Hetman is a political title from Central and Eastern Europe assigned to military commanders. It was the title of the second-highest military commander in the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania from the 16th to 18th centuries. A hetman was the highest military officer in the hetmanates of Ukraine, the Zaporizhian Host, the Ukrainian State; the title was used by Ukrainian Cossacks from the 16th century. Used by the Czechs in Bohemia since the 15th century, in the modern Czech Republic the title is used for regional governors. Throughout much of the history of Romania and the Moldavia, hetmans were the second-highest army rank; the best-accepted hypothesis, as found in dictionaries, is that the term hetman means'head-man', derives from the Early Modern High German Heubtmann. The German title was common during medieval times, functionally corresponding to Modern English'captain', it has been suggested that the Czech language may have served as an intermediary, Polish has been suggested.
Alternatively, it could be a variant of the comparable Turkic title ataman. The Polish title Grand Crown Hetman dates from 1505; the title of Hetman was given to the leader of the Polish Army and until 1581 the hetman position existed only during specific campaigns and wars. After that, it became a permanent title, as were all the titles in the Kingdom of Poland and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. At any given time the Commonwealth had four hetmans – a Great Hetman and Field Hetman for each of both Poland and Lithuania. From 1585, the title could not be taken away without a proven charge of treachery, thus most hetmans served for life, as illustrated by the case of Jan Karol Chodkiewicz commanding the army from his deathbed. Hetmans were not paid for their job by the royal treasury. Hetmans were the main commanders of the military forces, second only to the monarch in the army's chain of command; the fact that they could not be removed by the monarch made them independent, thus able to pursue independent policies.
This system worked well when a hetman had great ability and the monarch was weak, but sometimes produced disastrous results in the opposite case. The security of the position notably contrasted with that of military leaders in states bordering the commonwealth, where sovereigns could dismiss their army commanders at any time. In 1648 the Zaporizhian Host elected a hetman of their own, Bohdan Khmelnytsky, igniting the Ukrainian struggle for independence; the military reform of 1776 limited the powers of the hetmans. The Hetman office was abolished after the third partition of Poland in 1795. At the end of the sixteenth century, the commanders of the Zaporizhian Cossacks were titled Koshovyi Otaman or Hetman. In 1572, a hetman was a commander of the Registered Cossack Army of the Rzeczpospolita, too. From 1648, the start of Bohdan Khmelnytsky's uprising, a hetman was the head of the whole Ukrainian State — Hetmanshchyna. Although they were elected, Ukrainian hetmans had broad powers and acted as heads of the Cossack state, their supreme military commanders, top legislators.
After the split of Ukraine along the Dnieper River by the 1667 Polish–Russian Treaty of Andrusovo, Ukrainian Cossacks became known as Left-bank Cossacks and Right-bank Cossacks. In the Russian Empire, the office of Cossack Hetman was abolished by Catherine II of Russia in 1764; the last Hetman of the Zaporozhian Army was Kyrylo Rozumovsky, who reigned from 1751 until 1764. The title was revived in Ukraine during the revolution of 1917 to 1920. In early 1918, a conservative German-supported coup overthrew the radical socialist Ukrainian Central Rada and its Ukrainian People's Republic, establishing a hetmanate monarchy headed by Pavlo Skoropadskyi, who claimed the title Hetman of Ukraine; this regime lasted until late 1918, when it was overthrown by a new Directorate of Ukraine, of a re-established Ukrainian People's Republic. Used by the Czechs in Bohemia from the Hussite Wars onward, hejtman is today the term for the elected governor of a Czech region. For much of the history of Romania and the Principality of Moldavia, hetmans were second in rank in the army, after the ruling prince, who held the position of Voivode.
Hetman has been used figuratively to mean'commander' or simply'leader'. Examples: "They say there was a whole band of them, that this bearded man was their elder, the hetman." — Maxim Gorky, Mother "Once I was a hetman on the Zaporoska. — Robert E. Howard, A Witch Shall Be Born Appointed Hetman Ataman Bulawa Hetman's sign Media related to Hetmans at Wikimedia Commons "Hetman". Encyclopædia Britannica. 13. 1911
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth – formally, the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and, after 1791, the Commonwealth of Poland – was a dual state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, both King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania. It was one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th– to 17th-century Europe. At its largest territorial extent, in the early 17th century, the Commonwealth covered 400,000 square miles and sustained a multi-ethnic population of 11 million; the Commonwealth was established by the Union of Lublin in July 1569, but the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania had been in a de facto personal union since 1386 with the marriage of the Polish queen Hedwig and Lithuania's Grand Duke Jogaila, crowned King jure uxoris Władysław II Jagiełło of Poland. The First Partition of Poland in 1772 and the Second Partition of Poland in 1793 reduced the state's size and the Commonwealth collapsed as an independent state following the Third Partition of Poland in 1795.
