A hierarchy is an arrangement of items in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another. Hierarchy is an important concept in a wide variety of fields, such as philosophy, computer science, organizational theory, systems theory, the social sciences. A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, either vertically or diagonally; the only direct links in a hierarchy, insofar as they are hierarchical, are to one's immediate superior or to one of one's subordinates, although a system, hierarchical can incorporate alternative hierarchies. Hierarchical links can extend "vertically" upwards or downwards via multiple links in the same direction, following a path. All parts of the hierarchy which are not linked vertically to one another can be "horizontally" linked through a path by traveling up the hierarchy to find a common direct or indirect superior, down again; this is akin to colleagues. Organizational forms exist that are both complementary to hierarchy.
Heterarchy is one such form. Hierarchies have their own special vocabulary; these terms are easiest to understand. In an organizational context, the following terms are used related to hierarchies: Object: one entity System: the entire set of objects that are being arranged hierarchically Dimension: another word for "system" from on-line analytical processing Member: an at any in a Terms about Positioning Rank: the relative value, complexity, importance, level etc. of an object Level or Tier: a set of objects with the same rank OR importance Ordering: the arrangement of the Hierarchy: the arrangement of a particular set of members into. Multiple hierarchies are possible per, in which selected levels of the dimension are omitted to flatten the structure Terms about Placement Hierarch, the apex of the hierarchy, consisting of one single orphan in the top level of a dimension; the root of an inverted-tree structure Member, a in any level of a hierarchy in a dimension to which members are attached Orphan, a member in any level of a dimension without a parent member.
The apex of a disconnected branch. Orphans can be grafted back into the hierarchy by creating a relationship with a parent in the superior level Leaf, a member in any level of a dimension without subordinates in the hierarchy Neighbour: a member adjacent to another member in the same. Always a peer. Superior: a higher level or an object ranked at a higher level Subordinate: a lower level or an object ranked at a lower level Collection: all of the objects at one level Peer: an object with the same rank Interaction: the relationship between an object and its direct superior or subordinate a direct interaction occurs when one object is on a level one higher or one lower than the other Distance: the minimum number of connections between two objects, i.e. one less than the number of objects that need to be "crossed" to trace a path from one object to another Span: a qualitative description of the width of a level when diagrammed, i.e. the number of subordinates an object has Terms about Nature Attribute: a heritable characteristic of in a level Attribute-value: the specific value of a heritable characteristic In a mathematical context, the general terminology used is different.
Most hierarchies use a more specific vocabulary pertaining to their subject, but the idea behind them is the same. For example, with data structures, objects are known as nodes, superiors are called parents and subordinates are called children. In a business setting, a superior is a supervisor/boss and a peer is a colleague. Degree of branching refers to the number of direct subordinates or children an object has a node has. Hierarchies can be categorized based on the "maximum degree", the highest degree present in the system as a whole. Categorization in this way yields two broad classes: branching. In a linear hierarchy, the maximum degree is 1. In other words, all of the objects can be visualized in a line-up, each object has one direct subordinate and one direct superior. Note that this is referring to the objects and not the levels. An example of a linear hierarchy is the hierarchy of life. In a branching hierarchy, one or more objects has a degree of 2 or more. For many people, the word "hierarchy" automatically evokes an image of a branching hierarchy.
Branching hierarchies are present within numerous systems, including organizations and classification schemes. The broad category of branching hierarchies can be furt
Information visualization or information visualisation is the study of visual representations of abstract data to reinforce human cognition. The abstract data include both numerical and non-numerical data, such as text and geographic information. However, information visualization differs from scientific visualization: "it’s infovis when the spatial representation is chosen, it’s scivis when the spatial representation is given"; the field of information visualization has emerged "from research in human-computer interaction, computer science, visual design and business methods. It is applied as a critical component in scientific research, digital libraries, data mining, financial data analysis, market studies, manufacturing production control, drug discovery". Information visualization presumes that "visual representations and interaction techniques take advantage of the human eye’s broad bandwidth pathway into the mind to allow users to see and understand large amounts of information at once.
