Railton was a marque of British automobiles made by Fairmile Engineering Company in Cobham, Surrey between 1933 and 1940. There was an attempt to revive it by a new company between 1989 and 1994 in Warwickshire; the company was started by Noel Macklin, looking for a new car making venture after he sold his Invicta company in 1933. The name came from Reid Railton, the world speed record car designer, but his input was small although he did receive a royalty on each car sold; the first car was made by fitting a British body made by coachbuilder John Charles Ranalah to a 4010 cc, 100 bhp, 8-cylinder Hudson Terraplane chassis. Described as a pre-war Shelby Cobra, the resulting machine was at first available as a two-door tourer. Being lighter than the original, it had for the time exceptional performance, with a 0–60 mph time of 13 seconds. A saloon-bodied version was soon added to the range, the cars were priced at £499. In 1935 the original Terraplane chassis was replaced by the one from the Hudson Eight, the engine grew to 4168 cc producing 113 bhp, a wider range of bodies from several coachbuilders were on offer from at least seven different vehicle coachbuilders including.
E. A. L, Carbodies and Coachcraft Ltd. Two special lightweight models were made in 1935 and, with a 0–60 time of 8.8 seconds, were claimed to be the fastest production cars in the world. Altogether 1379 of the Railton 8s were made. A smaller six-cylinder car, the 16.9 was added in 1937 using a 2723 cc Hudson 6-cylinder engine and chassis, but only 81 were made in saloon or drophead coupé form and priced at £399. An smaller Railton, the 10 hp, joined the range in 1938 built on a Standard Flying Nine chassis and with either saloon or drophead coupé bodywork was claimed to be "A famous name in miniature". 51 were made selling at £299. In 1938 Motor Sport tested a 28.8 h.p. Railton Cobham saloon, FPH 970, offered for sale at £698. Noel Macklin turned his attention to powerboats in 1939, he sold the company to Hudson Motor Car Company of Detroit, who transferred production to their Brentford, London works. However, the outbreak of war in 1939 stopped production. After World War II a few cars were completed using pre-war parts, a new model was built and shown at the 1949 London Motor Show.
However, at nearly £5000 the car was expensive, it never went into production. The name was revived by a new company called Railton Motor Company, founded in 1989 in Wixford, Warwickshire. Two convertible models, the F28 Fairmile and the F29 Claremont were announced. Both were styled by William Towns and were based on Jaguar XJS running gear with new original aluminium bodywork. Production seems to have stopped in about 1994. British motoring journalist Paul Walton has written about the Railton F28 Fairmile. List of car manufacturers of the United Kingdom Thirlby, David. Noel Macklin: From Invicta to the Fairmile. NPI Media Group. ISBN 0-7524-3879-4; the revived Railton The Railton owners club Jaguar based Railtons
Autodromo Nazionale Monza
The Autodromo Nazionale Monza is a historic race track located near the city of Monza, north of Milan, in Italy. Built in 1922, it is the world's third purpose-built motor racing circuit after those of Brooklands and Indianapolis; the circuit's biggest event is the Formula One Italian Grand Prix. With the exception of 1980, the race has been hosted there since the series's inception. Built in the Royal Villa of Monza park in a woodland setting, the site has three tracks – the 5.793-kilometre Grand Prix track, the 2.405-kilometre Junior track, a 4.250-kilometre high speed oval track with steep bankings, unused for many decades and is now decaying. The major features of the main Grand Prix track include the Curva Grande, the Curva di Lesmo, the Variante Ascari and the Curva Parabolica; the high speed curve, Curva Grande, is located after the Variante del Rettifilo, located at the end of the front straight or Rettifilo Tribune, is taken flat out by Formula One cars. Drivers are on full throttle for most of the lap due to its long straights and fast corners, is the scenario in which the open-wheeled Formula One cars show the raw speed of which they are capable: 372 kilometres per hour during the mid-2000s V10 engine formula, although in 2012 with the 2.4L V8 engines, top speeds in Formula One reached over 340 kilometres per hour.
