Sport includes all forms of competitive physical activity or games which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants, in some cases, entertainment for spectators. Hundreds of sports exist, from those between single contestants, through to those with hundreds of simultaneous participants, either in teams or competing as individuals. In certain sports such as racing, many contestants may compete or consecutively, with one winner; some sports allow a "tie" or "draw". A number of contests may be arranged in a tournament producing a champion. Many sports leagues make an annual champion by arranging games in a regular sports season, followed in some cases by playoffs. Sport is recognised as system of activities which are based in physical athleticism or physical dexterity, with the largest major competitions such as the Olympic Games admitting only sports meeting this definition, other organisations such as the Council of Europe using definitions precluding activities without a physical element from classification as sports.
However, a number of competitive, but non-physical, activities claim recognition as mind sports. The International Olympic Committee recognises both chess and bridge as bona fide sports, SportAccord, the international sports federation association, recognises five non-physical sports: bridge, draughts, Go and xiangqi, limits the number of mind games which can be admitted as sports. Sport is governed by a set of rules or customs, which serve to ensure fair competition, allow consistent adjudication of the winner. Winning can be crossing a line first, it can be determined by judges who are scoring elements of the sporting performance, including objective or subjective measures such as technical performance or artistic impression. Records of performance are kept, for popular sports, this information may be announced or reported in sport news. Sport is a major source of entertainment for non-participants, with spectator sport drawing large crowds to sport venues, reaching wider audiences through broadcasting.
Sport betting is in some cases regulated, in some cases is central to the sport. According to A. T. Kearney, a consultancy, the global sporting industry is worth up to $620 billion as of 2013; the world's most accessible and practised sport is running, while association football is its most popular spectator sport. The word "sport" comes from the Old French desport meaning "leisure", with the oldest definition in English from around 1300 being "anything humans find amusing or entertaining". Other meanings include. Roget's defines the noun sport as an "activity engaged in for relaxation and amusement" with synonyms including diversion and recreation; the singular term "sport" is used in most English dialects to describe the overall concept, with "sports" used to describe multiple activities. American English uses "sports" for both terms; the precise definition of what separates a sport from other leisure activities varies between sources. The closest to an international agreement on a definition is provided by SportAccord, the association for all the largest international sports federations, is therefore the de facto representative of international sport.
SportAccord uses the following criteria, determining that a sport should: have an element of competition be in no way harmful to any living creature not rely on equipment provided by a single supplier not rely on any "luck" element designed into the sport. They recognise that sport can be physical mind, predominantly motorised co-ordination, or animal-supported; the inclusion of mind sports within sport definitions has not been universally accepted, leading to legal challenges from governing bodies in regards to being denied funding available to sports. Whilst SportAccord recognises a small number of mind sports, it is not open to admitting any further mind sports. There has been an increase in the application of the term "sport" to a wider set of non-physical challenges such as video games called esports due to the large scale of participation and organised competition, but these are not recognised by mainstream sports organisations. According to Council of Europe, European Sports Charter, article 2.i, "'Sport' means all forms of physical activity which, through casual or organised participation, aim at expressing or improving physical fitness and mental well-being, forming social relationships or obtaining results in competition at all levels."
There are opposing views on the necessity of competition as a defining element of a sport, with all professional sport involving competition, governing bodies requiring competition as a prerequisite of recognition by the International Olympic Committee or SportAccord. Other bodies advocate widening the definition of sport to include all physical activity. For instance, the Council of Eu
National Collegiate Athletic Association
The National Collegiate Athletic Association is a non-profit organization which regulates athletes of 1,268 North American institutions and conferences. It organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States and Canada, helps more than 480,000 college student-athletes who compete annually in college sports; the organization is headquartered in Indiana. In its 2016–17 fiscal year the NCAA took in $1.06 billion in revenue, over 82% of, generated by the Division I Men's Basketball Tournament. In August 1973, the current three-division system of Division I, Division II, Division III was adopted by the NCAA membership in a special convention. Under NCAA rules, Division I and Division II schools can offer scholarships to athletes for playing a sport. Division III schools may not offer any athletic scholarships. Larger schools compete in Division I and smaller schools in II and III. Division I football was further divided into I-A and I-AA in 1978. Subsequently, the term "Division I-AAA" was added to delineate Division I schools which do not field a football program at all, but that term is no longer used by the NCAA.