Information visualization focused on the creation of approaches for conveying abstract information in intuitive ways."Data analysis is an indispensable part of all applied research and problem solving in industry. The most fundamental data analysis approaches are visualization, data mining, machine learning methods. Among these approaches, information visualization, or visual data analysis, is the most reliant on the cognitive skills of human analysts, allows the discovery of unstructured actionable insights that are limited only by human imagination and creativity; the analyst does not have to learn any sophisticated methods to be able to interpret the visualizations of the data. Information visualization is a hypothesis generation scheme, which can be, is followed by more analytical or formal analysis, such as statistical hypothesis testing; the modern study of visualization started with computer graphics, which "has from its beginning been used to study scientific problems. However, in its early days the lack of graphics power limited its usefulness.
The recent emphasis on visualization started in 1987 with the special issue of Computer Graphics on Visualization in Scientific Computing. Since there have been several conferences and workshops, co-sponsored by the IEEE Computer Society and ACM SIGGRAPH", they have been devoted to the general topics of data visualisation, information visualization and scientific visualisation, more specific areas such as volume visualization. In 1786, William Playfair published the first presentation graphics. Cartogram Cladogram Concept Mapping Dendrogram Information visualization reference model Graph drawing Heatmap HyperbolicTree Multidimensional scaling Parallel coordinates Problem solving environment Treemapping Information visualization insights are being applied in areas such as: Scientific research Digital libraries Data mining Information graphics Financial data analysis Health care Market studies Manufacturing production control Crime mapping eGovernance and Policy Modeling Notable academic and industry laboratories in the field are: Adobe Research IBM Research Google Research Microsoft Research Panopticon Software Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute Tableau Software University of Maryland Human-Computer Interaction Lab VviConferences in this field, ranked by significance in data visualization research, are: IEEE Visualization: An annual international conference on scientific visualization, information visualization, visual analytics.
Conference is held in October. ACM SIGGRAPH: An annual international conference on computer graphics, convened by the ACM SIGGRAPH organization. Conference dates vary. EuroVis: An annual Europe-wide conference on data visualization, organized by the Eurographics Working Group on Data Visualization and supported by the IEEE Visualization and Graphics Technical Committee. Conference is held in June. Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: An annual international conference on human-computer interaction, hosted by ACM SIGCHI. Conference is held in April or May. Eurographics: An annual Europe-wide computer graphics conference, held by the European Association for Computer Graphics. Conference is held in April or May. PacificVis: An annual visualization symposium held in the Asia-Pacific region, sponsored by the IEEE Visualization and Graphics Technical Committee. Conference is held in March or April. For further examples, see: Category:Computer graphics organizations Computational visualistics Data art Data Presentation Architecture Data visualization Geovisualization Infographics Patent visualisation Software visualization Visual analytics List of information graphics software List of countries by economic complexity, example of Treemapping Ben Bederson and Ben Shneiderman.
The Craft of Information Visualization: Readings and Reflections. Morgan Kaufmann. Stuart K. Card, Jock D. Mackinlay and Ben Shneiderman. Readings in Information Visualization: Using Vision to Think, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers. Jeffrey Heer, Stuart K. Card, James Landay. "Prefuse: a toolkit for interactive information visualization". In: ACM Human Factors in Computing Systems CHI 2005. Andreas Kerren, John T. Stasko, Jean-Daniel Fekete, Chris North. Information Visualization – Human-Centered Issues and Perspectives. Volume 4950 of LNCS State-of-the-Art Survey, Springer. Riccardo Mazza. Introduction to Information Visualization, Springe
A software house is a company whose primary products are various forms of software, software technology and software product development. Software houses are companies in the software industry. There are a number of different types of software houses: Large and well-known companies producing Commercial off-the-shelf, such as Microsoft, SAP AG, Oracle Corporation, HP, Adobe Systems and Red Hat Smaller companies that produce custom software for other companies and entrepreneurs, such as RIKSOF Companies producing specialized Commercial off-the-shelf software, such as Panorama, Siebel Systems, GazitIT, Enigma Technologies Companies producing Software as a Service SaaS, such as Google, LinkedIn Companies producing software components, such as Developer Express, ComponentOne and Sohn Software Application Service Provider such as Salesforce Companies producing bespoke software for vertical industries or particular geographical regionsAll of these may be categorized in one or many of the following: contractual - when the software house is contracted to deliver some particular software from outside product development - when it produces ready to use, packaged software.
