In music, a fugue is a contrapuntal compositional technique in two or more voices, built on a subject, introduced at the beginning in imitation and which recurs in the course of the composition. It is not to be confused with a fuguing tune, a style of song popularized by and limited to early American music and West Gallery music. A fugue has three main sections: an exposition, a development and a final entry that contains the return of the subject in the fugue's tonic key; some fugues have a recapitulation. In the Middle Ages, the term was used to denote any works in canonic style. Since the 17th century, the term fugue has described what is regarded as the most developed procedure of imitative counterpoint. Most fugues open with a short main theme, the subject, which sounds successively in each voice; this is followed by a connecting passage, or episode, developed from heard material. Episodes and entries are alternated until the "final entry" of the subject, by which point the music has returned to the opening key, or tonic, followed by closing material, the coda.
In this sense, a fugue is a style of composition, rather than a fixed structure. The form evolved during the 18th century from several earlier types of contrapuntal compositions, such as imitative ricercars, capriccios and fantasias; the famous fugue composer Johann Sebastian Bach shaped his own works after those of Johann Jakob Froberger, Johann Pachelbel, Girolamo Frescobaldi, Dieterich Buxtehude and others. With the decline of sophisticated styles at the end of the baroque period, the fugue's central role waned giving way as sonata form and the symphony orchestra rose to a dominant position. Composers continued to write and study fugues for various purposes; the English term fugue originated in the 16th century and is derived from the French word fugue or the Italian fuga. This in turn comes from Latin fuga, itself related to both fugere and fugare; the adjectival form is fugal. Variants include fugato. A fugue is written according to certain predefined rules. Further entries of the subject will occur throughout the fugue, repeating the accompanying material at the same time.
The various entries may not be separated by episodes. What follows is a chart displaying a typical fugal outline, an explanation of the processes involved in creating this structure. S = subject. After the statement of the subject, a second voice enters and states the subject with the subject transposed to another key, known as the answer. To make the music run smoothly, it may have to be altered slightly; when the answer is an exact copy of the subject to the new key, with identical intervals to the first statement, it is classified as a real answer. A tonal answer is called for when the subject begins with a prominent dominant note, or where there is a prominent dominant note close to the beginning of the subject. To prevent an undermining of the music's sense of key, this note is transposed up a fourth to the tonic rather than up a fifth to the supertonic. Answers in the subdominant are employed for the same reason. While the answer is being stated, the voice in which the subject was heard continues with new material.
If this new material is reused in statements of the subject, it is called a countersubject. The countersubject is written in invertible counterpoint at the fifteenth; the distinction is made between the use of free counterpoint and regular countersubjects accompanying the fugue subject/answer, because in order for a countersubject to be heard accompanying the subject in more than one instance, it must be capable of sounding above or below the subject, must be conceived, therefore, in invertible counterpoint. In tonal music, invertible contrapuntal lines must be written according to certain rules because several intervallic combinations, while acceptable in one particular orientation, are no longer permissible when inverted. For example, when the note "G" sounds in one voice above the note "C" in lower voice, the interval of a fifth is formed, considered consonant and acceptable; when this interval is inverted, it forms a fourth, considered a dissonance in tonal contrapuntal practice, requires special treatment, or preparation and resolution, if it is to be used.
The countersubject, if sounding at the same time as the ans
Sir Edward William Elgar, 1st Baronet was an English composer, many of whose works have entered the British and international classical concert repertoire. Among his best-known compositions are orchestral works including the Enigma Variations, the Pomp and Circumstance Marches, concertos for violin and cello, two symphonies, he composed choral works, including The Dream of Gerontius, chamber music and songs. He was appointed Master of the King's Musick in 1924. Although Elgar is regarded as a English composer, most of his musical influences were not from England but from continental Europe, he socially. In musical circles dominated by academics, he was a self-taught composer, he married the daughter of a senior British army officer. She inspired him both musically and but he struggled to achieve success until his forties, when after a series of moderately successful works his Enigma Variations became popular in Britain and overseas, he followed the Variations with a choral work, The Dream of Gerontius, based on a Roman Catholic text that caused some disquiet in the Anglican establishment in Britain, but it became, has remained, a core repertory work in Britain and elsewhere.