In 2006, Divisions I-A and I-AA were renamed the Football Bowl Subdivision and Football Championship Subdivision. Controversially, the NCAA caps the benefits that collegiate athletes can receive from their schools. There is a consensus among economists that these caps for men's basketball and football players benefit the athletes' schools at the expense of athletes. Intercollegiate sports began in the US in 1852 when crews from Harvard and Yale universities met in a challenge race in the sport of rowing; as rowing remained the preeminent sport in the country into the late-1800s, many of the initial debates about collegiate athletic eligibility and purpose were settled through organizations like the Rowing Association of American Colleges and the Intercollegiate Rowing Association. As other sports emerged, notably football and basketball, many of these same concepts and standards were adopted. Football, in particular, began to emerge as a marquee sport, but the rules of the game itself were in constant flux and had to be adapted for each contest.
The NCAA dates its formation to two White House conferences convened by President Theodore Roosevelt in the early 20th century in response to repeated injuries and deaths in college football which had "prompted many college and universities to discontinue the sport." Following those White House meetings and the reforms which had resulted, Chancellor Henry MacCracken of New York University organized a meeting of 13 colleges and universities to initiate changes in football playing rules. The IAAUS was established on March 31, 1906, took its present name, the NCAA, in 1910. For several years, the NCAA was a discussion group and rules-making body, but in 1921, the first NCAA national championship was conducted: the National Collegiate Track and Field Championships. More rules committees were formed and more championships were created, including a basketball championship in 1939. A series of crises brought the NCAA to a crossroads after World War II; the "Sanity Code" – adopted to establish guidelines for recruiting and financial aid – failed to curb abuses.
Postseason football games were multiplying with little control, member schools were concerned about how the new medium of television would affect football attendance. The complexity of those problems and the growth in membership and championships demonstrated the need for full-time professional leadership. Walter Byers a part-time executive assistant, was named executive director in 1951, a national headquarters was established in Kansas City, Missouri in 1952. Byers wasted no time placing his stamp on the Association. A program to control live television of football games was approved, the annual Convention delegated enforcement powers to the Association's Council, legislation was adopted governing postseason bowl games; as college athletics grew, the scope of the nation's athletics programs diverged, forcing the NCAA to create a structure that recognized varying levels of emphasis. In 1973, the Association's membership was divided into three legislative and competitive divisions – I, II, III.
Five years in 1978, Division I members voted to create subdivisions I-A and I-AA in football. Until the 1980s, the association did not offer women's athletics. Instead, the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women, with nearly 1000 member schools, governed women's collegiate sports in the United States; the AIAW was in a vulnerable position. Following a one-year overlap in which both organizations staged women's championships, the AIAW discontinued operation, most member schools continued their women's athletics programs under the governance of the NCAA. By 1982 all divisions of the NCAA offered national championship events for women's athletics. A year in 1983, the 75th Convention approved an expansion to plan women's athletic program services and pushed for a women's championship program. By the 1980s, televised college football had become a larger source of income for the NCAA. In September 1981, the Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma and the University of Georgia Athletic Association filed suit against the NCAA in district court in Oklahoma.
The plaintiffs stated that the NCAA's football tel
Physical education known as Phys Ed. PE, gym, or gym class, known in many Commonwealth countries as physical training or PT, is an educational course related of maintaining the human body through physical exercises, it is taken during primary and secondary education and encourages psychomotor learning in a play or movement exploration setting to promote health. Whether the class produces positive effects on students' health and academic performance depends upon the kind of program, taught. Physical education trends have developed to incorporate a greater variety of activities besides the skills necessary to play typical team sports such as football or basketball. Introducing students to activities like bowling, walking/hiking, or frisbee at an early age can help them develop good activity habits that will continue into adulthood; some teachers have begun to incorporate stress-reduction techniques such as yoga, deep breathing and tai chi. Tai chi, an ancient martial arts form focused on slow meditative movements, is a relaxation activity with many benefits.