The circuit is flat, but has a gradual gradient from the second Lesmos to the Variante Ascari. Due to the low aerodynamic profile needed, with its resulting low downforce, the grip is low. Since both maximum power and minimal drag are keys for speed on the straights, only competitors with enough power or aerodynamic efficiency at their disposal are able to challenge for the top places. In addition to Formula One, the circuit hosted the 1000 km Monza, endurance sports car race held as part of the World Sportscar Championship and the Le Mans Series. Monza featured the unique Race of Two Worlds events, which attempted to run Formula One and USAC National Championship cars against each other; the racetrack previously held rounds of the Grand Prix motorcycle racing, World Touring Car Championship, TCR International Series, Superbike World Championship, Formula Renault 3.5 Series and Auto GP. Monza hosts rounds of the Blancpain GT Series Endurance Cup, International GT Open and Euroformula Open Championship, as well as various local championships such as the TCR Italian Series, Italian GT Championship, Porsche Carrera Cup Italia and Italian F4 Championship.
The Monza circuit has been the site of many fatal accidents in the early years of the Formula One world championship, has claimed the lives of 52 drivers and 35 spectators. Track modifications have continuously occurred, to improve spectator safety and reduce curve speeds, but it is still criticised by the current drivers for its lack of run-off areas, most notoriously at the chicane that cuts the Variante della Roggia; the first track was built from May to July 1922 by 3,500 workers, financed by the Milan Automobile Club – which created the Società Incremento Automobilismo e Sport to run the track. The initial form was a 3.4 square kilometres site with 10 kilometres of macadamised road – comprising a 4.5 kilometres loop track, a 5.5 kilometres road track. The track was opened on 3 September 1922, with the maiden race the second Italian Grand Prix held on 10 September 1922. In 1928, the most serious Italian racing accident to date ended in the death of driver Emilio Materassi and 27 spectators at that year's Grand Prix.
The accident led to further Grand Prix races confinement to the high-speed loop until 1932. The 1933 race was marked by the deaths of three drivers and the Grand Prix layout was changed, with two chicanes added and the longer straights removed. There was major rebuilding in 1938–39, constructing new stands and entrances, resurfacing the track, moving portions of the track and adding two new bends; the resulting layout gave a Grand Prix lap of 6.300 kilometres, in use until 1954. The outbreak of World War II meant racing at the track was suspended until 1948 and parts of the circuit degraded due to the lack of maintenance. Monza was renovated over a period of two months at the beginning of 1948 and a Grand Prix was held on 17 October 1948. In 1954, work began to revamp the circuit, resulting in a 5.750 kilometres course, a new 4.250 kilometres high-speed oval with banked sopraelevata curves. The two circuits could be combined to re-create the former 10 kilometres long circuit, with cars running parallel on the main straight.
The track infrastructure was updated and improved to better accommodate the teams and spectators. The Automobile Club of Italy held 500-mile Race of Two Worlds exhibition competitions, intended to pit United States Auto Club IndyCars against European Formula One and sports cars; the races were held on the oval at the end of June in 1957 and 1958, with three 63 lap 267.67 kilometres heat races each year, races which colloquially became known as the Monzanapolis series. Concerns were raised among the European drivers that flat-out racing on the banking would be too dangerous, so only Ecurie Ecosse and Maserati represented European racing at the
Virginia Water is a much-wooded commuter town or village in northern Surrey, home to the Wentworth Estate and the Wentworth Club. The place occupies a large minority of the Borough of Runnymede, its name is shared with the lake on its western boundary: Windsor Great Park. Virginia Water is close to the M25, M3 motorways. Heathrow Airport is seven miles to the north-east. A report from October 2015 listed Virginia Water as the most expensive town for property in the UK, having an average house price exceeding £1m; the 2011 Census showed the population of Virginia Water to be 5,940. Many of the homes are situated on the Wentworth Estate, the home of the Wentworth Club which has four golf courses; the Ryder Cup was first played there. It is home to the headquarters of the PGA European Tour, the professional golf tour; the estate reached the headlines in 1998 when General Augusto Pinochet was kept under house arrest in one of its houses prior to his extradition. The town has a junction railway station within the estate.
