21 men's singles title. December 2016: Youngest winner of the boys' singles title at the World Junior Championships. August 2017: Youngest winner of an ITTF World Tour men's singles title. January 2018: Youngest winner of the men's singles title at the Japanese National Championships. December 2018: Youngest winner of an ITTF World Tour Grand Finals men's singles title. Won. Senior career highlights, as of April 2018: World Championships: QF ITTF World Tour Grand Finals: QF, Winner ITTF World Tour: Winner: 2017 Czech Open Winner: 2018 Japan Open Runner-up: 2017 India Open Asian Championships: Last 32 ITTF World Tour Grand Finals: QF ITTF World Tour: Runner-up: 2017 China Open, 2017 German Open World Team Championships: QF Team World Cup: Runner-up Asian Championships: SF ITTF Star Awards: Breakthrough Star Harimoto's singles match record against those who have been ranked in the top 10, with those who have been No. 1 in bold: Statistics correct as of 7 May 2018.
* indicates current world rank no. 1
Bathgate railway station was a railway station serving the town of Bathgate in West Lothian, Scotland. It was located on the Coatbridge Railway. Bathgate was opened by the Edinburgh and Bathgate Railway on 12 November 1849, being renamed Bathgate Upper on 1 August 1865 by the North British Railway at the same time as the Monkland Railways station of the same name was renamed Bathgate Lower; the station lay on a curve next to Bathgate West Junction 300 yards north west of the western end of the current station. A loop line existed behind the down platform, from this line a branch ran to Mosside and Riddochhill collieries. Continuing through the station, a line branched off to the right to the Bathgate branch of the Monkland Railways.. Further west was a triangular junction; the line passed Boghead Colliery. 28 chains from Upper Station lay Polkemmet Junction. From here, the line continued west as the Bathgate and Coatbridge Railway, while the Wilsontown and Coltness Railway headed due south; the station was closed on 9 January 1956.
The railway route through the station was re-opened in 2011 as part of the Airdrie-Bathgate Rail Link, but the station itself has not been re-opened. Butt, R. V. J.. The Directory of Railway Stations: details every public and private passenger station, halt and stopping place and present. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-508-7. OCLC 60251199. Jowett, Alan. Jowett's Railway Atlas of Great Britain and Ireland: From Pre-Grouping to the Present Day. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-086-0. OCLC 22311137. Jowett, Alan. Jowett's Nationalised Railway Atlas. Penryn, Cornwall: Atlantic Transport Publishers. ISBN 978-0-906899-99-1. OCLC 228266687. Airdrie-Bathgate Rail Link RAILSCOT on Edinburgh and Bathgate Railway RAILSCOT on Bathgate and Coatbridge Railway RAILSCOT on Wilsontown and Coltness Railway
Michael Lanigan is a retired Irish company director and Fianna Fáil politician from County Kilkenny. He was a senator from 1977 to 2002, was noted in the Seanad for his interest in foreign affairs humanitarian issues and the Palestinian cause. At the 1977 general election, Lanigan stood in the Carlow–Kilkenny constituency but failed to win a seat in the 21st Dáil. In the subsequent elections to the 14th Seanad, he was elected by the Industrial and Commercial Panel. Lanigan stood again for the Dáil at the 1981 general election and November 1982 general elections in Carlow–Kilkenny, but was unsuccessful on both occasions, he was re-elected by the Industrial and Commercial Panel to each successive Seanad until his defeat at the 1989 elections, when he was nominated by the Taoiseach, Charles Haughey, to the 19th Seanad. The Industrial and Commercial Panel re-elected him in 1992 to the 20th and in 1997 to the 21st Seanad, but he did not contest the 2002 elections to the 22nd Seanad. Lanigan was leader of the opposition Fianna Fáil group in the 17th Seanad, was Leader of the Seanad in the 18th Seanad.
He was reappointed as Leader in the 19th Seanad, but resigned in May 1990 after the government lost a series of votes when no Fianna Fáil senators were present in the chamber. He served as Chairman of the Oireachtas Joint Committee on Foreign Affairs. Lanigan was noted as a supporter of an independent Palestinian state. Lanigan founded the Friends of Palestine in the Oireachtas. In December 2003 he was awarded the Order of Bethlehem by Palestinian President Yasser Arafat; the Order, the highest honour bestowed on behalf of the Palestinian people, was made at a ceremony in Ramallah in which Arafat commended Lanigan for having supported the Palestinian cause "when it was not popular to do so". Lanigan continues to be involved with the Palestinian cause, in his capacity as chairman of Irish Medical Aid for Palestine; the organisation works with all sectors of Palestinian society and with sister organisations from outside Palestine for the improvement of health in Palestine. In addition, Lanigan is a member of the Oxfam Ireland Members council.
His son called Mick, was a member of Kilkenny Town Council and Kilkenny County Council from 1999 to 2009. Lanigan was an accomplished athlete, he was successful in the 100 metre hurdles at the Catholic International Student Games, before going on to win further national and international honours on the track. Lanigan was one of the founding members of the Kilkenny City Harriers athletics club in 1953