Studies have shown that it enhances muscular strength and endurance, as well as cardiovascular endurance. It provides psychological benefits such as improving general mental health, concentration and positive mood, it can be taught to any age student with little or no equipment, making it ideal for mixed ability and age classes. Tai chi can be incorporated into a holistic learning body and mind unit. Teaching non-traditional sports may provide motivation for students to increase their activity, can help them learn about different cultures. For example, while learning about lacrosse in the Southwestern United States, students might learn about the Native American cultures of the Northeastern United States and Eastern Canada, where the sport originated. Teaching non-traditional sports provides an opportunity to integrate academic concepts from other subjects as well, which may now be required of many PE teachers. PE is important to students' health and overall well-being; the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention stated that over the past three years obesity in children and adolescents has doubled because of diet and lack of activity.
Since the 1970s the number of children who are obese has tripled. SHAPE America's National Standards & Grade-Level Outcomes for K-12 Physical Education define what a student should know and be able to do as result of an effective physical education program. Another trend is the incorporation of nutrition into the physical education curriculum; the Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act of 2004 required that all school districts with a federally-funded school meal program develop wellness policies that address nutrition and physical activity. While teaching students sports and movement skills, PE teachers are now incorporating short health and nutrition lessons into the curriculum; this is more prevalent at the elementary school level, where students do not have a specific Health class. Most elementary schools have specific health classes for students as well as physical education class. Due to the recent outbreaks of diseases such as swine flu, school districts are making it mandatory for students to learn about practicing good hygiene along with other health topics.
Today, many states require Physical Education teachers to be certified to teach Health courses. Many colleges and universities offer both Physical Health as one certification; this push towards health education is beginning at the intermediate level, including lessons on bullying, self-esteem and stress and anger management. Research has shown that there is a positive correlation between exercising. Incorporating local indigenous knowledge into physical education can lead to many meaningful experiences and a way of learning about other cultures. For example, by incorporating traditional knowledge from varying indigenous groups from across Canada, students can be exposed to many concepts such as holistic learning and the medicine wheel. A unit could be focused on connecting to a place or feeling while outdoors, participating in traditional games, or outdoor environmental education; these types of lesson can be integrated into other parts of the curriculum and give Aboriginal students a chance to incorporate their culture in the local school community.
Studies have been done in. In a 2007 article, researchers found a profound gain in English Arts standardized testing test scores among students who had 56 hours of physical education in a year, compared to those who had 28 hours of physical education a year. In Brazil, the physical education curriculum is designed to allow school pupils a full range of modern opportunities, including sports. Martial arts classes, like wrestling in the United States, Pencak Silat in France and Malaysia, teach children self-defense and to feel good about themselves; the physical education curriculum is designed to allow students to experience at least a minimum exposure to the following categories of activities: aquatics, conditioning activities, individual/dual sports, team sports and dance. In these areas, a planned sequence of learning experiences is designed to support a progression of student development; this allows kids through 6th grade to be introduced to sports and teamwork in order to be better prepared for the middle and high school age.
In 1975, the United States House of Representatives voted to require school physical education classes include both genders. Some high school and some middle school PE. New technology in education is playing a big role in classes. One of
Corvallis is a city in central western Oregon, United States. It is the county seat of Benton County and the principal city of the Corvallis, Oregon Metropolitan Statistical Area, which encompasses all of Benton County; as of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 54,462. Its population was estimated by the Portland Research Center to be 55,298 in 2013. Corvallis is the location of Oregon State University, a large Hewlett-Packard research campus, Good Samaritan Regional Medical Center. At a longitude of 123° 17' west, the city is the westernmost city in the contiguous 48 states with a population larger than 50,000. In October 1845, Joseph C. Avery arrived in Oregon from the east. Avery took out a land claim at the mouth of Marys River, where it flows into the Willamette River, in June 1846 took up residence there in a log cabin hastily constructed to hold what seemed a lucrative claim. Avery's primitive 1846 dwelling was the first home within the boundaries of today's Corvallis and his land claim included the southern section of the contemporary city.
