Apple Watch is a line of smartwatches designed and marketed by Apple Inc. It incorporates fitness tracking and health-oriented capabilities with integration with iOS and other Apple products and services. Apple Watch relies on a wireless connection to an iPhone to perform many of its default functions such as calling and texting. However, Wi-Fi chips in all Apple Watch models allow the smartwatch to have limited connectivity features away from the phone anywhere a Wi-Fi network is available. Series 3 LTE Apple Watches are able to be used without needing to be connected to an iPhone, though an iPhone is still required to set up the device. Most Apple Watches that are produced require an iPhone 5s or with iOS 11; the Apple Watch was released on April 24, 2015 and became the best-selling wearable device with 4.2 million sold in the second quarter of the 2015 fiscal year. The second generation of Apple Watches were released in two tiers in September 2016: the Apple Watch Series 1 and Apple Watch Series 2, while the first generation was discontinued.
The Apple Watch Series 3 was released on September 22, 2017 alongside the discontinuation of the Apple Watch Series 2. The Apple Watch Series 4 was announced on September 12, 2018, with the Apple Watch Series 1 no longer being produced; the goal of the Apple Watch was to enhance the uses of an iPhone while providing the user with some additional new features. Kevin Lynch was hired by Apple to make wearable technology for the wrist, he said: "People are looking at the screen so much. People want that level of engagement, but how do we provide it in a way that's a little more human, a little more in the moment when you’re with somebody?" Apple's development process was held much under wraps until a Wired article revealed how some internal design decisions were made. Rumors surrounded an Apple-developed wearable device back as far as 2011, which conceptualized the device as a variation of the iPod that would curve around the user's wrist, feature Siri integration. On February 10, 2013, both The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal reported that Apple was beginning to develop an iOS-based smartwatch with a curved display.
On February 12, 2013, Bloomberg reported that Apple's smartwatch project was "beyond the experimentation phase in its development", had a team of at least 100 designers working on the project. Further reports in March 2013 indicated that Apple planned to release the device by the end of the year. In July 2013, Financial Times reported that Apple had begun hiring more employees to work on the smartwatch, that it was targeting a possible retail release in late 2014. In April 2014, Apple CEO Tim Cook told The Wall Street Journal that the company was planning to launch new product categories that year, but did not reveal any specifics. In June 2014, Reuters reported that production was expected to begin in July for a release in October. On September 9, 2014, during a press event where the iPhone 6 was presented, the new product was introduced by Tim Cook as "the next chapter in Apple's story" with a video that focused on its design and the various combinations of bands and case styles that would be available to the consumers.
After the reveal video, the auditorium was filled with prolonged applause and a standing ovation as Tim Cook reappeared onstage wearing an Apple Watch. Cook explained that Apple Watch was "a precise timepiece, a new intimate way to communicate from your wrist, a comprehensive health and fitness device."In comparison to other Apple products and competing smartwatches, marketing of Apple Watch focused more on advertising the device as a fashion accessory. Apple focused upon its health and fitness-oriented features, competing against dedicated activity trackers, with watchOS 3, expanded on them with fitness tracking for wheelchair users, social sharing in the Activity app, a Breathe app to encourage mindfulness. Pre-orders for the Apple Watch began on April 10, 2015, with the official release on April 24; the device was not branded as "iWatch" due to trademark conflicts in certain territories. In July 2015, Probendi sued Apple Inc. for trademark infringement, arguing that through keyword advertising on the Google search engine, it caused advertising for the Apple Watch to appear on search results pages when users searched for the trademarked term "iWatch".