Frequent trains run to London Waterloo, Twickenham, Staines, Clapham Junction and Reading. Elton John - English singer, owned a house in Virginia Water until 2000. Bryan Forbes - English film director, film producer and novelist until his death in 2013. Sir Bruce Forsyth - Television presenter, resided in Virginia Water until his death in 2017. Kirsty Gallacher - Television presenter Cliff Richard - British singer Chris Squire - Bassist Bernie Taupin - Lyricist Diana Dors - Actress, who lived there until her death in 1984. Sir Nick Faldo - Professional golfer Kevin Pietersen - Former English cricketer Prince Naseem Hamed - Former British boxer Ron Dennis - British businessman. Media related to Virginia Water at Wikimedia Commons
A preselector or self-changing gearbox is a type of manual gearbox used on a variety of vehicles, most in the 1930s. The defining characteristic of a preselector gearbox is that the manual shift lever is used to "pre-select" the next gear to be used a separate control is used to engage this in one single operation, without needing to work a manual clutch. Most pre-selector transmissions avoid a driver-controlled clutch entirely; some use one for starting off. Preselector gearboxes are not automatic gearboxes. A automatic gearbox is able to select the ratio used. There are several radically different mechanical designs of preselector gearbox; the best known is the Wilson design. Some gearboxes, such as the Cotal, shift gears as the control is moved, without requiring the separate pedal action; these were considered under the same overall heading. In recent years, a similar role is carried out by the increasing number of'Tiptronic' or'paddle shift' gearboxes, using manual selection and immediate automated changing.
For the driver, there are two advantages: Fast shifting, with only a single operation. This requires less skill to learn than techniques like double declutching and it offers faster shifts when racing. Ability to handle far more engine power, with a lighter mechanism. In engineering terms, some designs of pre-selector gearbox may offer particular advantages; the Wilson gearbox offers these, although they're shared by some of the other designs though the designs are quite different: Their friction components are brakes, rather than clutches. These are simpler to engineer, as the wear components can be arranged to not be rotating parts; the friction wear components can be mounted on the outside of the mechanism, rather than buried within it. This makes regular adjustment easier, they were common on Daimler cars and commercial vehicles, Alvis, Talbot-Lago, Lagonda Rapier and Armstrong Siddeley cars as well as on many London buses. They have been used in racing cars, such as the 1935 ERA R4D, hillclimbing cars such as Auto Union "Silver Arrows".
Military applications began in 1929 and included tanks such as the German Tiger I and Tiger II in World War II, through to current tanks such as the Challenger 2. Many pre-selector designs made use of a series of epicyclic gearboxes; the Viratelle epicyclic pre-selector gearbox is the first one known designed and used from 1906, used on Viratelle motorcycles with 3 speeds but on cyclecars with 3 forward speeds and a reverse gear. The Wilson pre-selector gearbox is the best known design and is the archetype meant when the term "pre-selector gearbox" is used without further qualification. Major W. G. Wilson was rewarded as one of the major co-inventors of the tank after World War I, he had been involved with the development of transmissions for tanks the problem of their steering gearbox. He had become an advocate for the benefits of the epicyclic gearbox, which allowed large torques to be transmitted whilst still being controllable through a small input force. In 1917, Wilson designed the Mark V tank.
Wilson's major claim for its advantage was that the epicyclic system allowed control through a brake, rather than through a clutch, "a brake can stand more punishment than a clutch and is easier to judge in its application". This was the first of the heavy tanks that could be driven by a single driver, without requiring him to signal orders inside to others working the secondary gear levers. Since 1900, the Lanchester Motor Company had built cars with manually controlled epicyclic gearboxes, first with a cone clutch with multi-plate clutches; these formed the ratio-changing gearbox of the transmission. In 1918, an experimental tank "Lanchester Gearbox Machine" or "Experimental Machine K" was tested, fitted with an epicyclic gearbox built by Lanchester. After the War, Wilson had a considerable reputation as an engineer of genius for gearbox design. In 1928 he patented his design for a novel pre-selective gearbox. Various manufacturers produced preselector transmissions under licence to the Wilson patents.