Avery was joined by other settlers along the banks of the Willamette River, including a 640-acre claim directly to his north taken in September 1846 by William F. Dixon; the discovery of gold in California in 1848 temporarily stalled development of a township, with Avery leaving his Oregon claim to try his hand at mining in the fall of that year. His stay proved to be brief, in January 1849, Avery returned to Oregon with a small stock of provisions with a view to opening a store. During 1849, Avery opened his store at the site, platted the land, surveyed a town site on his land claim, naming the community Marysville; the city was named after early settler Mary Lloyd, but now the name is thought to be derived from French fur trappers' naming of Marys Peak after the Virgin Mary. In the summer of 1851, Joseph Avery and William Dixon each granted back-to-back 40-acre land parcels from their land holdings for the establishment of a county seat. Avery's holding lay to the south and Dixon's to the north, with the Benton County Courthouse marking the approximate line of demarcation between these two land parcels.
In December 1853 the 5th Oregon Territorial Legislature met in Salem, where a petition was presented seeking to change the name of that city to either "Thurston" or "Valena". At the same time, another petition was presented seeking to change the name of Salem to "Corvallis", from the Latin meaning "heart of the valley", while a third resolution was presented to the upper house seeking to change the name of Marysville to Corvallis. A heated debate followed, with the name awarded to Corvallis in an act passed on December 20 of that same year. By way of rationale, the name "Marysville" was argued to duplicate the moniker of a town in California, located on the same stagecoach route and that a name change was thus necessary to avoid confusion. A faction within the divided legislature sought to make Corvallis the capital of the Oregon Territory, in December 1855 the 6th Territorial Legislature convened there before returning to Salem that month — the town which would be selected as the permanent seat of state government.
Corvallis was incorporated as a city on January 29, 1857. Corvallis had a three-year boom beginning in 1889, which began with the establishment of a owned electrical plant by L. L. Hurd. A flurry of publicity and public and private investment followed, including construction of a grand county courthouse and first construction of a new street railway, construction of a new flour mill along the river between Monroe and Jackson Avenues, construction of the Hotel Corvallis, today known as the Julian Hotel. In addition, a carriage factory was launched in the city and the town's streets were improved, while the size of the city was twice enlarged through annexation. Bonds were issued for a city-owned water works, a sewer system, for public ownership of the electric plant. A publicity campaign was launched to attempt to expand the tax base through new construction for new arrivals; this effort proved unsuccessful, in 1892, normalcy returned, with the city saddled with about $150,000 in bonded debt. Corvallis is at an elevation of 235 feet above sea level.
Situated midway in the Willamette Valley, Corvallis is about 46 miles east of Newport and the Oregon Coast, 85 miles south of Portland, 30 miles south of the state capital, Salem, 10 miles southwest of Albany, about 10 miles west of Interstate 5 at its closest point, 48 miles north of Eugene/Springfield. Oregon Route 99W, a secondary north–south route runs through Corvallis. U. S. Route 20 and Oregon Route 34 both secondary East-West routes run through Corvallis from the Oregon Coast. Corvallis is at river mile 131–32 of the Willamette River. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 14.30 square miles, of which 14.13 square miles are land and 0.17 square miles is covered by water. Like the rest of the Willamette Valley, Corvallis falls within the dry-summer temperate climate zone referred to as cool-summer Mediterranean. Temperatures are mild year round, with warm, sunny summers and mild, wet winters with persistently overcast skies. Spring and fall are moist seasons with varied cloudiness, light rain falling for extended periods.
