Battle of Toulon (1744)
The naval Battle of Toulon or Battle of Cape Sicié took place on 22–23 February 1744 in the Mediterranean off the French coast near Toulon. A combined Franco-Spanish fleet fought off Britain's Mediterranean Fleet; the French fleet, not at war with Great Britain, only joined the fighting late, when it was clear that the outnumbered Spanish fleet had gained the advantage over its foe. With the French intervention, the British fleet was forced to withdraw. In Britain the battle was regarded as the most mortifying defeat; the retreat of Admiral Mathews' fleet left the Mediterranean Sea temporarily under Spanish control, allowing the Spanish navy to deliver troops and supplies to the Spanish army in Italy, decisively swinging the war there in their favour. Thomas Mathews was tried by court-martial in 1746 on charges of having brought the fleet into action in a disorganised manner, of having fled the enemy, of having failed to bring the enemy to action when the conditions were advantageous, he was one of seven ship captains dismissed from service.
In English-language literature the battle is viewed as indecisive at a fiasco at worst. The War of the Austrian Succession broke out in 1740, over whether Maria Theresa could inherit the throne of Habsburg Austria. Britain supported Austria and the claim of Maria Theresa, whilst Spain and France supported the rival claim of Charles, Elector of Bavaria. Britain and Spain had been at war in the Americas in the War of Jenkins' Ear. Britain and France were not at war at the start of 1744, although they were on opposite sides of the wider conflict and France was secretly planning an invasion of Britain. Thomas Mathews had had a solid but unspectacular career as a naval captain, rising to command a small squadron before retiring from the navy in 1724, he returned to naval service in 1736, but only in a shore-based administrative role. The outbreak of war with Spain and the imminent threat of war with France led to Mathews' return to active service after years of effective retirement, with a promotion directly to Vice-Admiral of the Red on 13 March 1741.
He was given command of a fleet in the Mediterranean, with it an appointment as plenipotentiary to Charles Emmanuel III, King of Sardinia, the other courts of Italy. The choice of Mathews for the role was somewhat unexpected, as he was not distinguished, had not served in the navy for a number of years; the second in command in the Mediterranean was Rear-Admiral Richard Lestock. Mathews knew Lestock from their time at Chatham Dockyard, when Mathews had been the Commissioner and Lestock had commanded the guard ships stationed in the Medway; the two had not been on good terms, Lestock had hoped to receive the command of the Mediterranean fleet himself – he had been acting commander for several weeks after Nicholas Haddock was recalled. On receiving the Mediterranean posting, Mathews requested. Lestock asked to be reassigned, requesting the command of the West Indies fleet instead; the Admiralty declined to act upon either request. The two men continued their disagreements during their time in the Mediterranean, although Mathews' preoccupation with his diplomatic duties meant they did not break out into open argument.
In 1742 Mathews sent a small squadron to Naples to compel King Charles the King of Spain, to remain neutral in the war. It was commanded by Commodore William Martin, who refused to enter into negotiations, gave the king half an hour in which to return an answer; the Neapolitans were forced to agree to the British demands. In June 1742 a squadron of Spanish galleys, which had taken refuge in the Bay of Saint-Tropez, was burnt by the fire ships of Mathews' fleet. In the meantime a Spanish squadron had taken refuge in Toulon, was watched by the British fleet from Hyères; the British began a naval blockade outside Toulon, allowing French vessels to pass but preventing the Spanish from leaving. On 21 February 1744 the Spaniards put to sea, in company with a French force. Mathews ordered the British fleet to follow their course; the Franco-Spanish fleet numbered 27 ships of the line and three frigates, whilst the British had 30 ships of the line and three frigates of their own. The British ships were larger and more armed than their opponents, carrying over 25% more cannons overall.