Wilson himself formed a partnership with J. D. Siddeley of the car maker Armstrong Siddeley, first under the name of "Improved Gears Ltd." later as "Self-Changing Gears Ltd.". As its name suggests, gear changes were made by selecting a gear ratio in advance of its being needed; the chosen gear was brought into operation by pressing and releasing the'gear change pedal', the left pedal, installed in place of the usual clutch pedal. It is not to be confused with an automatic transmission, in that both the ratio chosen, the moment for gear changing, are controlled by the driver; the Wilson gearbox was produced with a variety of clutches. The best-known is the fluid flywheel, used for touring cars such as the Daimler and the Armstrong Siddeley. Sports cars used a Newton centrifugal clutch; this was a multiple plate dry clutch, similar to racing manual clutches of the time, but with the pressure plate centrifugally actuated to engage at around 600rpm. Pure racing cars, such as the ERA, avoided a clutch altogether and relied on the progressive engagement of the gearbox's band brake on lowest gear when starting.
The Wilson gearbox relied on a number of epicyclic gears, coupled in an ingenious manner, Wilson's invention. A separate epicyclic was required for each intermediate gear, with a cone clutch for the straight-through top gear and a further epicyclic for reverse. Four gears were provided, at a time when
Ford Modular engine
The Ford Modular engine is Ford Motor Company's overhead camshaft V8 and V10 gasoline-powered small block engine family. The Modular engine got its name from its design and sharing of certain parts among the engine family, starting with the 4.6L in 1990 for the 1991 model year. The name was derived from a manufacturing plant protocol, "Modular", where the plant and its tooling could be changed in a few hours to manufacture different versions of the engine family; the Modular engines are used in various Ford and Mercury vehicles. Modular engines used in Ford trucks were marketed under the Triton name from 1997–2010 while the InTech name was used for a time at Lincoln for vehicles equipped with DOHC versions of the engines; the engines were first produced in Romeo, Michigan additional capacity was added in Windsor, Ontario. In the early 1980s, then-Ford Motor Company chief operating officer Donald Petersen challenged Ford's vice-president of design, Jack Telnack, his staff to come up with new vehicle designs that they could take pride in.
The result was an abandonment of the boxy styling that had dominated Ford products for years and the adoption of sleeker, more aerodynamic designs like that used for the successful Ford Taurus. In the second half of the 1980s, now chief executive officer, sought to update Ford's decades-old V8 architectures, challenging Ford senior engineer Jim Clarke to do for Ford's V8s what Jack Telnack did for Ford's vehicle design; the objective was to develop a new V8 engine that would surpass Ford's earlier V8s in every meaningful way, from power and efficiency to emissions performance and smoothness of operation. Clarke and his engineers studied engine designs from major European and Japanese automakers and sought to develop a V8, technologically advanced and power-dense, yet dependable with no major service required before 100,000 miles of use; the initial engine design would implement a 90° vee-angle with a bore and a stroke of 3.552 in × 3.543 in, resulting in a 4,601 cc displacement and creating a nearly 1:1 bore-to-stroke ratio.
This square configuration was chosen for its positive noise and harshness characteristics. The engine would utilize features such as a chain-driven, single-overhead camshaft valvetrain with roller finger followers, a deep-skirt cast-iron block construction and cross-bolted main bearings, all benefitting long-term durability. In the interest of reducing overall engine weight, aluminum-alloy heads and pistons would be standard and all major engine accessories would be mounted directly to the block, resulting in a more complex block casting but eliminating the need for heavy mounting brackets. Tight construction tolerances were used in shaping the engine's cylinder bores with narrow piston rings fitted to the engine's pistons; this would serve to improve engine efficiency through reduced friction and reduce the engine's oil consumption, while promoting cleaner emissions. The most significant aspect of the new engine's design was the number of variations of the engine that could be made to suit different needs.