His full-length religious choral works were well received but have not entered the regular repertory. In his fifties, Elgar composed a violin concerto that were immensely successful, his second symphony and his cello concerto did not gain immediate public popularity and took many years to achieve a regular place in the concert repertory of British orchestras. Elgar's music came, in his years, to be seen as appealing chiefly to British audiences, his stock remained low for a generation after his death. It began to revive in the 1960s, helped by new recordings of his works; some of his works have, in recent years, been taken up again internationally, but the music continues to be played more in Britain than elsewhere. Elgar has been described as the first composer to take the gramophone seriously. Between 1914 and 1925, he conducted a series of acoustic recordings of his works; the introduction of the moving-coil microphone in 1923 made far more accurate sound reproduction possible, Elgar made new recordings of most of his major orchestral works and excerpts from The Dream of Gerontius.
Edward Elgar was born outside Worcester, England. His father, William Henry Elgar, was raised in Dover and had been apprenticed to a London music publisher. In 1841 William moved to Worcester, where he worked as a piano tuner and set up a shop selling sheet music and musical instruments. In 1848 he married daughter of a farm worker. Edward was the fourth of their seven children. Ann Elgar had converted to Roman Catholicism shortly before Edward's birth, he was baptised and brought up as a Roman Catholic, to the disapproval of his father. William Elgar was a violinist of professional standard and held the post of organist of St. George's Roman Catholic Church, from 1846 to 1885. At his instigation, masses by Cherubini and Hummel were first heard at the Three Choirs Festival by the orchestra in which he played the violin. All the Elgar children received a musical upbringing. By the age of eight, Elgar was taking piano and violin lessons, his father, who tuned the pianos at many grand houses in Worcestershire, would sometimes take him along, giving him the chance to display his skill to important local figures.
Elgar's mother encouraged his musical development. He inherited from a passionate love of the countryside, his friend and biographer W. H. "Billy" Reed wrote that Elgar's early surroundings had an influence that "permeated all his work and gave to his whole life that subtle but none the less true and sturdy English quality". He began composing at an early age; until he was fifteen, Elgar received a general education near Worcester. However, his only formal musical training beyond piano and violin lessons from local teachers consisted of more advanced violin studies with Adolf Pollitzer, during brief visits to London in 1877–78. Elgar said, "my first music was learnt in the Cathedral... from books borrowed from the music library, when I was eight, nine or ten." He worked through manuals of instruction on organ playing and read every book he could find on the theory of music. He said that he had been most helped by Hubert Parry's articles in the Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Elgar began to learn German, in the hope of going to the Leipzig Conservatory for further musical studies, but his father could not afford to send him.
Years a profile in The Musical Times considered that his failure to get to Leipzig was fortunate for Elgar's musical development: "Thus the budding composer escaped the dogmatism of the schools." However, it was a disappointment to Elgar that on leaving school in 1872 he went not to Leipzig but to the office of a local solicitor as a clerk. He did not find an office career congenial, for fulfilment he turned not only to music but to literature, becoming a voracious reader. Around this time, he made his first public appe
The Starlight Express
The Starlight Express is a children's play by Violet Pearn, based on the imaginative novel A Prisoner in Fairyland by Algernon Blackwood, with songs and incidental music written by the English composer Sir Edward Elgar in 1915. On 9 November 1915 Sir Edward Elgar was invited by Robin Legge, music critic of The Daily Telegraph, to write the music for a children's fantasy play to be produced at the Kingsway Theatre that Christmas; the play was The Starlight Express, an adaptation of a novel by Algernon Blackwood called A Prisoner in Fairyland, by Blackwood and Violet Pearn. The baritone and composer Clive Carey had started his own setting, but abandoned it when Elgar was commissioned; the producer was to be Basil Dean: but since he had been called up for army service in France, he was replaced by the actress Lena Ashwell. Elgar had successful meetings with her and with Blackwood; the story appealed to Elgar because of its similarities to the private fantasy world of his own childhood which he had depicted in the music he wrote for "The Wand of Youth".
He worked on it enthusiastically, in just over a month had produced over 300 pages of score – songs and incidental music – in time for the rehearsals. On 6 December the two chosen singers, the Australian-born soprano Clytie Hine and baritone Charles Mott, rehearsed with Elgar; the Starlight Express was produced by Lena Ashwell at the Kingsway Theatre in London, as one of her high-quality wartime entertainments. The production was announced in The Times, mentioning that the small orchestra pit of the theatre would be enlarged to accommodate a full orchestra, it opened on 29 December 1915. The premiere was to have been the conducted by the composer, but because Lady Elgar had suffered concussion a few days before as the result of a traffic accident, he stayed at home with her, the conductor was the young Julius Harrison, it ran for only one month, closing on 29 January 1916. The reasons for the failure were inappropriate design of the characters and scenery by Henry Wilson, the difficulty Pearn had in making something theatrical with her adaptation of the book.