Both fleets were organised in the traditional three squadrons of van and rear, with the Spanish forming the rear squadron of the allied fleet. The winds were light, causing the fleets to become spread out. In the evening of 22 February the fleets began to approach each other and prepare for battle, with Mathews signalling his ships to form line of battle; the line had still not been properly formed as night fell, leading Mathews to hoist the signal to come to, intending for his ships to first finish forming the line. The van and centre squadrons did so, but Lestock, commanding the rear, obeyed the order to come to without having formed the line. By daybreak on 23 February, the rear of the British fleet was separated by a considerable distance from the van and centre. Mathews signalled for Lestock to make more sail, reluctant to start the attack with his ships still disorganised, but the slowness of Lestock to respond caused the Franco-Spanish force to start to slip away to the south. Mathews feared that they would escape him and pass through the Strait of Gibraltar to join the French force gathered at Brest for the planned invasi
Action of 14 June 1742
The Action of 14 June 1742 was a minor naval battle of the War of the Austrian Succession in which a small British squadron under Captain Richard Norris burned 5 Spanish royal galleys at the French port of Saint Tropez. Norris had surprised the galleys near Sainte-Marguerite and had chased and driven them into the French port; the British captain, in spite of alleged French neutrality, followed the Spanish vessels into the port and destroyed them at slight cost. By 1742, the Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Navy in the Mediterranean, Admiral Nicholas Haddock, had failed to force the Spanish fleet into an action, worn out with years and disappointments, resigned his command to Rear Admiral Richard Lestock, it was Vice Admiral Thomas Mathews, with a reinforcement of seven ships of the line, who replaced him as Commander-in-Chief. Matthews based the British fleet at the Piedmontese port of Villefranche-sur-Mer and at the Hyères islands and dispatched several squadrons to cruise in search of Spanish vessels.
On 13 June 1742, the British squadron cruising off Cape Garoupe, under Captain Richard Norris of the 60-gun HMS Kingston sighted 5 Spanish galleys with guns and military stores for the Spanish army in Italy leaving the anchorage at Sainte-Marguerite. This vessels were the Patrona, the San Felipe, the Soledad, the Santa Teresa and the San Genaro and were commanded by General Don Donato Domas. Norris, who had with him, besides his own fourth-rate ship of the line, the 50-gun HMS Oxford, the sloop Spence and the fireship Duke, chased the galleys and drove them into the French port of Saint Tropez. Norris, arriving off the port, sent a message requesting the governor of Saint Tropez that the Spanish galleys might be denied shelter and sent to the sea; the French governor refused and at the evening Norris prepared to attack. His two ships of the line anchored close to it. At 1 am the fireship, under Captain Callis, was dispatched to burn the galleys together with all the boats of the squadron under the cover of Oxford and Kingston.
Just as the fireship entered the mole, the galleys opened fire. The five burned along with the fireship; the Spanish sailors escaped by swimming to shore. Those who survived joined the Spanish fleet under Admiral Juan José Navarro at Toulon; the French authorities filed a complaint for the breaking of his neutrality. In fact, they were deliberately assisting the Spanish by giving them the use and shelter of their ports. According to the British historian Edward Cust, "the French flag had so been allowed to save the Spanish ships that it was thought right to deprive it of all pretext of neutrality". Captain Callis of the Duke was awarded with a golden medal by the King George II, he was posted to HMS Assistance. Donato Domas and the captains of the Spanish galleys were court-martialled and acquitted as it was found that they had fulfilled his duty. Clowes, W. Laird; the royal navy: a history from the earliest times to the present. London: S. Low and company, limited. Cust, Edward. Annals of the wars of the eighteenth century, compiled from the most authentic histories of the period: 1739-1759.