For example, having sub-teams spread in different time zones may allow a 24-hour company working day, if the teams and procedures are well established. A good example is the test team in time zone 8 hours ahead or behind the development team, who fix software bugs found by the testers. A professional software house consists of at least three dedicated sub-teams: Business analysts who define the business needs of the market Software developers who create the technical specification and write the software Software testers who are responsible for the whole process of quality managementIn bigger software houses, greater specialization is employed, quite there are also: Technical writers who write all the documentation such as user guides Release specialists who are responsible for building the whole product and software versioning User experience designers, who are creating the design architecture based on business requirements, user research and expertise in usability Graphic designers who are responsible for the design of the graphical user interface.
Maintenance engineers who are behind two, three or more lines of support Consultants responsible for making the solution operational if some specialist knowledge is necessary. Examples of this include: building multidimensional cubes in business intelligence software, integrating with existing solutions, implementing business scenarios in Business Process Management software. In September 2017, Allegion collaborated with Software House to extend electronic access control options; the manager of a software house is called the Head Of Development, reports to the stakeholders. He or she leads the sub-teams directly or via the managers/leaders depending on the size of the organization. Teams of up to 10 person are the most operational. In bigger organizations, there are in general two models of the hierarchy: All the teams are independent and they work separately on the different projects; the structure is quite simple and all the employees reports to one person, what make the situation quite clear however it is not a good solution in terms of knowledge exchange and optimal usage of human resources.
In this model there are dedicated managers/leaders for each main specialization, "renting" their people for particular projects led by product/project managers, who formally or informally buy the people and pay for their time. This leads to each private employee having two bosses – the product/project manager and the specialized "resource" manager. On one hand it optimizes the usage of human resources, on the other hand it may give rise to conflicts about which one manager has priority in the structure. There are a number of variants of these structures, a number of organizations have this structure spread and split within various departments and units. Software house may use a number of various methodologies to produce the code; these can include: the waterfall model, including project management methodologies like PRINCE2 or PMBoK agile software development, such as Extreme Programming and SCRUMThere are some methodologies which combine both, such as the spiral model, Rational Unified Process or MSF.
Regardless of the methodology used, the product life cycle always consists of at least three stages: Design – including both the business and technical specification Coding – the development itself Testing – the quality managementEach stage ideally takes 30% of the total time, with the remaining 10% in reserve. The UML sequence diagram of interaction between these groups may look like: At each stage a different group plays a key role, however each type of role must be involved throughout the whole development process: Analysts, after completing the business specification, manage the changing business situation to minimize the possibility of change over time, they support both programmers and testers during the whole development process to ensure that the final product fulfills the business needs specified at the start. The process ideally puts business analysts as the key players during final delivery of the solution to the customer, as they are best placed to provide the best business layer.
Programmers do the technical specification during the design phase, why they are called programmers/designers, during testing time they fix bugs. Testers complete the test scenarios during the design phase, evaluate them d
Computational linguistics is an interdisciplinary field concerned with the statistical or rule-based modeling of natural language from a computational perspective, as well as the study of appropriate computational approaches to linguistic questions. Traditionally, computational linguistics was performed by computer scientists who had specialized in the application of computers to the processing of a natural language. Today, computational linguists work as members of interdisciplinary teams, which can include regular linguists, experts in the target language, computer scientists. In general, computational linguistics draws upon the involvement of linguists, computer scientists, experts in artificial intelligence, logicians, cognitive scientists, cognitive psychologists, psycholinguists and neuroscientists, among others. Computational linguistics has applied components. Theoretical computational linguistics focuses on issues in theoretical linguistics and cognitive science, applied computational linguistics focuses on the practical outcome of modeling human language use.