Both Blackwood and Elgar had expressed misgivings about the design, Blackwood had considered using his right to object and get a new artist. Blackwood objected to "this murder of my simple little Play... Arts & Crafts pretentious rubbish stitched onto your music by a silly crank who has never read the play". Elgar agreed; this would have meant postponement of the opening. The critics who reported their view of the opening night, while praising the music and particular performers, remarked on the lack of substance to the story; the music did not deserve to be forgotten. Elgar negotiated with The Gramophone Company, on 18 February 1916, the music was recorded on eight sides, with the songs performed by Agnes Nicholls and Charles Mott; that year the three Organ Grinder's Songs were published by Elkin, with a piano accompaniment arranged by Julius Harrison. Cast list: Daddy Mother Jane Anne Monkey Jimbo Grannie Cousin Henry Madame Jequier Organ-Grinder Children who accompany the Organ-Grinder before the curtain Miss Waghorn and three other retired Governesses The Pleiades Sprites: Tramp, Gardener, Sweep, Woman-of-the-Haystack, Little Winds and Laugher Act I1.
Organ Grinder: "To the Children" – "O children, open your arms to me," Act II2. Organ Grinder: "The Blue-Eyes Fairy" – "There's a fairy that hides" Act II Scene 13. Organ Grinder: "Curfew Song" – "The sun has gone" 4. Laugher: "The Laugher's Song" – "I'm ev'rywhere" 5. Organ Grinder: "Come Little Winds" – "Wake up you little night winds" Act II Scene 36. Laugher: "Tears and Laughter" – "Oh! Stars shine brightly!" 7. Jane Anne: "Sunrise Song" – "We shall meet the morning spiders" Act III8. Organ Grinder: "My Old Tunes" – "My old tunes are rather broken" Act III Scene 19. Jane Anne: – "Dandelions, daffodils" Act III Scene 210. Laugher: – "Laugh a little ev'ry day" 11. Organ Grinder: "The Dawn" – "They're all soft-shiny now" 12. Jane Anne: – "Oh, think Beauty" Act III Finale13. Jane Anne & Cousin Henry, duet: "Hearts must be soft-shiny dressed" – "Dustman, Laugher and busy Sweep" From Elgar's The Wand of Youth Suites The Little Bells – in all Acts Fairy Pipers – in all Acts Sun Dance – interlude at the end of Act II Moths and Butterflies – introduction to Act II Scene 3 March – in Act IIIFrom Elgar's The Music Makers a sequence in Jane Anne's song at the end of Act II Scene 2From the Christmas Carol The First Nowell at the end of Act III Piano Suite, arranged by Albert Ketèlbey, pub.
Elkin & Co. Ltd. London & New York, 1916 To the Children Dance of the Pleiades Sunrise Song In the Forest "The Blue-Eyes Fairy" Finale Organ Grinder's Songs, piano accompaniment arranged by Julius Harrison, pub. Elkin & Co. Ltd. London & New York, 1916 1. "To the Children" 2. "The Blue-Eyes Fairy" 3. "My Old Tunes" After short musical overture, the Organ grinder appears in front of the curtain and sings "To the Children". The Song includes self-quotations of "The Little Bells" music from "The Wand of Youth". Song1; the Organ Grinder: "To the Children" The music continues through the curtain rise on the first scene The curtain rises on a fa
Polonia is a symphonic prelude by the English composer Edward Elgar written in 1915 as his Op. 76. On 13 April 1915 the Polish conductor Emil Młynarski asked Elgar to compose something, thinking of how Elgar's Carillon had been a recent tribute to Belgium, but this time using Polish national music; the piece was Elgar's own work, but he included quotations from the Polish National Anthem Mazurek Dąbrowskiego, the Warszawianka and other Polish patriotic songs, themes by Chopin and Paderewski. It was first performed at the Polish Victims' Relief Fund Concert in the Queen's Hall, London on 6 July 1915, with the orchestra conducted by the composer; the Relief Fund was a worldwide effort, organised by Paderewski and Henryk Sienkiewicz, in aid of refugees from the terrible conflict in Poland between the forces of Russia and Germany. There were elaborately engraved programmes, each tied with a red and white ribbon, containing messages from Paderewski. Elgar conducted Thomas Beecham conducted the remainder of the concert.