London: Mitchell's Military Library. Fernández Duro, Cesáreo. Armada española desde la unión de los reinos de Castilla y de León. Vol VI. Madrid: Sucesores de Rivadeneyra. Richmond, Herbert W.. The Navy in the War of 1739-48. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Manuel de Montiano
Manuel de Montiano y Luyando was a Spanish General and colonial administrator who served as Royal Governor of La Florida during Florida's First Spanish Period and as Royal Governor of Panama. He defended Florida from an attack by British forces in 1740 and launched his own unsuccessful Invasion of Georgia during the War of Jenkins' Ear. Montiano was born in the Basque Country of northern Spain, he was the older brother of Agustín de Montiano, a dramatist and noted historian who founded the Real Academia de la Historia in 1735 and became its first director. While still a young man, Montiano joined the Royal Spanish Army, served for three years in the Aragon Regiment. From there he was transferred to Darién in Panama. By 1719, he was a captain of grenadiers and was sent to Oran, in what is now Algeria, where he fought in the defence of the city against the Arabs. On April 29, 1737, Montiano was named Governor of La Florida. Shortly after his taking office he wrote to the Governor of Cuba notifying him of a forthcoming British invasion, requested supplies to ward off the danger.
On March 15, 1738, Governor Montiano established Fort Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mosé, a fortified town for escaped African slaves from the Carolina Colony to whom Montiano granted citizenship and freedom in return for their serving in the militia, which became the first free black settlement sanctioned in North America as well as a haven for escaped enslaved peoples from all the British colonies to the north. Here the freedmen would learn the Catholic religion. However, following the murder of some inhabitants at the fort by British Indian allies, Montiano ordered it abandoned and its inhabitants resettled in St. Augustine. Tensions between Great Britain and Spain had been on the rise for years, on October 30, 1739 Great Britain declared war on Spain; the War of Jenkins' Ear was fought as part of the War of Austrian Succession. The name comes from an incident involving one Robert Jenkins’ ear. Jenkins was the captain of the brig Rebecca in 1731. By the Treaty of Seville, Britain was barred from trading with Spain's colonies in the new world.
However, smugglers could make a nice profit. Jenkins wasn't a skilled enough captain to avoid the guard, so his ship was boarded by Spanish sailors from La Isabela and he was punished by having his ear cut off; this war gave English Georgia, under the command of British General James Oglethorpe, an excuse to attack Spanish Florida in 1740. Spain and England had been disputing ownership of the area in and around Georgia for some time when Oglethorpe brought the first colonists to Savannah, where neither country had established a permanent settlement; as part of the war, Oglethorpe set out from the newly created colony of Georgia and invaded Spanish-held land. After capturing the Spanish outposts of Fort San Diego, Fort Pupo, Fort Picolata and Fort Mose, he marched his troops toward St. Augustine. On June 13, 1740, Oglethorpe began the siege of St. Augustine by blockading the city including the Matanzas Inlet, the Castillo de San Marcos. Governor Montiano in the meantime had prepared well the defenses of the Castillo and the Spanish colony, by having all the inhabitants of the city take refuge inside the fort, while he held the British at bay.
Oglethorpe landed his troops on Anastasia Island across the inlet, where he placed troops and cannon batteries to fire on the city and the Castillo. He hoped that a sustained bombardment and blockade of St. Augustine would cause Montiano to surrender the city and fortress to the British; when asked for surrender, Montiano answered: "I will have the pleasure to meet you inside the castle...". The English guns fired on the Castillo, but were unable to breach the coquina walls which were at the farthest extent of the British cannon range. A small Spanish vessel managed to get through the blockade by evading the lone British ship guarding the Matanzas Inlet to the south of Anastasia Island and set sail for Havana, Cuba. On July 7, the courier, sent to Cuba returned to St. Augustine and told Montiano that six supply ships were at Mosquito Inlet, 68 miles farther down the coast.. He told Montiano that the British had withdrawn the vessel blocking Matanzas Inlet, the way appeared clear to provision the city.