The Union possessed many features unique among contemporary states. Its political system was characterized by strict checks upon monarchical power; these checks were enacted by a legislature controlled by the nobility. This idiosyncratic system was a precursor to modern concepts of democracy, constitutional monarchy, federation. Although the two component states of the Commonwealth were formally equal, Poland was the dominant partner in the union; the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was marked by high levels of ethnic diversity and by relative religious tolerance, guaranteed by the Warsaw Confederation Act 1573. The Constitution of 1791 acknowledged Catholicism as the "dominant religion", unlike the Warsaw Confederation, but freedom of religion was still granted with it. After several decades of prosperity, it entered a period of protracted political and economic decline, its growing weakness led to its partitioning among its neighbors during the late 18th century. Shortly before its demise, the Commonwealth adopted a massive reform effort and enacted the May 3 Constitution—the first codified constitution in modern European history and the second in modern world history.
The official name of the state was The Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Latin term was used in international treaties and diplomacy. In the 17th century and it was known as the Most Serene Commonwealth of Poland, the Commonwealth of the Polish Kingdom, or the Commonwealth of Poland, its inhabitants referred to it in everyday speech as the "Rzeczpospolita". Western Europeans simply called it Poland and in most past and modern sources it is referred to as the Kingdom of Poland, or just Poland; the terms: the Commonwealth of Poland and the Commonwealth of Two Nations were used in the Reciprocal Guarantee of Two Nations. The English term'Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth' and German'Polen-Litauen' are seen as renderings of the Commonwealth of Two Nations variant. Other names include the Republic of Nobles and the First Commonwealth, the latter common in Polish historiography. Poland and Lithuania underwent an alternating series of wars and alliances during the 14th century and early 15th century.
Several agreements between the two were struck before the permanent 1569 Union of Lublin. This agreement was one of the signal achievements of Sigismund II Augustus, last monarch of the Jagiellon dynasty. Sigismund believed, his death in 1572 was followed by a three-year interregnum during which adjustments were made to the constitutional system. The Commonwealth reached its Golden Age in the early 17th century, its powerful parliament was dominated by nobles who were reluctant to get involved in the Thirty Years' War. The Commonwealth was able to hold its own against Sweden, the Tsardom of Russia, vassals of the Ottoman Empire, launched successful expansionist offensives against its neighbors. In several invasions during the Time of Troubles, Commonwealth troops entered Russia and managed to take Moscow and hold it from 27 September 1610 to 4 November 1612, when they were driven out after a siege. Commonwealth power began waning after a series of blows during the following decades. A major rebellion of Ukrainian Cossacks in the southeastern portion of the Commonwealth began in 1648.
It resulted in a Ukrainian request, under the terms of the Treaty of Pereyaslav, for protection by the Russian Tsar. Russian annexation of part of Ukraine supplanted Polish influence; the other blow to the Commonwealth was a Swedish invasion in 1655, known as the Deluge, supported by troops of Transylvanian Duke George II Rákóczi a
Registered Cossacks comprised special Cossack units of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth army in the 16th and 17th centuries. Registered Cossacks became a military formation of the Commonwealth army beginning in 1572 soon after the Union of Lublin, when most of the territory of modern Ukraine passed to the Crown of Poland. Registered Cossack formations were based on the Zaporozhian Cossacks who lived on the lower reaches of the Dnieper River amidst the Pontic steppes as well as on self-defense formations within settlements in the region of modern Central and Southern Ukraine; the first official plan for the creation of Cossack formations as a border service was brought to the State Council of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1524 by Semen Polozovic and Kristof Kmitic. However, due to the lack of funds, the idea was not realized; the starosta of Cherkasy, Ostap Dashkevych, revived the idea at the 1533 council in Piotrków Trybunalski. Dashkevych tried to show that in order to protect the borders beyond the Dnieper it would be necessary to maintain an army of 2,000 soldiers and several hundred cavalrymen.