Winter snow is rare, but does fall, amounts can range between a dusting and a few inches that do not persist on the ground for more than a day. The northwest hills will experience more snow. During the midwinter months after ext
Ohio State Buckeyes
The Ohio State Buckeyes are the athletic teams that represent Ohio State University, located in Columbus, Ohio. The athletic programs are named after the colloquial term for people from the state of Ohio and after the state tree, the Ohio Buckeye; the Buckeyes participate in the National Collegiate Athletic Association's Division I in all sports and the Big Ten Conference in most sports. The Ohio State women's ice hockey team competes in the Western Collegiate Hockey Association; the school colors are gray. Ohio State's mascot is Brutus Buckeye. Ohio State is one of only six universities to have won a NCAA national championship in baseball and men's basketball, be recognized as a national champion in football. Ohio State has won national championships in men's swimming & diving, men's outdoor track & field, men's volleyball, men's golf, men's gymnastics, men's fencing, women's rowing, co-ed fencing, synchronized swimming, wrestling. Since the inception of the Athletic Director's Cup, Ohio State has finished in the top 25 each year, including top 6 finishes in three of the last five years.
During the 2005–2006 school year Ohio State became the first Big Ten team to win conference championships in football, men's basketball and women's basketball in the same season. They repeated this feat in the 2006–2007 season, which included a February 25, 2007 men's basketball game which saw the Buckeyes defeat the Wisconsin Badgers in the Big Ten's first basketball game between the number one and number two ranked squads in the nation. A few of the many outstanding sports figures who were student athletes at Ohio State include Jesse Owens, "The Buckeye Bullet,", John Havlicek, Jerry Lucas, Katie Smith, Frank Howard, Jack Nicklaus, Archie Griffin, Chic Harley. Hall of Fame coaches at Ohio State have included Woody Hayes, Fred Taylor. Notable sports figures in Ohio State history may be inducted into the Ohio State Varsity O Hall of Fame. Ohio State has played baseball since 1881, winning a national championship in 1966 along with 14 Big Ten regular-season titles and eight Big Ten tournament titles.
The Buckeyes baseball team was the first Ohio State sports team. The team is coached by Greg Beals and play their home games at Bill Davis Stadium, which opened in 1997. Going into the 2008 season the Buckeyes all-time record is 2228-1427-38. Notable alumni include Nick Swisher and two time All-American Steve Arlin; the Ohio State men's basketball team has played in 10 NCAA Final Fours, winning the championship in 1960, when they were led by Basketball Hall of Famers Jerry Lucas, John Havlicek, Bob Knight off the bench. A Buckeye has been named first team All-American 23 times, including five two-time All-Americans and one three-time All-American. Between 1960 and 1964, Ohio State won five consecutive Big Ten championships, an achievement that has yet to be matched. In 2004, Ohio State fired men's basketball coach Jim O'Brien for recruiting violations and self-imposed a one-year penalty, including a ban on post-season play and reduction of scholarships. In light of these University self-imposed penalties, the NCAA Division I Committee on infractions placed Ohio State on three years probation for the violations, gave heavier penalties to Coach O'Brien and a former assistant coach.
The lightness of this judgment was seen as encouragement for schools to be proactive in responding to violations. O'Brien sued Ohio State for improper termination. Thad Matta, the current coach of the Buckeyes, took over O'Brien's spot in 2004. Ohio State recruited such talents as Greg Oden, Mike Conley, Jr. to start the 2006-2007 year. The Buckeyes finished the season with a 27-3 record. After a close game with state rival Xavier, a thrilling 20 point come from behind victory against the Tennessee Volunteers, the Buckeyes managed to hold off Georgetown Hoyas 67-60 to reach the Championship Game for the first time since 1962, which they lost to defending NCAA champions Florida Gators, 84-75. Following years saw continued success for the Buckeyes, they won the Big Ten Championship in both the 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 season, reached the Final Four in 2011-2012 before losing to Kansas. The Buckeyes reached the Elite Eight in 2012-2013. 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 both saw early exits from the NCAA Tournament.