However, an English deserter reported to the Spanish that Oglethorpe planned a night attack during the next six days of unusually high tides, for high water was needed to cross Matanzas Bay and assault the Castillo. Six days passed and no attack came, so Montiano sent five small vessels down the Matanzas River, out the Matanzas Inlet, on to Mosquito Inlet to fetch the supplies. Just as the boats returned to the Matanzas Inlet, they met two British sloops that were taking soundings; the sloops took up the chase. The fighting continued until twilight, their withdrawal gave the Spanish flotilla the opening. They promptly entered the Matanzas Inlet, sailed up the river, safely anchored at St. Augustine, allowing supplies to be brought to the Castillo without opposition. Oglethorpe had captured Fort Mose at the beginning of the war, but Montiano managed to recapture it at daybreak on June 26, after a battle that left 68 dead and 34 taken prisoner; the coquina walls of the Castillo withstood British bombardment without much damage.
Fearing the approaching hurricane season, the British fleet decided to sail north for safer waters. With British morale low due to the broken blockade, the defeat of the British forces holding Fort Mose, the onset of hurricane season, a lack of naval support and knowledge that the city was now well-s
Invasion of Cuba (1741)
The invasion of Cuba took place between 4–5 August and 9 December 1741 during the War of Jenkins' Ear. A combined army and naval force under the command of Admiral Edward Vernon and Major-General Thomas Wentworth arrived off Cuba and fortified positions around their landing site at Cumberland Bay. Despite facing no serious opposition, neither commander felt prepared to advance on the Spanish settlement at Santiago de Cuba. Harassed by guerrilla raids and with a mounting sick list, the British evacuated the island after several months of inactivity. Vernon had made an unsuccessful attempt to capture Cartagena in 1741, after his repulse he directed the fragments of his sickly and dispirited followers against the island of Cuba; the south and east of Cuba were so little populated, so far from the capital, that they might have made a permanent establishment there. The land forces consisted of the remnants of the troops from Cartagena, some 3,000 British and North American colonial troops augmented by 1,000 Jamaican blacks.
Vernon left Port Royal to capture Santiago de Cuba with the following ships:HMS Boyne 80 HMS Cumberland 80 HMS Grafton 70 HMS Kent 70 HMS Montague 60 HMS Tilbury 60 HMS Worcester 60 HMS Chester 50 HMS Tiger 50HMS Experiment 20 HMS Sheerness 20 HMS Shoreham 20 HMS Alderney HMS Phaeton HMS Strombolo HMS Vesuvius HMS Bonetta HMS Tryton HMS Princess Royal HMS Scarborough HMS Pompey 40 Transports carrying 4,000 troops under Major-General Thomas Wentworth On the night of 4–5 August, the British Redcoats and a thousand black troops from Jamaica landed in three different beaches of the Guantanamo Bay. Without opposition, they marched against the village of La Catalina. However, the invaders, 105 kilometres short of their objective, slowed down three days because of the growing concerns of their commander, Major-General Thomas Wentworth. Santiago's Governor Francisco Caxigal de la Vega, garrison commander Carlos Riva Agüero, local militia Captain Pedro Guerrero had only 350 regulars and 600 militia to hand and so retreated from the British.
Wentworth's army became paralyzed by fatigue and disease, spending the next four months encamped, being sporadically raided by Spanish guerrillas. Vernon, disgusted at his colleague's inactivity, but unwilling to risk any part of the fleet against the town, sent warships to cruise independently until Wentworth's sick list grew so long—2,260 soldiers being struck with fever by 5 December—that the expedition was re-embarked, setting sail at dawn on 9 December and returning to Port Royal ten days later. Admiral Vernon's enterprise accomplished nothing but the loss of many of his soldiers and his own disgrace. Vernon was forced to return to Britain in 1742. Pares, Richard. War and Trade in the West Indies, Oxford university press, 1936 ISBN 0-7146-1943-4 Richmond, H. W.. The Navy In the War of Vo. Cambridge University Press, 1920. David E. Marley, Wars of the Americas. Naval and Military memoirs of Great Britain from 1727 to 1783, Vol. I and Vol. III, 1801. Coke, Thomas. A History of the West Indies: Containing the Natural and Ecclesiastical History of Each Island London, 1810.