He pointed out the importance of establishing forts on the river's islands to keep Tatar raids in check. On July 21, 1541 the King of Poland, Sigismund I the Old, issued an edict to the starosta of Cherkasy, Andrei Glebovich Pronsky, in which he warned Pronsky to control the Cossack raids against Tatar uluses. With the start of the Livonian War in the 16th century, the voivode of Kiev, Konstanty Wasyl Ostrogski, the starosta of Cherkasy, Alexander Wisnowecki, recruited Cossacks to their armies, while in 1568 King Sigismund II Augustus sent a proposition to the Zaporizhian Sich to join his foreign campaign and sign up for royal service. Sigismund II Augustus decreed the formation of registered Cossacks on June 5, 1572 when the King confirmed the orders of Great Crown Hetman Jerzy Jazłowiecki, the voivode of Podole and Ruthenia, for state service; the first Hetman of the Registered Cossacks and court marshal was Jan Badowski. The registered Cossacks were the only military Cossack formation recognized by the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The most well-known of the first recorded Cossack reforms came from King of Poland Stefan Batory. At first Batory tried to control Cossack forces that were waging wars in Moldavia and Wallachia as well as other parts of the Ottoman Empire. On 4 April 1578 he issued four universals to all local government officials, he asked them to support Jan Tarlo in an investigation of the coup-d'etat by Zaporozhian leader Ivan Pidkova. The coup overthrew the Ottoman-installed Hospodar of Moldavia, Peter the Lame, in 1577 under a pretense that Ivan was the brother of the previous voivode of Moldavia, John III the Terrible. Batory ordered the voivode of Kiev, Konstanty Wasyl Ostrogski, to send a punitive expedition against Pidkova and asked the mayors of Khmilnyk, Bratslav, Bila Tserkva and others to support him. At the same time Batory sent his ambassador Marcin Broniowski to the Khan of Crimea proposing cooperative actions against the Zaporizhian Sich. On July 27, 1578 Batory sent ambassador Jancsi Bereg to the Zaporozhian host proposing the Cossacks redirect their raids from Moldavia to Muscovy.
To further discuss the proposition, a delegation headed by Andriy Lykhansky arrived in Lviv on September 15, 1578. The next day it was agreed. Starosta of Cherkasy and Kaniv, Prince Michał Wiśniowiecki, was appointed hetman while his deputy was Jan Oryszowski; the Cossacks headquarters was established at Trakhtemyriv with its monastery, used as the Cossacks' hospital. The Cossacks were given a banner that denoted their relationship to the state army and were promised by Bereg to be paid in Cherkasky on Saint Nicolas Day; the Cossacks evidently were paid only after the Siege of Pskov in 1581. Though the official register consisted of only 500 names, in reality the contingent of registered Cossacks numbered around 4,000. Batory's military reform, was not effective; the Polish government promised to pay the Cossacks' salary, but did not do so. The Cossacks and proudly pledged their allegiance to serve the King of Poland and hoped for the same financial compensation at least as the regular army. Due to the hold ups in pay some Cossacks returned to raiding the Tatars and Moldavians.
In 1590 the Sejm issued a new declaration recreating the Cossack units. A king's edict was issued on July 25, 1590 through which 1,000 cossacks were registered for policing duty in order to prevent unauthorized raids into neighboring countries; the registered cossacks were paid from 5 to 12 zloty each quarter and the Zaporizhian Sich was selected to be their headquarters. As the Polish interests were aimed in securing the Swedish crown, the Cossack movement was allowed to grow out of control, leading to a series of local rebellions by polkovnyk Krzysztof Kosiński and Severyn Nalyvaiko, with assistance from kosh otaman of the Zaporozhian Cossacks Hryhoriy Loboda. Registered Cossacks formed an elite among the Cossacks, serving in the military under officers and generals, under the Grand Crown Hetman. A substantial minority of Cossacks formed skilled light cavalry units, excellent skirmishers trained in mounted archery, making lightning raids, harassing heavier, slower formations and disengaging.