Elgar dedicated Polonia to Paderewski a distinguished pianist and composer. Paderewski had written his own "Polonia" in 1908, his Symphony in B minor, to which he had given that subtitle. On 29 August 1915, Elgar wrote to Paderewski, asking for permission for the quotation from his Fantasie Polonaise to be published: My dear Friend, I hope you are well & that your great work is progressing as you wish: you have our deepest sympathy & the greatest hopes for the future. For the Polish Concert in July I composed an orchestra piece'Polonia' as a small personal tribute to you. I hope that you will one day hear the piece &, it may approve. My publisher asks me to bring the passage to your notice...etc. about 16 bars & to ask you if you will give permission for the theme to be quoted when the score is printed: we are anxious to know that you will not object to this & shall be glad of a reply as early as you can conveniently find. We are in great hopes that you will return to England soon & be assured that the warmest welcome is for you.
With love and reverence, Your friend, Edward Elgar P. S. I wished to quote a theme from you and the one chosen was suggested by our friend Mrs. C. Stuart Wortley – whose choice can never be wrong. Paderewski received the work with genuine admiration, he wrote to Elgar after hearing the work for a second time in October: I heard your noble composition, my beloved Polonia, on two different occasions: touched by the graciousness of your friendly thought, profoundly moved by the exquisite beauty of your work, I write you a letter of sincere and affectionate appreciation. Elgar quotes Polish patriotic songs, the Polish National Anthem, themes by Chopin and Paderewski, integrating with them a theme of his own, said to be the motive of his admiration for the Polish people; the first theme that Elgar uses is heard, after an introductory flourish, played by the bassoons. It is a quote from the Warszawianka, which has the words "Śmiało podnieśmy sztandar nasz w górę"; this is followed by a Nobilmente theme, broadly stated dying away to lead to the second national theme, the dignified "Chorał" or "Z dymem pożarów", first played by the cellos and a harp by the woodwind with a violin countermelody, before being played by the full orchestra.
The Warszawianka theme is developed, leading into a brief return of Elgar's theme, before a quotation from Paderewski's Fantasie Polonaise appears, signalled by the ring of a triangle. The magical section following quotes from Chopin's Nocturne in G minor, played by a solo violin, during which the Paderewski theme is heard, is interrupted by the Warszawianka. There is further development which leads to a triumphant return of the Chorale, which sounds like a conclusion to the work, but no: the Chorale dies away, there is a simple statement of the Polish National Anthem "Jeszcze Polska nie zginęła", it is this Anthem which brings the work to a brilliantly orchestrated conclusion. For the final bars, the instruments of the orchestra are joined by the organ; the Symphony Orchestra conducted by Sir Edward Elgar, recorded 22 May 1919, issued on HMV D493. The Acoustic HMV Recordings," 1914–25. Pearl CD GEMMCDS9951/5. 1975 "Elgar Orchestral Music", London Philharmonic Orchestra conducted by Sir Adrian Boult, includes "Polonia".
EMI Records, ASD 3050 stereo. Elgar Collector's Edition Modern edition of the same recording – London Philharmonic Orchestra, Sir Adrian Boult. Elgar War Music Rutland Sinfonia, Barry Collett. British Symphonic Collection Vol 2: Elgar Munich Symphony Orchestra, Douglas Bostock. Elgar: Marches New Zealand Symphony Orchestra, James Judd. Transcribed for organ played by Simon Nieminski at St Mary's Episcopal Cathedral, Edinburgh. Elgar: Violin Concerto played by the Royal Scottish National Orchestra conducted by Sir Andrew Davis. Polish Music Reference Center Newsletter August 1999, Vol. 5, no. 8 A Polish Overture by a British Composer: "Polonia", Op. 76 by Edward Elgar by Joseph Herter Kennedy, Michael. Portrait of Elgar. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-284017-7. Moore, Jerrold Northrop. Edward Elgar: A Creative Life. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-315447-1. Porte, J. F.. Sir Edward
A chord, in music, is any harmonic set of pitches consisting of multiple notes that are heard as if sounding simultaneously. For many practical and theoretical purposes and broken chords, or sequences of chord tones, may be considered as chords. Chords and sequences of chords are used in modern West African and Oceanic music, Western classical music, Western popular music. In tonal Western classical music, the most encountered chords are triads, so called because they consist of three distinct notes: the root note, intervals of a third and a fifth above the root note. Chords with more than three notes include added tone chords, extended chords and tone clusters, which are used in contemporary classical music and other genres. A series of chords is called a chord progression. One example of a used chord progression in Western traditional music and blues is the 12 bar blues progression. Although any chord may in principle be followed by any other chord, certain patterns of chords are more common in Western music, some patterns have been accepted as establishing the key in common-practice harmony—notably the resolution of a dominant chord to a tonic chord.