Battle of Gully Hole Creek
The Battle of Gully Hole Creek was a battle that took place on July 18, 1742 between Spanish and British forces in the Province of Georgia, resulting in a victory for the British. Part of a much larger conflict, known as the War of Jenkins' Ear, the battle was for control of St. Simons Island, the British fortifications of Fort Frederica and Fort St. Simons, the strategic sea routes and inland waters they controlled. After the victory, the Province of Georgia established undisputed claim to the island, now part of the U. S. state of Georgia. The better-known Battle of Bloody Marsh, a skirmish won by the British, took place on the island the same day. Spanish governor Don Manuel de Montiano commanded the invasion force, which by some estimates totaled between 4500 and 5000 men. Of that number 1900 to 2000 were ground assault troops. British leader James Oglethorpe's forces, consisting of regulars and native Indians, numbered less than 1000; the garrison at Fort St. Simons resisted the invasion with cannonade, but was not able to prevent the landing.
On July 5, 1742 Montiano landed nearly 1900 men from 36 ships near Gascoigne Bluff, close to the Frederica River. Faced with a superior force, Oglethorpe decided to withdraw from Fort St. Simons before the Spanish could mount an assault, he ordered the small garrison to spike the guns and slight the fort, to deny the Spanish full use of the military asset. The Spanish took over the remains of the fort the following day, establishing it as their base on the island. After landing troops and supplies, consolidating their position at Fort St. Simons, the Spanish began to cautiously reconnoiter beyond their perimeter, they found the road between Fort St. Simons and Fort Frederica, but first assumed the narrow track was just a farm road. On July 18, the Spanish undertook a reconnaissance in force along the road with 115 men under the command of Captain Sebastian Sanchez. A mile and a half short of Fort Frederica, their target, the Spaniards were set upon by a force consisting of Georgia Rangers, the Highland Independent Company, aided by more numerous Chicksaw and Creek warriors, all under General Oglethorpe's personal direction.
After an intense but brief battle, lasting less than one hour, Oglethorpe's forces succeeded in killing or capturing 36 of the Spaniards, nearly a third of the forces in that group. Among those killed was second-in-command, Captain Nicolas Hernandez. Captain Sebastian Sanchez was captured. Oglethorpe's losses were described as "light"; the rest of the Spanish retreated in disorder back to the south. They were met by 200 Spanish grenadiers under Captain Antonio Barba, who had just marched from Fort St Simons and covered their retreat; the British colonists won the Battle of Bloody Marsh the same day, driving the Spanish out of the Georgia colony. The War of Jenkins' Ear is commemorated annually on the last Saturday in May at Wormsloe Plantation in Savannah, Georgia. Battle of Bloody Marsh List of conflicts in the United States Invasion of Georgia Coleman, Kenneth, A History of Georgia, Athens, USA: University of Georgia Press, ISBN 978-0-8203-1269-9 Marley, Wars of the Americas: a chronology of armed conflict in the New World, 1492 to the present, Santa Barbara, USA: ABC-CLIO, ISBN 978-0-87436-837-6 Our Georgia History - Battle of Bloody Marsh Battle of Bloody Marsh 250 years Battle of Gully Hole Creek historical marker
Raid on Brunswick Town
The Raid on Brunswick was a military engagement that took place at the tail end of the War of Jenkins' Ear from September 3 to 6, 1748. Brunswick Town in the Province of North-Carolina was attacked by Spanish privateers; the Spanish raiders were driven off which resulted in the destruction of one of their vessels. This was the final engagement of the war between Great Britain and Spain and resulted in a British colonial victory; the War of Jenkins' Ear, which had begun in 1739, fought in the West Indies and the Americas had by 1748 amalgamated into the War of the Austrian Succession and spread on both sides of the Atlantic. The Spanish Government sanctioned forces to raid and pillage English port towns of the provinces of North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia; this period became known became known as the'Spanish Alarm'. Without an adequate regular military garrison in these provinces, the Kingdom of Great Britain encouraged the provinces to raise local militias to combat Spanish-related attacks.