This resulted in the creation of an entire family of engines consisting not only of designs utilizing single- or dual-overhead camshaft configurations, different displacements and different block materials, but different cylinder counts. In addition to the various eight-cylinder engines produced, ten-cylinder engines entered production. Six-cylinder derivatives were explored, though never built. With the wide array of engine configurations possible within this architecture, Ford developed a new, modular tooling system for producing different engines and efficiently in the same factory. Referring to this method of production, the name Modular was given to the new engine family. Despite all the different engines that would be built over the years, one of the major unifying aspects present in all engines based on the Modular architecture, required by the engine's tooling for production purposes, was a common bore spacing of 100 mm. By 1987 Ford was committed to producing the new Modular V8, having invested $4 billion in the engine's design in addition to retooling the company's Romeo, Michigan tractor plant to build the engines.
Three years in the third quarter of 1990, the first Modular engine, a 4.6L SOHC V8, would be used in the 1991 model year Lincoln Town Car. To the credit of Jim Clarke's engineering team, the new V8 engine in the Town Car compared favorably to its pushrod-based predecessor. In spite of having a smaller displacement, the 4.6L Modular V8 could generate more power than the Town Car's previous 5.0L V8 and could launch the car 0–60 mph 1.5 seconds quicker, all while delivering better fuel efficiency. Accompanying these performance advantages, the engine was 20 lb lighter than the older 5.0L V8. Following the Modular V8's debut in the Town Car, engines using the Modular architecture would go on to replace older V8 designs in Ford products becoming Ford's chief gasoline V8 architecture; the 4,601 cc displacement 90-degree V8 has been offered in 2-valve SOHC, 3-valve SOHC, 4-valve DOHC versions. The engines were offered with both aluminum and cast iron blocks, depending on application; the 4.6 L's bore and stroke are nearly square at 3.552 in × 3.543 respectively.
Deck height for the 4.6 block is 8.937 in and connecting rod length is 5.933 in center to center, giving the 4.6 L a 1.67:1 rod to stroke ratio. Cylinder bore spacing measures 3.937 in, common to all members of the Modular engine family. All Modular V8s, except for the new 5.0 L Coyote, utilize the same firing order as the Ford 5.0 L H
Tate & Lyle
Tate & Lyle PLC is a British-headquartered, global supplier of food and beverage ingredients to industrial markets. It was a sugar refining business, but from the 1970s began to diversify divesting its sugar business in 2012, it specialises in turning raw materials such as corn and oats into ingredients that add taste and nutrients to food and beverages. It is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index. Nick Hampton became CEO on 1 April 2018, replacing Javed Ahmed, who stepped down from this role and from the board, retired from the company; the company was formed in 1921 from a merger of two rival sugar refiners: Henry Tate & Sons and Abram Lyle & Sons. Henry Tate established his business in 1859 in Liverpool expanding to Silvertown in East London, he used his industrial fortune to found the Tate Institute in Silvertown in 1887 and the Tate Gallery in Pimlico, Central London in 1897. He endowed the gallery with his own collection of Pre-Raphaelite paintings. Abram Lyle, a cooper and shipowner, acquired an interest in a sugar refinery in 1865 in Greenock and at Plaistow Wharf, West Silvertown, London.
The two companies had large factories nearby each other – Henry Tate in Silvertown and Abram Lyle at Plaistow Wharf – so prompting the merger. Prior to the merger, which occurred after they had died, the two men were bitter business rivals, although they had never met in person. In 1949, the Company introduced its "Mr Cube" brand, as part of a marketing campaign to help it fight a proposed nationalisation by the Labour government. From 1973, British membership of the European Economic Community threatened Tate & Lyle's core business, with quotas imposed from Brussels favouring domestic sugar beet producers over imported cane refiners such as Tate & Lyle; as a result, under the leadership of Saxon Tate, the company began to diversify into related fields of commodity trading and engineering, in 1976, it acquired competing cane sugar refiner Manbré & Garton. In 1976, the Company acquired a 33 % stake in a European starch-based manufacturing business; the Liverpool sugar plant closed in 1981 and the Greenock plant closed in 1997.