The Apple Watch was not available at the Apple Store. Beginning on April 10, 2015, customers could make appointments for demonstrations and fitting, but the device was not in-stock for walk-in purchases and had to be reserved and ordered online. CNET felt that this distribution model was designed to prevent Apple Store locations from having long line-ups due to the high demand. Selected Apple Watch models were available in limited quantities at luxury boutiques and authorized Apple resellers. On June 4, 2015, Apple announced that it did plan to stock Apple Watch models at its retail locations. On August 24, 2015, Best Buy announced that it would begin stocking Apple Watch at its retail stores by the end of September. Both T-Mobile US and Sprint announced plans to offer Apple Watch through its retail stores. On September 9, 2015, Apple launched a new subset of Apple Watch
The Mac mini is a desktop computer made by Apple Inc. One of four desktop computers in the current Macintosh lineup, along with the iMac, Mac Pro, iMac Pro, it uses many components featured in laptops to achieve its small size; the current Mac mini, introduced in October 2018, is the fourth generation of the product. First released in 2005, the Mac mini is Apple's only consumer desktop computer since 1998 to ship without a display, keyboard, or mouse. Apple marketed it as BYODKM, pitching it to users switching from a traditional Windows PC. In 2010, a third-generation Mac mini became Apple's first computer with an HDMI video port to connect to a television or other display, more positioning the unit as a home theater device alternative to the Apple TV. A server version of the Mac mini, bundled with the Server edition of the OS X operating system, was offered from 2009 to 2014. A small form factor computer had been speculated and requested long before the release of the Mac mini. Rumors predicted that the "headless iMac" would be small, include no display, would be positioned as Apple's entry-level desktop computer.
On January 10, 2005, the Mac mini was announced alongside the iPod shuffle at the Macworld Conference & Expo and was described by Apple CEO Steve Jobs at the time as "the cheapest, most affordable Mac ever". Its case measured 2.0 × 6.5 × 6.5 inches. The Mac mini is an entry-level computer intended for budget-minded customers; until the 2011 release, the Mac mini had much less processing power than the other computers of the Macintosh lineup. Unlike regular desktop computers, which use standard-sized components such as 3.5-inch hard drives and full-size DIMM's, Apple uses lower-power laptop components in the Mac mini to fit all the necessary components into the small case and to prevent overheating. With the choice of components on the older models, the machine was considered somewhat slower than standard desktop computers, it had less storage and memory than comparable desktops. However, the 2011 upgrade addressed many of these previous complaints. In general, the Mac mini has been praised as a affordable computer with a solid range of features.
However, many agree that it is costly for a computer aimed at the lower segment of the market. It is possible to buy small computers at the same price with faster processors, better graphics card, more memory, more storage; the small size has made the Mac mini popular as a home theater solution. In addition, its size and reliability has helped keep resale values high. On October 22, 2009, Apple introduced a new server version of the Mac mini along with revisions of the computer; this model had a second hard drive instead of an optical drive, was marketed as an affordable server for small businesses and schools. On June 15, 2010, Apple introduced the third-generation Mac mini; the new model was thinner, with a unibody aluminum case designed to be opened for RAM access, incorporated upgraded hardware, such as an HDMI port and Nvidia GeForce 320M graphics. It included an internal power supply. An update announced July 20, 2011, dropped the internal CD/DVD optical drive from all versions and introduced a Thunderbolt port, Intel Core i5 processor, either Intel HD Graphics 3000 integrated graphics or AMD Radeon HD 6630M dedicated graphics.
The Server model was upgraded to a quad-core Intel Core i7 processor. Quad-core i7 CPUs were used in the late-2012 desktop Mac mini computers. In October 2014, Apple refreshed the line, adding Haswell CPUs, improving the graphics, lowering the base-model price by $100; the only change to the body was the removal of the two holes used to open the case, as the RAM was no longer upgradable because it was soldered to the logic board. On October 30, 2018, after four years, the Mac mini got a refresh. With this came major specification upgrades, new colors, a switch to all-flash storage; the RAM was increased to a baseline of 8 GB, a maximum of 64 GB of SO-DIMM DDR4. This shows Apple's trend back toward user-upgrade-ability in their desktop models; the storage was changed to a baseline 128 GB of flash storage, with a max of 2 TB. It has optional 10 Gb Ethernet, HDMI 2.0, a headphone jack, 2 USB 3.1, 4 USB-C Thunderbolt 3 ports. The Bluetooth was upgraded to the 5.0 standard, the Mac itself was made available in space gray.