The Port of Brunswick Town became the busiest in North Carolina and shipped goods to Europe and the British West Indies. Cape Fear was a perfect place for the Spanish to attack. Despite the ongoing Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle which had convened in April 1748, news still had not reached some parts of the American colonies. On September 4, 1748 two Spanish ships ships, La Fortuna and La Loretta anchored off the town; the townspeople fled into the neighbouring woods, the Spanish began raiding the town for slaves and anything else they could find, valuable. Since the townspeople had left everything behind, the Spanish were able to raid the abandoned ships. Having landed men ashore they plundered houses and other buildings without resistance; the following day Captain William Dry III rallied a group of around 67 men who were armed with muskets and pistols to take back the town. Dry with the help of William Moore, Schenk Moore, Edward Wingate, Cornelius Harnett Jr. and William Lord started the counterattack on September 6.
Among the men was a slave, volunteered by George Ronalds. The Spanish were surprised by the attack and in the ensuing fire fight they were driven off and soon fled from the town. Ten of the privateers were killed and thirty were captured. During the retreat and an exchange of fire La Fortuna exploded which killed most of the men on board; the second ship, La Loretta, in confusion thinking that they would suffer the same fate surrendered on the condition that they would be able to leave. Colonists aboard one of the captured vessels, overpowered their Spanish captors, ran the ship aground. Over night, Major John Swan arrived with 130 reinforcements from Wilmington. Swan’s force held up just outside of town until daylight, in order to prevent being mistaken as a Spanish force by the embattled Brunswick Town defenders. In the meantime, the Spanish privateers took advantage of the darkness to weigh anchor and make sail for the mouth of the Cape Fear and the safety of the open sea. With no further prisoner exchange, the Spanish hoisted departed the area.
During the counterattack, a number of the towns people were wounded while only one person defending the town lost his life. The slave, volunteered by Ronalds was killed when a small cannon exploded; the remains of La Fortuna, was still in the river when the remainder of the privateers had been thrown out of the town. Dry hired sailors to searchLa Fortuna for anything valuable - they were able to bring ashore guns and items stolen from the town. Many of the Spanish were enslaved for the remainder of their lives after the failure of the prisoner exchange; the retaliatory action by the Brunswick men not only saved their town but thwarted any intention by the Spanish to sail upriver to threaten Wilmington. The booty from the Spanish privateers made Brunswick Town one of the richest towns in British North America; the town was able to sell the Spanish goods from the abandoned ship. The funds that were obtained from the sales were used to build Saint Phillips Church in Brunswick Town and Saint James Church in Wilmington.
Among the items confiscated from the ship was a painting titled, Ecce Homo salvaged from Spanish captain Lopez's cabin. The painting was given to Saint James Church, Wilmington upon completion in 1751 by the North Carolina Assembly; the painting can be found there today. BibliographySouth, Stanley. An Archaeological Evolution. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9780387234045. Townsend, Jr, Daniel V. In Search of Thomas. AuthorHouse. ISBN 9781467846981. Watson, Alan D. Wilmington, North Carolina, to 1861. McFarland. ISBN 9780786482146
Battle of Porto Bello
The Battle of Porto Bello, or the Battle of Portobello, was a 1739 battle between a British naval force aiming to capture the settlement of Portobello in Panama, its Spanish defenders. It took place during the War of the Austrian Succession, in the early stages of the war sometimes known as the War of Jenkins' Ear, it resulted in a popularly acclaimed British victory. The settlement of Portobello was an important port on the Spanish Main. Following the failure of an earlier British naval blockade to prevent a laden treasure fleet sailing to Spain from Porto Bello in 1727, an action in which he had taken part, the Vice Admiral Edward Vernon claimed he could capture it with just six ships. Following his appointment to command the Jamaica Station, Vernon organised an expedition with just six ships, despite criticism that this was far too few. Vernon was a strong advocate of using small squadrons of powerfully armed warships hitting hard and moving fast rather than larger slower-moving expeditions that were prone to heavy losses through disease.