The Association for Computational Linguistics defines computational linguistics as:...the scientific study of language from a computational perspective. Computational linguists are interested in providing computational models of various kinds of linguistic phenomena. Computational linguistics is grouped within the field of artificial intelligence, but was present before the development of artificial intelligence. Computational linguistics originated with efforts in the United States in the 1950s to use computers to automatically translate texts from foreign languages Russian scientific journals, into English. Since computers can make arithmetic calculations much faster and more than humans, it was thought to be only a short matter of time before they could begin to process language. Computational and quantitative methods are used in attempted reconstruction of earlier forms of modern languages and subgrouping modern languages into language families. Earlier methods such as lexicostatistics and glottochronology have been proven to be premature and inaccurate.
However, recent interdisciplinary studies which borrow concepts from biological studies gene mapping, have proved to produce more sophisticated analytical tools and more trustworthy results. When machine translation failed to yield accurate translations right away, automated processing of human languages was recognized as far more complex than had been assumed. Computational linguistics was born as the name of the new field of study devoted to developing algorithms and software for intelligently processing language data; the term "computational linguistics" itself was first coined by David Hays, founding member of both the Association for Computational Linguistics and the International Committee on Computational Linguistics. When artificial intelligence came into existence in the 1960s, the field of computational linguistics became that sub-division of artificial intelligence dealing with human-level comprehension and production of natural languages. In order to translate one language into another, it was observed that one had to understand the grammar of both languages, including both morphology and syntax.
In order to understand syntax, one had to understand the semantics and the lexicon, something of the pragmatics of language use. Thus, what started as an effort to translate between languages evolved into an entire discipline devoted to understanding how to represent and process natural languages using computers. Nowadays research within the scope of computational linguistics is done at computational linguistics departments, computational linguistics laboratories, computer science departments, linguistics departments; some research in the field of computational linguistics aims to create working speech or text processing systems while others aim to create a system allowing human-machine interaction. Programs meant for human-machine communication are called conversational agents. Just as computational linguistics can be performed by experts in a variety of fields and through a wide assortment of departments, so too can the research fields broach a diverse range of topics; the following sections discuss some of the literature available across the entire field broken into four main area of discourse: developmental linguistics, structural linguistics, linguistic production, linguistic comprehension.
Language is a cognitive skill. This developmental process has been examined using a number of techniques, a computational approach is one of them. Human language development does provide some constraints which make it harder to apply a computational method to understanding it. For instance, during language acquisition, human children are only exposed to positive evidence; this means that during the linguistic development of an individual, only evidence for what is a correct form is provided, not evidence for what is not correct. This is insufficient information for a simple hypothesis testing procedure for information as complex as language, so provides certain boundaries for a computational approach to modeling language development and acquisition in an individual. Attempts have been made to model the developmental process of language acquisition in children from a computational angle, leading to both statistical grammars and connectionist models. Work in this realm has been proposed as a method to explain the evolution of language through history.
Using models, it has been shown that languages
Sunnyvale is a city located in Santa Clara County, California. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 140,095. Sunnyvale is the seventh most populous city in the San Francisco Bay Area and one of the major cities comprising Silicon Valley, it is bordered by portions of San Jose to the north, Moffett Federal Airfield to the northwest, Mountain View to the northwest, Los Altos to the southwest, Cupertino to the south, Santa Clara to the east. It lies along the historic El Camino Real and Highway 101; as part of California's high-tech area known as Silicon Valley, Sunnyvale is the headquarters location of many technology companies and is a major operating center for many more. It is home to several aerospace/defense companies. Sunnyvale was the home to Onizuka Air Force Station referred to as "the Blue Cube" due to the color and shape of its windowless main building; the facility known as Sunnyvale Air Force Station, was named for the deceased Space Shuttle Challenger astronaut Ellison Onizuka.