The baseline retail price is $799 USD. Missing for the 2018 model is the SD card reader, SATA drive bay, IR receiver, optical S/PDIF audio out, audio in; the most notable feature of the Mac mini is its size. The original design measured only 2.0 × 6.5 × 6.5 inches. The exterior of the original Mac mini was made of aluminum capped with polycarbonate plastic on the top and bottom; the original design was not meant to be upgraded by the user. The back of the machine contains the I/O vents for the cooling system, it had an external power supply rated at 85W or 110W. The Mac mini, updated on June 15, 2010, was redesigned, being slimmer than the prior models at only 1.4 inches tall, but wider at 7.7 inches a side. The weight rose from 2.9 to 3.0 pounds. The power supply is now internal as opposed to external; the chassis no longer has the polycarbonate plastic on the bottom. The newer model, introduced July 20, 2011 has the same physical dimensions
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, that designs and sells consumer electronics, computer software, online services. It is considered one of the Big Four of technology along with Amazon and Facebook; the company's hardware products include the iPhone smartphone, the iPad tablet computer, the Mac personal computer, the iPod portable media player, the Apple Watch smartwatch, the Apple TV digital media player, the HomePod smart speaker. Apple's software includes the macOS and iOS operating systems, the iTunes media player, the Safari web browser, the iLife and iWork creativity and productivity suites, as well as professional applications like Final Cut Pro, Logic Pro, Xcode, its online services include the iTunes Store, the iOS App Store, Mac App Store, Apple Music, Apple TV+, iMessage, iCloud. Other services include Apple Store, Genius Bar, AppleCare, Apple Pay, Apple Pay Cash, Apple Card. Apple was founded by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne in April 1976 to develop and sell Wozniak's Apple I personal computer, though Wayne sold his share back within 12 days.
It was incorporated as Apple Computer, Inc. in January 1977, sales of its computers, including the Apple II, grew quickly. Within a few years and Wozniak had hired a staff of computer designers and had a production line. Apple went public in 1980 to instant financial success. Over the next few years, Apple shipped new computers featuring innovative graphical user interfaces, such as the original Macintosh in 1984, Apple's marketing advertisements for its products received widespread critical acclaim. However, the high price of its products and limited application library caused problems, as did power struggles between executives. In 1985, Wozniak departed Apple amicably and remained an honorary employee, while Jobs and others resigned to found NeXT; as the market for personal computers expanded and evolved through the 1990s, Apple lost market share to the lower-priced duopoly of Microsoft Windows on Intel PC clones. The board recruited CEO Gil Amelio to what would be a 500-day charge for him to rehabilitate the financially troubled company—reshaping it with layoffs, executive restructuring, product focus.
In 1997, he led Apple to buy NeXT, solving the failed operating system strategy and bringing Jobs back. Jobs pensively regained leadership status, becoming CEO in 2000. Apple swiftly returned to profitability under the revitalizing Think different campaign, as he rebuilt Apple's status by launching the iMac in 1998, opening the retail chain of Apple Stores in 2001, acquiring numerous companies to broaden the software portfolio. In January 2007, Jobs renamed the company Apple Inc. reflecting its shifted focus toward consumer electronics, launched the iPhone to great critical acclaim and financial success. In August 2011, Jobs resigned as CEO due to health complications, Tim Cook became the new CEO. Two months Jobs died, marking the end of an era for the company. Apple is well known for its size and revenues, its worldwide annual revenue totaled $265 billion for the 2018 fiscal year. Apple is the world's largest information technology company by revenue and the world's third-largest mobile phone manufacturer after Samsung and Huawei.
In August 2018, Apple became the first public U. S. company to be valued at over $1 trillion. The company employs 123,000 full-time employees and maintains 504 retail stores in 24 countries as of 2018, it operates the iTunes Store, the world's largest music retailer. As of January 2018, more than 1.3 billion Apple products are in use worldwide. The company has a high level of brand loyalty and is ranked as the world's most valuable brand. However, Apple receives significant criticism regarding the labor practices of its contractors, its environmental practices and unethical business practices, including anti-competitive behavior, as well as the origins of source materials. Apple Computer Company was founded on April 1, 1976, by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne; the company's first product is the Apple I, a computer designed and hand-built by Wozniak, first shown to the public at the Homebrew Computer Club. Apple I was sold as a motherboard —a base kit concept which would now not be marketed as a complete personal computer.