Those units were used as support for heavy elite Commonwealth cavalry, the husaria, were much cheaper to form than a hussar unit. The main Cossack u
Hetman of Zaporizhian Host
Hetman of Zaporizhian Host is a former historic government office and political institution of Cossack Hetmanate in Ukraine, equivalent to a head of state. The office was liquidated on the edict of Russian Governing Senate of 17 November 1764; as a head of state, the position was established by Bohdan Khmelnytsky during the Cossack Hetmanate in the mid 17th century. During that period the office was electoral. All elections, except for the first one, were adapted by the Senior Council in Chyhyryn which, until 1669, served as the capital of Hetmanate. After the council in Pereyaslav of 1654, several senior cossacks sided with the Tsardom of Russia and, in 1663, they staged the "Black Council" in Nizhyn which elected Ivan Briukhovetsky as an alternative hetman. Since the defeat of Petro Doroshenko in 1669, the Hetman title was adapted by pro-Russian elected hetmans who resided in Baturyn. In the course of the Great Northern War one of them, Ivan Mazepa, decided to revolt against Russian rule in 1708, which drew terrible consequences for the Cossack Hetmanate as well as the Zaporizhian Host.
The administration was moved to Hlukhiv where the Mazepa's doll was publicly executed and anathema was laid against him by the Russian Orthodox Church. In the late 18th century, it was disbanded by the Russian government during the expansion of the Russian territory towards the Black Sea coast. In 1764, the Russian Empress Catherine the Great issued a secret instruction to Prince Vyazemsky, Procurator General of the Governing Senate; the list includes only Hetmans. For a full list of all Hetmans of Ukrainian Cossacks, see Hetmans of Ukrainian Cossacks. NotesSome historians, including Mykola Arkas, question the legitimacy of the Teteria's elections, accusing the in corruption; some sources claim that the election of Teteria took place in January 1663. The election of Teteria led to the Povoloch Regiment Uprising in 1663, followed by greater unrest in the modern region of Kirovohrad Oblast, as well as Polesie. Moreover, the political crisis that followed the Pushkar–Barabash Uprising divided the Cossack Hetmanate on both banks of the Dnieper River.
Coincidentally, on 10 January 1663 the Tsardom of Muscovy created the new Little Russian Office within its Ambassadorial Office. Vouched for by Charles Marie François Olier, marquis de Nointel, Yuriy Khmelnytsky was freed from Ottoman captivity and, along with Pasha Ibragim, was sent to Ukraine to fight the Moscow forces of Samoilovych and Romadanovsky. In 1681, Mehmed IV appointed George Ducas the Hetman of Ukraine. Following the anathema on Mazepa and the election of Ivan Skoropadsky, the Cossack Hetmanate was included in the Russian Government of Kiev in December 1708. Upon the death of Skoropadsky, the Hetman elections were disrupted and were awarded as a gift and a type of princely title, first to Moldavian noblemen and to the Russian Empress' favorites. On 5 April 1710, the council of cossacks, veterans of the battle at Poltava, elected Pylyp Orlyk as the Hetman of Ukraine in exile. Orlyk waged a guerrilla war at the southern borders of the Russian Empire with support from the Ottoman and Swedish empires.
List of leaders of Ukraine Hetmans of Zaporizhian Cossacks Hetman of Ukraine Dyadychenko, V. Sketches of a social and political system of the Left-bank Ukraine at the end of 17th and the start of 18th centuries. Kiev 1959 Smoliy, V. Hetmanate Ukraine. Kiev 1999 Shcherbak, V. Institution of Hetmans. Encyclopedia of History of Ukraine. "Naukova dumka". Kiev 2004 Hetman. Encyclopedia of Ukraine
Petro Konashevych-Sahaidachny was a Ukrainian political and civic leader, Hetman of Ukrainian Zaporozhian Cossacks from 1616–1622, a brilliant military leader of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth both on land and sea. While being a Cossack Hetman, he transformed the Cossack Host from the erratic military formation into regular army. Under his leadership the cossacks, the Orthodox clergy and peasants had been begun to emerge as the united nation, his troops played a significant role in the battle of Khotyn against the Turks in 1621 and prince Władysław's attempt to gain the Muscovy throne in 1618. Petro Konashevych was born in Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the village of Kulchytsy three miles away from Sambir in the Ruthenian Voivodeship into a Ukrainian Eastern Orthodox noble family, his father's surname was Kononovych. He graduated the school at the Ostroh Academy in Volhynia, his school mate was Meletiy Smotrytskyi, author of the Hramatyka book, by which many generations of Ukrainians and Belarusians learned the Slavic language grammatics.