It served as an artificial satellite control facility of the U. S. has since been decommissioned and demolished. Sunnyvale is one of the few U. S. cities to have a single unified Department of Public Safety, where all personnel are trained as firefighters, police officers, EMTs, so they can respond to an emergency in any of the three roles. Library services for the city are provided by the Sunnyvale Public Library, located at the Sunnyvale Civic Center; when the Spanish first arrived in the 1770s at the Santa Clara Valley, it was populated by the Ohlone Native Americans. However early on with the arrival of the Spaniards, smallpox and other new diseases reduced the Ohlone population. In 1777, Mission Santa Clara was founded by Franciscan missionary Padre Junipero Serra and was located in San Jose. In 1842, Rancho Pastoria de las Borregas was granted to his wife Inez Castro. Portions of the land given in this grant developed into the cities of Mountain View and Sunnyvale. Two years in 1844, another land grant was provided to Lupe Yñigo, one of the few Native Americans to hold land grants.
His land grant was first called Rancho Posolmi, named in honor of a village of the Ohlone that once stood in the area. Rancho Posolmi was known as Rancho Ynigo. Martin Murphy Jr. came to California with his father as part of the Stephens-Townsend-Murphy Party in 1844. In 1850, Martin Murphy Jr. bought a piece of Rancho Pastoria de las Borregas for $12,500. Murphy established a wheat ranch named Bay View. Murphy had the first wood frame house in Santa Clara County; the house was demolished in 1961 but was reconstructed in 2008 as the Sunnyvale Heritage Park Museum. When he died in 1884, his land was divided among his heirs. In 1860, The San Francisco and San Jose Rail Road was allowed to lay tracks on Bay View and established Murphy Station. Lawrence Station was established on the southern edge of Bay View. In the 1870s, small fruit orchards replaced many large wheat farms, because wheat farming turned uneconomical due to county and property tax laws and soil degradation. In 1871, Dr. James M. Dawson and his wife Eloise established the first fruit cannery in the county.
Fruit agriculture for canning soon became a major industry in the county. The invention of the refrigerated rail car further increased the viability of an economy based upon fruit; the fruit orchards became so prevalent that in 1886, the San Jose Board of Trade called Santa Clara County the "Garden of the World". In the 1880s, Chinese workers made up one third of the farm labor in Santa Clara County; this percentage reduced over time. In the following decade, the 1890s, many immigrants from Italy, the Azores and Japan arrived to work in the orchards. In 1897, Walter Everett Crossman began selling real estate, he advertised the area as "Beautiful Murphy" and in the 1900s, as "the City of Destiny". In 1897, Encina School opened as the first school in Murphy. Children in the town had to travel to Mountain View for school. In 1901, the residents of Murphy were informed they could not use the names Encinal or Murphy for their post office. Sunnyvale was given its current name on March 24, 1901, it was named Sunnyvale as it is located in a sunny region adjacent to areas with more fog.
Sunnyvale in 1904, dried fruit production began. Two years Libby, McNeill & Libby, a Chicago meat-packing company, decided to open its first fruit-packing factory in Sunnyvale. Today, a water tower painted to resemble the first Libby's fruit cocktail can label identifies the former site of the factory. In 1906, the Joshua Hendy Iron Works relocated from San Francisco to Sunnyvale after the company's building was destroyed by fire after the 1906 earthquake; the ironworks was the first non-agricultural industry in the town. The company switched from producing mining equipment to other products such as marine steam engines. In 1912, the residents of Sunnyvale voted to incorporate, Sunnyvale became an official city. Fremont High School first opened in 1923. In 1924, Edwina Benner was elected to her first term as mayor of Sunnyvale, she was the second female mayor in the history of the state of California. In 1930, Congress decided to place the West Coast dirigible base in Sunnyvale after "buying" the 1,000-acre parcel of farmland bordering the San Francisco Bay from the city for $1.