In 1988, Tate & Lyle acquired a 90 % stake in a US corn processing business. In 1998 it brought a citric acid producer. In 2000 it acquired the remaining minorities of A. E. Staley. In 2004, it established a joint venture with DuPont to manufacture a renewable 1,3-Propanediol that can be used to make Sorona; this was its first major foray into bio-materials. In 2005, DuPont Tate & Lyle BioProducts was created as a joint venture between DuPont and Tate & Lyle. In 2006, it acquired Hycail, a small Dutch business, giving the company intellectual property and a pilot plant to manufacture Polylactic acid, another bio-plastic. In October 2007, five European starch and alcohol plants part of the European starch division knowns as Amylum group, were sold to Syral, a subsidiary of French sugar company Tereos. Syral closed its Greenwich Peninsula plant in London in September 2009, it was subsequently demolished. In February 2008, it was announced that Tate & Lyle granulated white cane sugar would be accredited as a Fairtrade product, with all the company's other retail products to follow in 2009.
In April 2009, the United States International Trade Commission affirmed a ruling that Chinese manufacturers can make copycat versions of its Splenda product. In July 2010 the company announced the sale of its sugar refining business, including rights to use the Tate & Lyle brand name and Lyle's Golden Syrup, to American Sugar Refining for £211 million; the sale included the Plaistow Silvertown plants. In 2012, HarperCollins published The Sugar Girls, a work of narrative non-fiction based on the true stories of women who worked at Tate & Lyle's two factories in the East End of London from the 1940s to the 1960s; the company is organised as follows: Food and Beverage Solutions Sweeteners, such as Splenda sucralose and crystalline fructose Texturants, such as starch and gums Wellness ingredients, such as dietary fibres Primary Products, such as high fructose corn syrup and acidulants A. E. Staley – US owned subsidiary Splenda – sucralose, a key product for the group Redpath Sugar, once owned by T&L.
Staley: The Fight For A New American Labor Movement. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-07640-4. – A source for information concerning T&L's union-busting activities in the early 1990s in Decatur, Illinois Sugar and All That... A History of TATE & LYLE by Antony Hugill ISBN 0-85614-048-1 Tate & Lyle PLC and Ferruzzi Finanziaria SpA and S & W Berisford PLC, 1987 Competition Commission report Tate & Lyle PLC and British Sugar plc, 1991 Competition Commission report Duncan Barrett and Nuala Calvi; the Sugar Girls. Collins. ISBN 978-0-00-744847-0. Tate & Lyle corporate website Tate & Lyle companies grouped at OpenCorporates The history of sugar in Liverpool and the effects of the closure of the Tate & Lyle sugar refinery The house of William Park Lyle, son of Abram Lyle, has had a multi million makeover The Sugar Girls official website Documents and clippings about Tate & Lyle in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
Henry Meadows known as Meadows, of Wolverhampton, England were major suppliers of engines and transmissions to the smaller companies in the British motor industry. Founded in 1920 in Park Lane, Wolverhampton, as a car gearbox maker, they expanded into petrol engines in 1922 and in the 1930s built a large factory in Fallings Park, Wolverhampton. Early production was connected with the move from W. H. Dorman & Co of the Dorman works manager in August 1921, a design engineer Mr R. S. Crump. Dorman had been producing engines from 1903; the early Meadows engines and gearboxes were produced with Meadows-Dorman on the castings. This resulted in a court case between Dorman and Meadows, claiming that this was a misuse of the Dorman name and reputation. Dorman won the case One of the most popular petrol engines was the 1½-litre four-cylinder Type 4ED engine used by Frazer Nash and Lea-Francis during the 1920s and 30s, in the H. R. G. Light car from 1936 to 1939, sold with a guaranteed top speed of 90 mph. Another successful product, the 4½-litre 6-cylinder engine is best remembered as the power unit for Invicta and Lagonda cars.