The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 and was market-priced at $666.66. Apple Computer, Inc. was incorporated on January 3, 1977, without Wayne, who had left and sold his share of the company back to Jobs and Wozniak for $800 only twelve days after having co-founded Apple. Multimillionaire Mike Markkula provided essential business expertise and funding of $250,000 during the incorporation of Apple. During the first five years of operations revenues grew exponentially, doubling about every four months. Between September 1977 and September 1980, yearly sales grew from $775,000 to $118 million, an average annual growth rate of 533%; the Apple II invented by Wozniak, was introduced on April 16, 1977, at the first West Coast Computer Faire. It differs from its major rivals, the TRS-80 and Commodore PET, because of its character cell-based color graphics and open architecture. While early Apple II models use ordinary cassette tapes as storage devices, they were superseded by the introduction of a 5 1⁄4-inch floppy disk drive and interface called the Disk II.
The Apple II was chosen to be the desktop platform for the first "killer app" of the business world: VisiCalc, a spreadsheet program. VisiCalc created a business market for the Apple II and gave home users an additional reason to buy an Apple II: compatibility with the office. Before VisiCalc, Apple had been a distant third place c
Electronic design automation
Electronic design automation referred to as electronic computer-aided design, is a category of software tools for designing electronic systems such as integrated circuits and printed circuit boards. The tools work together in a design flow that chip designers use to design and analyze entire semiconductor chips. Since a modern semiconductor chip can have billions of components, EDA tools are essential for their design; this article describes EDA with respect to integrated circuits. Before EDA, integrated circuits were designed by hand, manually laid out; some advanced shops used geometric software to generate the tapes for the Gerber photoplotter, but those copied digital recordings of mechanically drawn components. The process was fundamentally graphic, with the translation from electronics to graphics done manually; the best known company from this era was Calma. By the mid-1970s, developers started to automate the design along with the drafting; the first placement and routing tools were developed.
The proceedings of the Design Automation Conference cover much of this era. The next era began about the time of the publication of "Introduction to VLSI Systems" by Carver Mead and Lynn Conway in 1980; this ground breaking text advocated chip design with programming languages. The immediate result was a considerable increase in the complexity of the chips that could be designed, with improved access to design verification tools that used logic simulation; the chips were easier to lay out and more to function since their designs could be simulated more prior to construction. Although the languages and tools have evolved, this general approach of specifying the desired behavior in a textual programming language and letting the tools derive the detailed physical design remains the basis of digital IC design today; the earliest EDA tools were produced academically. One of the most famous was the "Berkeley VLSI Tools Tarball", a set of UNIX utilities used to design early VLSI systems. Still used are the Espresso heuristic logic minimizer and Magic.
Another crucial development was the formation of MOSIS, a consortium of universities and fabricators that developed an inexpensive way to train student chip designers by producing real integrated circuits. The basic concept was to use reliable, low-cost low-technology IC processes, pack a large number of projects per wafer, with just a few copies of each projects' chips. Cooperating fabricators either donated the processed wafers, or sold them at cost, seeing the program as helpful to their own long-term growth. 1981 marks the beginning of EDA as an industry. For many years, the larger electronic companies, such as Hewlett Packard and Intel, had pursued EDA internally. In 1981, managers and developers spun out of these companies to concentrate on EDA as a business. Daisy Systems, Mentor Graphics, Valid Logic Systems were all founded around this time, collectively referred to as DMV. Within a few years there were many companies specializing in EDA, each with a different emphasis; the first trade show for EDA was held at the Design Automation Conference in 1984.
In 1981, the U. S. Department of Defense began funding of VHDL as a hardware description language. In 1986, another popular high-level design language, was first introduced as a hardware description language by Gateway Design Automation. Simulators followed these introductions, permitting direct simulation of chip designs: executable specifications. In a few more years, back-ends were developed to perform logic synthesis. Current digital flows are modular; the front ends produce standardized design descriptions that compile into invocations of "cells,", without regard to the cell technology. Cells implement logic or other electronic functions using a particular integrated circuit technology. Fabricators provide libraries of components for their production processes, with simulation models that fit standard simulation tools. Analog EDA tools are far less modular, since many more functions are required, they interact more and the components are less ideal. EDA for electronics has increased in importance with the continuous scaling of semiconductor technology.