Coached by Kevin McGuff, the Ohio State women's basketball team plays its home games in the Jerome Schottenstein Center, which they moved into in 1998. Prior to 1998, they played at St. John Arena, they have won 10 Big Ten titles, the most in the conference and have 14 appearances in the NCAA Tournament, the most recent being in 2016. In 1993 they lost to the Texas Tech Lady Raiders 84-82 for the National Title, while they captured the NIT title in 2001, beating the New Mexico Lobos 62-61. Notable alumni include former All-Americans Katie Jessica Davenport. Ohio State won its first title in 1942. Ohio State won the NCAA championships in fencing in both men's and women's fencing, combined, in 2004, 2008, 2012. Israeli Boaz Ellis won the NCAA title in men's foil in 2004 2005, 2006 for Ohio State, the first NCAA foil fencer to win three individual NCAA titles since 1963. National Champions: 1942, 1954, 1957, 1961, 1968, 1970, 2002, 2014 Big Ten Champions: 1916, 1917, 1920, 1935, 1939, 1942, 1944, 1949, 1954, 1955, 1957, 1961, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1979, 1981, 1984, 1986, 1993, 1996, 199
College club sports in the United States
College club sports in the United States are any sports offered at a university or college in the United States that compete competitively with other universities, or colleges, but are not regulated by the National Collegiate Athletic Association or National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics, do not have varsity status. Collegiate club sports can exist at schools that do have teams that are part of the NCAA or NAIA. Many times, club sports receive little financial aid from the school. An estimated 2 million student athletes compete in club sports. Most sports offered at universities and offered in youth leagues are available as a collegiate club team. However, the variety of sports offered is often related to the size of the school. Collegiate club sports offer college athletes the ability to play at a competitive level, but without the time commitment required for a sport governed by the NCAA; the tryout procedure for club sports varies from school from sport to sport. Collegiate club sports differ from NCAA sports in the way that they are entirely paid for by students through student fees from $50 for certain sports up to $1,500 a year for more expensive sports such as ice hockey.
This offers the students a unique opportunity because the club team is operated by students, including in many instances, registered student organizations who must organize and ensure financial support for all club activities. Activities may include picking and paying a coach and voting on club officers, buying team jerseys and equipment, paying for and deciding on team travel, etc. Many captains or club presidents of club sport teams act like managers in comparison to the captains of NCAA teams. However, some universities or colleges will provide some level of support, including access to facilities and club advisors, in some instances some level of financial support or access to financial support through university supported student funding boards. Collegiate club sports are but not always, governed by a governing body such as the National Collegiate Sport Committee. Much of soccer, flag football and tennis is governed by the National Intramural-Recreational Sports Association. Water-skiing and Wakeboarding teams are governed by the National Collegiate Water Ski Association.
Kiteboarding is governed by the Collegiate Kiteboarding Association. Surfing is governed by the National Scholastic Surfing Association. Skiing and Snowboarding teams are governed by the United States College Ski Association. Golf is governed by the National Collegiate Club Golf Association. Governing bodies have the job of organizing tournaments, a league, national or regional championships, providing officials for matches, as well as providing rules and bylaws which all teams governed by that body are required to follow. Baseball, football and basketball are governed by an organization known as CollClubSports, based in Pittsburgh, PA; the NCBA, NCSA, NCBBA each are competitive leagues that are growing in numbers. Two overlapping sanctioning bodies, the National Club Football Association and Intercollegiate Club Football Federation, oversee Club Division College Football at the national level; the National Collegiate Volleyball Federation registers hundreds of club teams each who participate in over 20 collegiate club leagues, thousands of men's and women's intercollegiate club competitions and the annual NCVF National Championship Tournament.
The American Collegiate Hockey Association is one of the most prominent ice hockey club organization in the U. S; the National Intercollegiate Running Club Association administers a track and field and cross country program. The National Collegiate Roller Hockey Association is the governing body of intercollegiate inline hockey. Note: Because a club sport can exist if there are only two competing schools, any competitive athletic activity could be considered a collegiate club sport. Therefore, many non-conventional sports are played for example orienteering. Lists of collegiate club sports are not always definite due to the fact that the sport may only be competed in between two schools or colleges and may not have a governing body or publication. For a list of champions of most of these sports, see Intercollegiate sports team champions. United States Collegiate Athletic Association College athletics College athletics in the United States Intercollegiate sports team champions
A team sport includes any sport where individuals are organized into opposing teams which compete to win. Team members act together towards a shared objective; this can be done in a number of ways such as outscoring the opposing team. Team members set goals, make decisions, manage conflict, solve problems in a supportive, trusting atmosphere in order to accomplish their objectives. Examples are basketball, rugby, water polo, lacrosse, cricket and the various forms of football and hockey. Team sports are practiced between opposing teams, where the players interact directly and between them to achieve an objective; the objective involves teammates facilitating the movement of a ball or similar object in accordance with a set of rules, in order to score points. The meaning of a "team sport" has been disputed in recent years; some types of sports have different rules than "traditional" team sports. These types of team sports do not involve teammates facilitating the movement of a ball or similar item in accordance with a set of rules, in order to score points.