From an early age he learnt the horsemanship skills. He joined to the cossacks of Zaporozhian Host and took a part in cossack military expeditions to Moldavia in 1600 and Livonia in 1601, his talent in a military strategy and ability to show leadership under great adversity and hardship were acquired by cossacks leader Samiylo Kishka. Sahaidachny moved to Lviv, after to Kyiv, where he became the assistant and tutor of the Kievan judge I. Aksak family. By the end of the 16th century, Sahaidachny traveled to Zaporizhia, where in 1605, he was elected as a kosh otaman of the Zaporozhian Host cossacks. Under his control, the Host participated in campaigns against the Turks; the Сossacks fleet captured the Turkish fortress Varna and destroyed a strong Turkish navy. He is famous for his sea sorties on Crimea and Turkey and in 1616 captured Caffa on the Crimean peninsula, the largest center of the slave trade, he released from slavery many Christian men and children. In 1618, Sahaidachny joined the Anti-Turkish Holy League.
While he was battling the Turks, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth requested his assistance for war with Muscovy. Sahaidachny did, seized the forts in the cities of Putivl, Livny and many others. Near Serpukhov Sahaidachny forced the Muscovite army to flee; the Muscovite troops under command of the voivode G. Volkonsky forced Cossacks to take a detour, but were unable to stop the advance of the Cossacks regiments to Moscow. In September 1618 he forced to flee the army of another Muscovite nobleman Vasilii Buturlin. United army of Jan Karol Chodkiewicz and Sahaidachny sieged Moscow and 11 October unsuccessful attempted to take the Arbat Gates. In late October, the army of Sahaidachny moved in raid towards the south from Moscow. During this raid was captured the Serpukhov city and in early December the Kaluga city. John III Sobieski wrote that this successful raid caused panic among Russians and forced them to conclude negotiations as soon as possible; the whole campaign culminated in December 1618 by signing the Truce of Deulino, resulting in the greatest territorial expansion of the Commonwealth.
The cossack's invasion of Muscovy "is not the best page of Sahaidachny biography". Sahaidachy and his cossacks have been positioning themself as a supporters of the Orthodox Christianity and a potential ally of the Muscovy. However, they left the "bloody trace", extended from Livny to Moscow and back to Kaluga and Kyiv. In research of Russian and American historians Cossacks have been blamed for destroying and robbing of Orthodox churches, villages, killing children and women, who belonged to Orthodox Christianity. Sahaidachny asked Patriarch Teophanes III of Jerusalem to forgive him for such behavior. Sahaidachny returned to Zaporizhia, did not only become a kosh otaman, but was the Hetman of Ukraine.. In order to avoid conflict with the Poles, Sahaidachny agreed to limit the Cossack register to 3,000 men, the remainder were regarded as peasants, he banned unauthorized Cossack's sea raids to Turkey and agreed with a King right on the approval of Sagaidachy appointed Cossack officers. Not only did Sahaidachny fight for control, he fought for the religious and cultural rights of the Ukrainian people.
In 1620, he registered himself and his entire Zaporozhian Host as students into the Kyiv Epiphany Brotherhood School, that preceded the current Kyiv Mohyla Academy. It was done in order to protect the school from conversion from an Orthodox school into a Roman Catholic Jesuit Collegium, he contributed to the establishment of a cultural center in Kyiv and sought to unite the Cossack military with the Ukrainian clergy and nobility. In early 1620 Sahaidachny sent an envoy to the Russian tsar. At this time there was the Patriarch Teophanes III of Jerusalem and this envoy held talks with him about the possibility of his arrival in the Ukraine. In 1620, Sahaidachny convinced Patriarch Teophanes III, who returned from Moscow, to reconstruct the Orthodox hierarchy, destroyed by the creation of the Greek-Catholic Church. Patriarch Teophanes III of Jerusalem blamed Cossacks for the participation in the Muscovy campaign saying that the damnation have been put on them for this, because Musco
Peter the Lame
Peter VI the Lame was Prince of Moldavia from June 1574 to 23 November 1577. He ruled 1 January 1578 to 21 November 1579 and 17 October 1583 to 29 August 1591, he was known as "the Lame" due to a physical deformity. Raised by the Turks in Istanbul and hardly knew of his country of origin before gaining the throne of Moldavia. Anxious to rule like his brother Alexandru II Mircea, Petru was elected prince of Moldavia in 1574. However, unlike most of his ancestors, he was a weak prince and gave up the throne in order to live comfortably in the west, his first marriage to Maria Amirali was arranged in childhood, failed. Petru soon fell in love with a gypsy named Irina who became his mistress since marriage to a gypsy was impossible, he had Irina freed from slavery and baptized, hence her nickname "Botezata". After he gave up the throne, together they moved to the city of Bolzano in present-day Italy's Tyrol. Sadly for Irina, Peter fell in love with a seductive Circassian named Maria, a lady-in-waiting at his mini-court.