Some users are foundry operators, who operate the semiconductor fabrication facilities, or "fabs", design-service companies who use EDA software to evaluate an incoming design for manufacturing readiness. EDA tools are used for programming design functionality into FPGAs. High-level synthesis – high-level design description is converted into RTL. Logic synthesis – translation of RTL design description into a discrete netlist of logic gates. Schematic capture – For standard cell digital, analog, RF-like Capture CIS in Orcad by Cadence and ISIS in Proteus Layout – schematic-driven layout, like Layout in Orcad by Cadence, ARES in Proteus Transistor simulation – low-level transistor-simulation of a schematic/layout's behavior, accurate at device-level. Logic simulation – digital-simulation of an RTL or gate-netlist's digital behavior, accurate at boolean-level. Behavioral Simulation – high-level simulation of a design's architectural operation, accurate at cycle-level or interface-level. Hardware emulation – Use of special purpose hardware to emulate the logic of a proposed design.
Can sometimes be plugged into a system in place of a yet-to-be-built chip. Technology CAD analyze the underlying process technology. Electrical prope
ARM Advanced RISC Machine Acorn RISC Machine, is a family of reduced instruction set computing architectures for computer processors, configured for various environments. Arm Holdings develops the architecture and licenses it to other companies, who design their own products that implement one of those architectures—including systems-on-chips and systems-on-modules that incorporate memory, radios, etc, it designs cores that implement this instruction set and licenses these designs to a number of companies that incorporate those core designs into their own products. Processors that have a RISC architecture require fewer transistors than those with a complex instruction set computing architecture, which improves cost, power consumption, heat dissipation; these characteristics are desirable for light, battery-powered devices—including smartphones and tablet computers, other embedded systems. For supercomputers, which consume large amounts of electricity, ARM could be a power-efficient solution.
ARM Holdings periodically releases updates to the architecture. Architecture versions ARMv3 to ARMv7 support 32-bit arithmetic; the Thumb version supports a variable-length instruction set that provides both 32- and 16-bit instructions for improved code density. Some older cores can provide hardware execution of Java bytecodes. Released in 2011, the ARMv8-A architecture added support for a 64-bit address space and 64-bit arithmetic with its new 32-bit fixed-length instruction set. With over 100 billion ARM processors produced as of 2017, ARM is the most used instruction set architecture and the instruction set architecture produced in the largest quantity; the used Cortex cores, older "classic" cores, specialized SecurCore cores variants are available for each of these to include or exclude optional capabilities. The British computer manufacturer Acorn Computers first developed the Acorn RISC Machine architecture in the 1980s to use in its personal computers, its first ARM-based products were coprocessor modules for the BBC Micro series of computers.
After the successful BBC Micro computer, Acorn Computers considered how to move on from the simple MOS Technology 6502 processor to address business markets like the one, soon dominated by the IBM PC, launched in 1981. The Acorn Business Computer plan required that a number of second processors be made to work with the BBC Micro platform, but processors such as the Motorola 68000 and National Semiconductor 32016 were considered unsuitable, the 6502 was not powerful enough for a graphics-based user interface. According to Sophie Wilson, all the processors tested at that time performed about the same, with about a 4 Mbit/second bandwidth. After testing all available processors and finding them lacking, Acorn decided it needed a new architecture. Inspired by papers from the Berkeley RISC project, Acorn considered designing its own processor. A visit to the Western Design Center in Phoenix, where the 6502 was being updated by what was a single-person company, showed Acorn engineers Steve Furber and Sophie Wilson they did not need massive resources and state-of-the-art research and development facilities.
Wilson developed the instruction set, writing a simulation of the processor in BBC BASIC that ran on a BBC Micro with a 6502 second processor. This convinced Acorn engineers. Wilson approached Acorn's CEO, Hermann Hauser, requested more resources. Hauser assembled a small team to implement Wilson's model in hardware; the official Acorn RISC Machine project started in October 1983. They chose VLSI Technology as the silicon partner, as they were a source of ROMs and custom chips for Acorn. Wilson and Furber led the design, they implemented it with a similar efficiency ethos as the 6502. A key design goal was achieving low-latency input/output handling like the 6502; the 6502's memory access architecture had let developers produce fast machines without costly direct memory access hardware. The first samples of ARM silicon worked properly when first received and tested on 26 April 1985; the first ARM application was as a second processor for the BBC Micro, where it helped in developing simulation software to finish development of the support chips, sped up the CAD software used in ARM2 development.