For example, rowing, dragon boat racing, track and field among others can be considered team sports. In other types of team sports, there may not be an opposing team or point scoring, for example, mountaineering. Instead of points scored against an opposing team, the relative difficulty of the climb or walk is the measure of the achievement. In some sports where participants are entered by a team, they do not only compete against members of other teams but against each other for points towards championship standings. For example, motorsport Formula One. In cycling however, team members whilst still in competition with each other, will work towards assisting one a specialist, member of the team to the highest possible finishing position; this process is known as team orders and although accepted was banned in Formula One between 2002 and 2010. After a controversy involving team orders at the 2010 German Grand Prix however, the regulation was removed as of the 2011 season. Through the years, the popularity of team sport has continued to grow, positively influencing not just athletes, but fans and national economies.
All over the world, the impact of team sport can be seen as professional athletes live out their dreams while serving as role models, youth athletes develop life skills and follow in the footsteps of their role models, fans bond over the love of their teams while supporting their economies with their support. Traces of sprinting as a team sport extend back several thousand years - as evidenced in images in the cave in Lascaux in France which depict people running after animals or vice versa. Organized athletics in Greece traditionally date back to 776 BC, with ongoing activity recorded up to 393 BC; these ancient Olympic Games tested warrior skills and consisted of running, jumping or leaping and javelin throw. In the Bayankhongor Province of Mongolia, Neolithic-era cave paintings dating to 7000 BC depict a wrestling match surrounded by crowds. Prehistoric cave-paintings in Japan show a sport similar to sumo wrestling. In Wadi Sura, near Gilf Kebir in Libya, a Neolithic rock painting in the cave of swimmers shows evidence of swimming and archery being practiced around 6000 BC.
The term "athlete", according to mythology, derives from the name of Aethlius, the mythological first King of Elis in Greece. The practice of young athletes carrying flaming torches is traced to the King of Elis, under whose supervision the games took place. Before the start of the races gods were invoked by offerings of fruits and vegetables; the winner of the race was crowned with a wreath of olive or laurel and celery sticks were offered as a trophy. In subsequent years monetary attractions were introduced as prize money. However, the practice of offering celery sticks is still in vogue in the 100 m sprint in the Olympics; the present-day pattern of Olympic Games resembles the practice followed in ancient times. Sprint was the coveted event; the 200 m sprint is known in Greek as "short foot race". The 400 m race called diaulos in Greek. Seven team sports are on the program of the Summer Olympics. Cricket's inclusion in the 2024 Summer Olympics depends on the decision of the International Cricket Council and its members.
A cricket tournament formed part of the Summer Olympics in 1900, although only one match was played, between teams representing Great Britain and France. However, the British team was a club touring side and the French players were drawn from expatriates living in Paris. Ice hockey and curling are team sports at the Winter Olympics together with the bobsleigh competition where the men's event has classes for both two-man and four-man sleds, but the women's class is restricted to two persons only. All Olympic team sports include competitions for both women. Team sports portal Major professional sports teams of the United States and Canada Footnotes BibliographyBaofu, Peter; the Future of Post-Human Sports: Towards a New Theory of Training and Winning. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4438-6993-5. Barber, Gary. Getting Started in Track and Field Athletics: Advice & Ideas for Children and Teachers. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4122-3847-2. Filppu, The Benefits of Team Sports, retrieved 13 November 2010 Dyer, William.
Team Building: Proven Strategies for Improving Team Performance. San Francisco, Ca.: Jossey-Bass. ISBN