To describe this, Western music theory has developed the practice of numbering chords using Roman numerals to represent the number of diatonic steps up from the tonic note of the scale. Common ways of notating or representing chords in Western music include Roman numerals, the Nashville number system, figured bass, macro symbols, chord charts; the English word chord derives from Middle English cord, a shortening of accord in the original sense of agreement and harmonious sound. A sequence of chords is known as a chord harmonic progression; these are used in Western music. A chord progression "aims for a definite goal" of establishing a tonality founded on a key, root or tonic chord; the study of harmony involves chords and chord progressions and the principles of connection that govern them. Ottó Károlyi writes that, "Two or more notes sounded are known as a chord," though, since instances of any given note in different octaves may be taken as the same note, it is more precise for the purposes of analysis to speak of distinct pitch classes.
Furthermore, as three notes are needed to define any common chord, three is taken as the minimum number of notes that form a definite chord. Hence, Andrew Surmani, for example, states, "When three or more notes are sounded together, the combination is called a chord." George T. Jones agrees: "Two tones sounding together are termed an interval, while three or more tones are called a chord." According to Monath. However, sonorities of two pitches, or single-note melodies, are heard as implying chords. A simple example of two notes being interpreted as a chord is when the root and third are played but the fifth is omitted. In the key of C major, if the music comes to rest on the two notes G and B, most listeners will hear this as a G major chord. Since a chord may be understood as such when all its notes are not audible, there has been some academic discussion regarding the point at which a group of notes may be called a chord. Jean-Jacques Nattiez explains that, "We can encounter'pure chords' in a musical work," such as in the Promenade of Modest Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition but, "Often, we must go from a textual given to a more abstract representation of the chords being used," as in Claude Debussy's Première arabesque.
In the medieval era, early Christian hymns featured organum, with chord progressions and harmony an incidental result of the emphasis on melodic lines during the medieval and Renaissance. The Baroque period, the 17th and 18th centuries, began to feature the major and minor scale based tonal system and harmony, including chord progressions and circle progressions, it was in the Baroque period that the accompaniment of melodies with chords was developed, as in figured bass, the familiar cadences. In the Renaissance, certain dissonant sonorities that suggest the dominant seventh occurred with frequency. In the Baroque period, the dominant seventh proper was introduced and was in constant use in the Classical and Romantic periods; the leading-tone seventh remains in use. Composers began to use nondominant seventh chords in the Baroque period, they became frequent in the Classical period, gave way to altered dominants in the Romantic period, underwent a resurgence in the Post-Romantic and Impressionistic period.
The Romantic period, the 19th century, featured increased chromaticism. Composers began to use secondary dominants in the Baroque, they became common in the Romantic period. Many contemporary popular Western genres continue to rely on simple diatonic harmony, though far from universally: notable exceptions include the music of film scores, which use chromatic, atonal or post-tonal harmony, modern jazz, in which chords may include up to seven notes; when referring to chords that do not function as harmony, such as in atonal music, the term "sonority" is used to avoid any tonal implications of the word "chord". Chords can be represent
Symphony No. 1 (Elgar)
Sir Edward Elgar's Symphony No. 1 in A♭ major, Op. 55 is one of his two completed symphonies. The first performance was given by the Hallé Orchestra conducted by Hans Richter in Manchester, England, on 3 December 1908, it was known that Elgar had been planning a symphony for more than ten years, the announcement that he had completed it aroused enormous interest. The critical reception was enthusiastic, the public response unprecedented; the symphony achieved what The Musical Times described as "immediate and phenomenal success", with a hundred performances in Britain, continental Europe and America within just over a year of its première. The symphony is programmed by British orchestras, features in concert programmes in North America and continental Europe, it is well represented on record, with recordings ranging from the composer's 1931 version with the London Symphony Orchestra to modern digital recordings, of which more than 20 have been issued since the mid-1980s. Nearly ten years before composing his first symphony, Elgar had been intrigued by the idea of writing a symphony to commemorate General Charles George Gordon rather as Beethoven's Eroica was intended to celebrate Napoleon Bonaparte.