Wilson subsequently rewrote BBC BASIC in ARM assembly language. The in-depth knowledge gained from designing the instruction set enabled the code to be dense, making ARM BBC BASIC an good test for any ARM emulator; the original aim of a principally ARM-based computer was achieved in 1987 with the release of the Acorn Archimedes. In 1992, Acorn once more won the Queen's Award for Technology for the ARM; the ARM2 featured 26-bit address space and 27 32-bit registers. Eight bits from the program counter register were available for other purposes; the address bus was extended to 32 bits in the ARM6, but program code still had to lie within the first 64 MB of memory in 26-bit compatibility mode, due to the reserved bits for the status flags. The ARM2 had a transistor count of just 30,000, compared to Motorola's six-year-older 68000 model with around 40,000. Much of this simplicity came from the lack of mic
The MacBook is a brand of Macintosh laptop computers by Apple Inc. that merged the PowerBook and iBook lines during Apple's transition to Intel processors. The current lineup consists of the MacBook, the MacBook Air, the MacBook Pro. A different MacBook line existed from 2006 to 2012; the MacBook family were housed in designs similar to the iBook and PowerBook lines which preceded them, now making use of a unibody aluminum construction first introduced with the MacBook Air. This new construction has a black plastic keyboard, first used on the MacBook Air, which itself was inspired by the sunken keyboard of the original polycarbonate MacBooks; the now standardized keyboard brings congruity to the MacBook line, with black keys on a metallic aluminum body. The lids of the MacBook family are held closed by a magnet with no mechanical latch, a design element first introduced with the polycarbonate MacBook. Memory and batteries were accessible in the old MacBook lineup, though the newest compact lineup solders or glues all such components in place.
All of the current MacBooks feature backlit keyboards. The MacBook was discontinued until March 2015, when a new model featuring an ultraportable design and an all-metal enclosure was introduced; the MacBook features many firsts from Apple, using a butterfly mechanism keyboard, the Force Touch trackpad, a USB Type-C port. This lack of Type-A USB ports ubiquitous among modern PCs means it requires a physical adapter to attach any 3rd-party peripheral on release; the ports consist of one USB Type-C, able to charge the MacBook, a headphone/microphone jack compatible with inline remote control. Adapters are available for USB, mDP, HDMI, VGA; this Apple laptop is the first in 17 years since the "Wallstreet" PowerBook G3 to lack a translucent illuminated Apple logo on the back of its lid, instead having a polished metal logo. The MacBook Air is Apple's least expensive notebook computer; the 2017 base model comes with a 13-inch screen, was Apple's thinnest notebook computer until the introduction of the MacBook in March 1984.
This MacBook Air model features a Thunderbolt 2 port. This model of MacBook Air does not have a Retina Display. A MacBook Air model with an 11-inch screen was available from October 1992 to October 2002. In 2007, the MacBook Air received a small refresh, with the processor speed increased to 1.8 GHz. On October 30, 2009, the MacBook Air underwent a major design change, dropping the USB Type-A ports, MagSafe, the SD card slot in favor of two USB-C/Thunderbolt 3 ports and a headphone jack, it was updated with a Retina display and Intel Y-series Amber Lake i5 CPUs, as well as a Force Touch trackpad, a third generation butterfly mechanism keyboard, the Touch ID sensor found in the fourth generation MacBook Pro, but without the Touch Bar. The base price was raised, although the base configuration of the 2011 model was retained; the MacBook Pro is Apple's higher end laptop available in both 15-inch configurations. A redesigned MacBook Pro was introduced on October 27, 2016, thinner and lighter than the previous generation MacBook Pro.
Both size models feature a touch-sensitive OLED display strip located in place of the function keys, a Touch ID sensor integrated with the power button, a butterfly mechanism keyboard similar to the MacBook, four USB-C ports that serve as Thunderbolt 3 ports. The 13-inch model is available in a less expensive configuration with conventional function keys and only two USB-C/Thunderbolt 3 ports. Comparison of Macintosh models
MacOS is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001. It is the primary operating system for Apple's Mac family of computers. Within the market of desktop and home computers, by web usage, it is the second most used desktop OS, after Microsoft Windows.macOS is the second major series of Macintosh operating systems. The first is colloquially called the "classic" Mac OS, introduced in 1984, the final release of, Mac OS 9 in 1999; the first desktop version, Mac OS X 10.0, was released in March 2001, with its first update, 10.1, arriving that year. After this, Apple began naming its releases after big cats, which lasted until OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion. Since OS X 10.9 Mavericks, releases have been named after locations in California. Apple shortened the name to "OS X" in 2012 and changed it to "macOS" in 2016, adopting the nomenclature that they were using for their other operating systems, iOS, watchOS, tvOS; the latest version is macOS Mojave, publicly released in September 2018.