This naval airfield was renamed Moffett Naval Air Station and Moffett Federal Airfield and is called Moffet
SAP SE is a German multinational software corporation that makes enterprise software to manage business operations and customer relations. SAP is headquartered in Baden-Württemberg, Germany with regional offices in 180 countries; the company has over 425,000 customers in over 180 countries and is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. When Xerox exited the computer hardware manufacturing industry in 1971, it asked IBM to migrate its business systems to IBM technology; as part of IBM's compensation for the migration, IBM was given the rights to the Scientific Data Systems /SAPE software for a contract credit of $80,000. Five IBM engineers from the AI department were working in an enterprise-wide system based on this software, only to be told that it would no longer be necessary. Rather than abandoning the project, they decided to start another company. In June 1972, they founded the SAP Systemanalyse und Programmentwicklung company, as a private partnership under the German Civil Code.
Their first client was the German branch of Imperial Chemical Industries in Östringen, where they developed mainframe programs for payroll and accounting. Instead of storing the data on punch cards mechanically, as IBM did, they stored it locally in the Electronic System while using common Logical database for all activities of Organization. Therefore, they called their software a real-time system, since there was no need to process the punch cards overnight; this first version was a standalone software that could be offered to other interested parties. In 1973, the first commercial product was launched. SAP completes its first financial accounting system - RF; this system serves as the cornerstone in the ongoing development of other software modules of the system that will bear the name SAP R/1. This offered a common system for multiple tasks; this permitted the use of a centralized data storage. From a technical point of view, therefore, a database was necessary. In 1976, SAP GmbH Systeme, Anwendungen und Produkte in der Datenverarbeitung is founded as a sales and support subsidiary.
Five years the private partnership is dissolved and its rights are passed on to SAP GmbH. The headquarters moved the following year to Germany. Three years in 1979, SAP launched SAP R/2, expanding the capabilities of the system to other areas, such as material management and production planning. In 1981, SAP brought a re-designed product to market. However, SAP R/2 did not improve until the period between 1985 and 1990. SAP released the new SAP R/3 in 1992. SAP developed and released several versions of R/3 through 1995. By the mid-1990s, SAP followed the trend from mainframe computing to client/server architectures; the development of SAP's internet strategy with mySAP.com redesigned the concept of business processes. As a result, R/3 was replaced with the introduction of SAP ERP Central Component 5.0 in 2004. Architectural changes were made to support an enterprise service architecture to transition customers to a services-oriented architecture; the latest version, SAP ERP 6.0, was released in 2006.
SAP ERP 6.0 has since been updated through SAP enhancement packs, the most recent: SAP enhancement package 8 for SAP ERP 6.0 in 2016. In August 1988, SAP GmbH became SAP AG, public trading started on 4 November 1988. Shares were listed on the Stuttgart stock exchanges. In 1995, SAP was included in the German stock index DAX and, on 22 September 2003, SAP was included in the STOXX Europe 50; the company's official name became SAP AG after the 2005 annual general meeting. In 2014, SAP changed from an AG to a European Company. Since 2012, SAP has acquired several companies that sell cloud-based products, with several multibillion-dollar acquisitions seen by analysts as an attempt to challenge competitor Oracle. In 2014 SAP bought Concur Technologies, a provider of cloud-based travel and expense management software, for $8.3 billion, SAP's most expensive purchase to that date. Analysts' reactions to the purchase were mixed, with Thomas Becker of Commerzbank questioning whether Concur was the right choice for SAP, while Credit Suisse called the acquisition an "aggressive" move.
In 2014, IBM and SAP began a partnership to sell cloud-based services. In 2015, SAP partnered with HPE to provide secure hybrid cloud-based services running the SAP platform. Both HPE and IBM provide infrastructure services to SAP, SAP runs its SAP HANA cloud solution on top. SAP has announced additional partnerships with Microsoft in order to give customers tools for data visualization, as well as improved mobile applications. SAP exceeded its revenue projections due to the expansion in its cloud business and the success of SAP HANA; the growth can be attributed to the acquisitions of Concur and Fieldglass. The company announced plans in 2016 to invest into technology relating to Internet of Things as part of a strategy to capitalize on the growth in that market. For that purpose, €2 billion is planned for investment in relevant sectors by the end of 2020. SAP will launch a new product line called SAP IoT, which "will combine large amounts of data from things connected to the Internet with machine learning and SAP's real-time databas