In 1899 he wrote to his friend August Jaeger, "Now as to Gordon: the thing possesses me, but I can't write it down yet." After he completed his oratorio The Kingdom in 1906 Elgar had a brief fallow period. As he passed his 50th birthday he turned to his boyhood compositions which he reshaped into The Wand of Youth suites during the summer of 1907, he began work on a symphony and when he went to Rome for the winter he continued work on it, finishing the first movement. After his return to England he worked on the rest of the symphony during the summer of 1908. Elgar had abandoned the idea of a "Gordon" symphony, in favour of a wholly non-programmatic work, he had come to consider abstract music as the pinnacle of orchestral composition. In 1905 he gave a lecture on Johannes Brahms's Symphony No. 3, in which he said that when music was a description of something else it was carrying a large art somewhat further than he cared for. He thought music, as a simple art, was at its best when it was simple, without description, as in the case of the Brahms symphony.
The first page of the manuscript carries the title, "Symphony for Full Orchestra, Op. 55." To the music critic Ernest Newman he wrote that the new symphony was nothing to do with Gordon, to the composer Walford Davies he wrote, "There is no programme beyond a wide experience of human life with a great charity and a massive hope in the future." The symphony was dedicated "To Hans Richter, Mus. Doc. True Artist and true Friend." It was premiered on 3 December 1908 in the Free Trade Hall in Manchester, with Richter conducting the Hallé Orchestra. The London première followed four days at the Queen's Hall, with the London Symphony Orchestra conducted by Richter. At the first rehearsal for the London concert, Richter addressed the orchestra, "Gentlemen, let us now rehearse the greatest symphony of modern times, written by the greatest modern composer – and not only in this country." William Henry Reed, who played in the LSO at that concert, recalled, "Arriving at the Adagio, spoke with the sound of tears in his voice and said:'Ah! this is a real Adagio – such an Adagio as Beethove' would'ave writ'."The Musical Times wrote in 1909, "To state that Elgar's Symphony has achieved immediate and phenomenal success is the bare truth."
Within weeks of the première the symphony was performed in New York under Walter Damrosch, Vienna under Ferdinand Löwe, St. Petersburg under Alexander Siloti, Leipzig under Artur Nikisch. There were performances in Chicago, Toronto and 15 British towns and cities. By February 1909 the New York Philharmonic Orchestra had given two more performances at Carnegie Hall and had taken the work to "some of the largest inland cities... It is doubtful whether any symphonic work has aroused so great an interest since Tchaikowsky's Pathétique." In the same period the work was played six times in London, under the baton of Richter, the composer, Henry Wood. Within just over a year there were a hundred performances worldwide; the Musical Times printed a digest of press comments on the symphony. The Daily Telegraph was quoted as saying, "hematic beauty is abundant, it is exquisite in the adagio, in the first and second allegros, the latter a kind of scherzo. The Morning Post, wrote, "This is a work for the future, will stand as a legacy for coming generations.
The Evening Standard said, Here we have the true Elgar – strong, simple, with a simplicity bred of inevitable expression.... The composer has written a work of rare beauty and humanity, a work understandable of all."The Musical Times refrained from quoting The Observer, the only dissenting voice among the main newspapers. It complained that the work was derivative of Felix Mendelssohn, Johannes Brahms and Richard Wagner, thought the theme of the slow movement "cheap ready-made material", it allowed, that "Elgar's orchestration is so magnificently modern that the dress disguises the skeleton." This adverse view was in contrast with the praise in The Times: " great work of art, lofty in conception and sincere in expression, which must stand as a landmark in the development o
In music, hemiola is the ratio 3:2. The equivalent Latin term is sesquialtera. In pitch, hemiola refers to the interval of a perfect fifth. In rhythm, hemiola refers to three beats of equal value in the time occupied by two beats; the word hemiola comes from the Greek adjective ἡμιόλιος, meaning "containing one and a half," "half as much again," "in the ratio of one and a half to one, as in musical sounds." The words "hemiola" and "sesquialtera" both signify the ratio 3:2, in music were first used to describe relations of pitch. Dividing the string of a monochord in this ratio produces the interval of a perfect fifth. Beginning in the 15th century, both words were used to describe rhythmic relationships the substitution of three imperfect notes for two perfect ones in tempus perfectum or in prolatio maior. Hemiola can be used to describe the ratio of the lengths of two strings as three-to-two, that together sound a perfect fifth; the early Pythagoreans, such as Hippasus and Philolaus, used this term in a music-theoretic context to mean a perfect fifth.