Between 1999 and 2009, Apple sold. The initial version, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was released in 1999 with a user interface similar to Mac OS 8.5. After this, new versions were introduced concurrently with the desktop version of Mac OS X. Beginning with Mac OS X 10.7 Lion, the server functions were made available as a separate package on the Mac App Store.macOS is based on technologies developed between 1985 and 1997 at NeXT, a company that Apple co-founder Steve Jobs created after leaving the company. The "X" in Mac OS X and OS X is pronounced as such; the X was a prominent part of the operating system's brand identity and marketing in its early years, but receded in prominence since the release of Snow Leopard in 2009. UNIX 03 certification was achieved for the Intel version of Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard and all releases from Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard up to the current version have UNIX 03 certification. MacOS shares its Unix-based core, named Darwin, many of its frameworks with iOS, tvOS and watchOS.
A modified version of Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger was used for the first-generation Apple TV. Releases of Mac OS X from 1999 to 2005 ran on the PowerPC-based Macs of that period. After Apple announced that they were switching to Intel CPUs from 2006 onwards, versions were released for 32-bit and 64-bit Intel-based Macs. Versions from Mac OS X 10.7 Lion run on 64-bit Intel CPUs, in contrast to the ARM architecture used on iOS and watchOS devices, do not support PowerPC applications. The heritage of what would become macOS had originated at NeXT, a company founded by Steve Jobs following his departure from Apple in 1985. There, the Unix-like NeXTSTEP operating system was developed, launched in 1989; the kernel of NeXTSTEP is based upon the Mach kernel, developed at Carnegie Mellon University, with additional kernel layers and low-level user space code derived from parts of BSD. Its graphical user interface was built on top of an object-oriented GUI toolkit using the Objective-C programming language. Throughout the early 1990s, Apple had tried to create a "next-generation" OS to succeed its classic Mac OS through the Taligent and Gershwin projects, but all of them were abandoned.
This led Apple to purchase NeXT in 1996, allowing NeXTSTEP called OPENSTEP, to serve as the basis for Apple's next generation operating system. This purchase led to Steve Jobs returning to Apple as an interim, the permanent CEO, shepherding the transformation of the programmer-friendly OPENSTEP into a system that would be adopted by Apple's primary market of home users and creative professionals; the project was first code named "Rhapsody" and officially named Mac OS X. Mac OS X was presented as the tenth major version of Apple's operating system for Macintosh computers. Previous Macintosh operating systems were named using Arabic numerals, as with Mac OS 8 and Mac OS 9; the letter "X" in Mac OS X's name refers to a Roman numeral. It is therefore pronounced "ten" in this context. However, it is commonly pronounced like the letter "X"; the first version of Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was a transitional product, featuring an interface resembling the classic Mac OS, though it was not compatible with software designed for the older system.
Consumer releases of Mac OS X included more backward compatibility. Mac OS applications could be rewritten to run natively via the Carbon API; the consumer version of Mac OS X was launched in 2001 with Mac OS X 10.0. Reviews were variable, with extensive praise for its sophisticated, glossy Aqua interface but criticizing it for sluggish performance. With Apple's popularity at a low, the makers of several classic Mac applications such as FrameMaker and PageMaker declined to develop new versions of their software for Mac OS X. Ars Technica columnist John Siracusa, who reviewed every major OS X release up to 10.10, described the early releases in retrospect as'dog-slow, feature poor' and Aqua as'unbearably slow and a huge resource hog'. Apple developed several new releases of Mac OS X. Siracusa's review of version 10.3, noted "It's strange to have gone from years of uncertainty and vaporware to a steady annual supply of major new operating system releases." Version 10.4, Tiger shocked executives at Microsoft by offering a number of features, such as fast file s