Meadows produced marine engines after a visit from Hubert Scott-Paine in 1931, looking for some better engines for his prototype seaplane tender, fitted at that time with Brooks engines. After some modification to allow the engines to be angled at 17 degrees, the British Power Boat Company selected Meadows 6-cylinder petrol engines for the high-speed seaplane tenders, each having two engines rated at 100 bhp, being capable of 29 knots. In the 1930s Meadows developed a flat-12 type-MAT/1 engine of 8858cc for military applications including the Tetrarch Light Tank, they built a 16litre 300 bhp flat-12 type-DAV petrol engine used in the Covenanter tank This engine was used in the prototype A20 tank, although this weighed more than twice the Covenanter and so was considered underpowered. The and used, A22 Churchill tank was a development of the A20. To provide more power, to improve production time, this was instead powered by a Vauxhall flat-12 engine termed the "Twin-Six", as it was based on two pre-existing Bedford six-cylinder lorry engines.
This engine was more powerful, but only to a rated 350 bhp. The Guy Armoured Car, made in 1939–1940, used the Meadows 4-cylinder 4-ELA petrol engine. Meadows made the 600 bhp Rolls-Royce Meteor V-12 petrol tank engine from 1944; this came about because Rolls-Royce Merlin engines came under the Ministry of Aircraft Production, but tank engines came under the Ministry of Supply, the huge demand for the Merlin engine was causing Meteor production to falter and this was in turn affecting Cromwell tank production. Meadows was involved with the Ministry of Supply, so they were brought in from 1944 to manufacture Meteor engines to cover the shortfall; the Rover Company produced Meteor engines in this period. Meadows started developing diesel engines in the 1930s, a 5-litre 4-cylinder diesel developing 75 bhp at 2000rpm was launched at the 1935 Olympia Motor Transport Show, they introduced a 6-cylinder 100 bhp version in 1938. Both of these engines used a Lanova combustion chamber design, CAV injector pumps, they were listed both for road transport and marine use.
In 1938 they supplied diesel engines for the New Zealand Railways Standard class railcars. After World War II they resumed making diesel engines, but with a new design this time with direct injection and toroidal cavity pistons; the 6.9 litre 4-cylinder unit gave 85 bhp at 1800rpm, the 10.35 litre 6-cylinder unit developed 150 bhp at 1800rpm. These were aimed at both vehicle and stationary markets, there was a horizontal version of the 6-cylinder unit for flat underfloor mounting; the same two engines were rated at 60 and 90 bhp for continuous marine use at 1600rpm, a larger engine of similar design rated at 130 bhp and of 15.5 litres capacity was listed. One of the unusual features of these engines is the ability to swap the utilities from side to side and from end to end, which allows for making handed-engines for twin-engined marine craft. For marine use helical reduction gears of different ratios, epicyclic reversing gears were available. Many engines were supplied to their neighbour in Fallings Park, Guy Motors for use in their buses and trucks.
A small number of diesel engines was supplied for British Rail Railbuses in 1958. They powered the Fowler Challenger crawler tractors, the 6DC-630 in the Mk III, the 6DJ-970 in the Mk IV. Meadows adverts show they were used in plant like rock-crushers, ditch diggers and other equipment used in road building, they were used to power military FV2502 27.5kVA generator sets. Engine Models, the letter after the'D' varies according to application: Pre-War four cylinder. Bore 105mm, Stroke 150mm. Pre-War six cylinder. Bore 105mm, Stroke 130mm. 4DC-330 Four cylinder diesel. Bore 120mm, Stroke 120mm, 331 cu. in. - 5.43 litres capacity 6DC-630 Six cylinder diesel. Bore 130mm, Stroke 130mm, 630 cu in - 10.35 litres capacity 6HDC-500 Six cylinder horizontal diesel. 500 cu.in. - 8.14 litres capacity 6DJ-970 Six cylinder diesel. 970 cu.in. - 15.5 litres Meadows had started by making gearboxes in 1920 for lorries made by the Vulcan Motor & Engineering Co and Coventry Climax Ltd. After engines were introduced in 1922 they sold complete engine and gearbox packages with either 3 or 4 speed gearboxes, with 4 or 5 speed gearboxes.
During the early 1950s, Meadows supplied gearboxes for the Jowett Javelin car. They