The justly tuned pitch ratio of a perfect fifth means that the upper note makes three vibrations in the same amount of time that the lower note makes two. In the cent system of pitch measurement, the 3:2 ratio corresponds to 702 cents, or 2% of a semitone wider than seven semitones; the just perfect fifth can be heard when a violin is tuned: if adjacent strings are adjusted to the exact ratio of 3:2, the result is a smooth and consonant sound, the violin sounds in tune. Just perfect fifths are the basis of Pythagorean tuning, are employed together with other just intervals in just intonation; the 3:2 just perfect fifth arises in the justly tuned C major scale between C and G. Play Later Greek authors such as Aristoxenus and Ptolemy use the word to describe smaller intervals as well, such as the hemiolic chromatic pyknon, one-and-a-half times the size of the semitone comprising the enharmonic pyknon. In rhythm, hemiola refers to three beats of equal value in the time occupied by two beats; the Oxford Dictionary of Music illustrates hemiola with a superimposition of three notes in the time of two and vice versa.
One textbook states that, although the word "hemiola" is used for both simultaneous and successive durational values, describing a simultaneous combination of three against two is less accurate than for successive values and the "preferred term for a vertical two against three … is sesquialtera." The New Harvard Dictionary of Music states that in some contexts, a sesquialtera is equivalent to a hemiola. Grove's Dictionary, on the other hand, has maintained from the first edition of 1880 down to the most recent edition of 2001 that the Greek and Latin terms are equivalent and interchangeable, both in the realms of pitch and rhythm, although David Hiley, E. Thomas Stanford, Paul R. Laird hold that, though similar in effect, hemiola properly applies to a momentary occurrence of three duple values in place of two triple ones, whereas sesquialtera represents a proportional metric change between successive sections. A repeating vertical hemiola is known as polyrhythm, or more cross-rhythm; the most basic rhythmic cell of sub-Saharan Africa is the 3:2 cross-rhythm.
Novotney observes: "The 3:2 relationship is the foundation of most typical polyrhythmic textures found in West African musics." Agawu states: " resultant rhythm holds the key to understanding... There is no independence here, because 2 and 3 belong to a single Gestalt."In the following example, a Ghanaian gyil plays a hemiola as the basis of an ostinato melody. The left hand sounds the two main beats. In compound time. Where a regular pattern of two beats to a measure is established at the start of a phrase; this changes to a pattern of three beats at the end of the phrase. The minuet from J. S. Bach's keyboard Partita No. 5 in G major articulates groups of 2 times 3 quavers that are in 68 time, despite the 34 metre stated in the initial time-signature. The latter time is restored only at the cadences: Later in the same piece, Bach creates a conflict between the two metres: Hemiola is found in many Renaissance pieces in triple rhythm. One composer who exploited this characteristic was the 16th-century French composer Claude Le Jeune, a leading exponent of musique mesurée à l'antique.
One of his best-known chansons is "Revoici venir du printemps", where the alternation of compound-duple and simple-triple metres with a common counting unit for the beat subdivisions can be heard: The hemiola was used in baroque music in dances, such as the courante and minuet. Other composers who have used the device extensively include Corelli, Handel and Beethoven. A spectacular example from Beethoven comes in the scherzo from his String Quartet No. 6. As Philip Radcliffe puts it, "The constant cross-rhythms shifting between 34 and 68, commoner at certain earlier and periods, were far from usual in 1800, here they are made to sound eccentric owing to frequent sforzandi on the last quaver of the bar... it looks ahead to works and must have sounded disconcerting to contemporary audiences." In the nineteenth century, Tchaikovsky used hemiolas in his waltzes, as did Richard Strauss in the waltzes from Der Rosenkavalier, the third movement of Robert Schumann's Piano Concerto is noted for the ambiguity of its rhythm.