Vernon's force appeared off Portobello on 20 November 1739. The British ships entered the bay prepared for a general attack, but a wind coming from the east obliged Vernon to concentrate his ships on the Todo Fierro harbour fort; the Spanish garrison was caught unprepared. When some Spaniards began to flee from several parts of the fort, several landing parties were sent inshore; the British sailors and marines scaled the walls of the fort, struck the Spanish colours in the lower battery and hoisted an English ensign. The Spaniards surrendered at discretion. Of the 300-man Spanish garrison, only 40 soldiers led by Lieutenant Don Juan Francisco Garganta had remained in the fort. Once captured Todo Fierro, Vernon shifted his ships against Santiago Fortress, sinking a Spanish sloop and causing other damage. At dawn on the following morning, the Spaniards requested terms. Governor Francisco Javier Martínez de la Vega y Retes surrendered at the afternoon. Portobello was occupied by seven wounded. Three prizes were taken: an armed snow, renamed Triumph and two coastguards of 20 guns each one.
The British occupied the town for three weeks, destroying the fortress and other key buildings and ending the settlement's main function as a major Spanish maritime base, before withdrawing. The capture of Porto Bello was welcomed as an exceptionally popular triumph throughout Britain and America, the name of Portobello came to be used in commemoration at a variety of locations, such as the Portobello Road in London, the Portobello district of Edinburgh and in Dublin; the victory was well received in the North-American British colonies, where the Spanish had been preying on British shipping. Admiral Vernon became a popular hero, was himself commemorated in several places most famously Mount Vernon the estate of George Washington, he was promoted to the rank of admiral. Vernon was a notable opponent of the British government, in the wake of the victory, as well as prior to the expedition, he was one of the advocates of a more belligerent approach towards Britain's enemies; the British Prime Minister Robert Walpole was placed under great pressure by the Opposition to launch similar raids along the Spanish coast.
Vernon's next battle in this campaign, a large-scale invasion of Cartagena in 1741, ended in defeat. Although British control lasted just three weeks the effect on Porto Bello was devastating; the economy of the town did not recover until the construction of the Panama Canal nearly two centuries later. Campbell, John. Naval history of Great Britain: including the history and lives of the British admirals, Volume 4. London, Printed for Baldwyn and Co.. Fernández Duro, Cesáreo. Armada española desde la unión de los reinos de Castilla y de León, tomo VI. Sucesores de Rivadeneyra, 1902. Beatson, Robert. Naval and military memoirs of Great Britain, from 1727 to 1783, Volume 3. London, Printed for Longman, Hurst and Orme. Marley, David. Wars of the Americas: a chronology of armed conflict in the New World, 1492 to the present. ABC-CLIO, 1998. ISBN 978-0-87436-837-6 Nester, William R; the great frontier war: Britain and the imperial struggle for North America, 1607–1755. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000. ISBN 978-0-275-96772-7 Parker, Matthew.
Hell's Gorge: The Battle to Build the Panama Canal. Arrow Books, 2008. Pearce, Edward; the Great Man. Sir Robert Walpole. Pimlico, 2008. Rodger, N. A. M; the Command of the Ocean: A Naval History of Britain, 1649–1815. Penguin Books, 2006. Simms, Brendan. Three Victories and a Defeat: The Rise and Fall of the First British Empire. Penguin Books Gómez, Santiago: La Guerra de la Oreja de Jenkins. Combates en el Caribe. Antecedentes y primeros enfrentamientos. Revista de Historia Naval