The gypsy was buried in a small cemetery in Bolzano. Their son Ștefăniță never ruled in Moldavia, he was placed in a Jesuit seminary in Innsbruck. He was known to be an obedient student, but died of tuberculosis in 1585, he is buried beside his parents in Bolzano. Two years after the death of Irina, Peter died of syphilis, he is laid to rest beside her and on his tombstone is the inscription: "I, Prince Peter, descendant of the royal Corvinus family of Wallachia...who abandoned the throne of my own will, having obtained asylum from the House of Austria, on July 1, 1594."
Ukraine, sometimes called the Ukraine, is a country in Eastern Europe. Excluding Crimea, Ukraine has a population of about 42.5 million, making it the 32nd most populous country in the world. Its capital and largest city is Kiev. Ukrainian is the official language and its alphabet is Cyrillic; the dominant religions in the country are Greek Catholicism. Ukraine is in a territorial dispute with Russia over the Crimean Peninsula, which Russia annexed in 2014. Including Crimea, Ukraine has an area of 603,628 km2, making it the largest country within Europe and the 46th largest country in the world; the territory of modern Ukraine has been inhabited since 32,000 BC. During the Middle Ages, the area was a key centre of East Slavic culture, with the powerful state of Kievan Rus' forming the basis of Ukrainian identity. Following its fragmentation in the 13th century, the territory was contested and divided by a variety of powers, including Lithuania, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Russia. A Cossack republic emerged and prospered during the 17th and 18th centuries, but its territory was split between Poland and the Russian Empire, merged into the Russian-dominated Soviet Union in the late 1940s as the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.
In 1991 Ukraine gained its independence from the Soviet Union in the aftermath of its dissolution at the end of the Cold War. Before its independence, Ukraine was referred to in English as "The Ukraine", but most sources have since moved to drop "the" from the name of Ukraine in all uses. Following its independence, Ukraine declared itself a neutral state. In 2013, after the government of President Viktor Yanukovych had decided to suspend the Ukraine-European Union Association Agreement and seek closer economic ties with Russia, a several-months-long wave of demonstrations and protests known as the Euromaidan began, which escalated into the 2014 Ukrainian revolution that led to the overthrow of Yanukovych and the establishment of a new government; these events formed the background for the annexation of Crimea by Russia in March 2014, the War in Donbass in April 2014. On 1 January 2016, Ukraine applied the economic component of the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area with the European Union.
Ukraine is ranks 88th on the Human Development Index. As of 2018, Ukraine has the second lowest GDP per capita in Europe. At US$40, it has the lowest median wealth per adult in the world, it suffers from a high poverty rate and severe corruption. However, because of its extensive fertile farmlands, Ukraine is one of the world's largest grain exporters. Ukraine maintains the second-largest military in Europe after that of Russia; the country is home to a multi-ethnic population, 77.8 percent of whom are Ukrainians, followed by a large Russian minority, as well as Georgians, Belarusians, Crimean Tatars, Jews and Hungarians. Ukraine is a unitary republic under a semi-presidential system with separate powers: legislative and judicial branches; the country is a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the OSCE, the GUAM organization, one of the founding states of the Commonwealth of Independent States. There are different hypotheses as to the etymology of the name Ukraine. According to the older widespread hypothesis, it means "borderland", while some more recent linguistic studies claim a different meaning: "homeland" or "region, country"."The Ukraine" used to be the usual form in English, but since the Declaration of Independence of Ukraine, "the Ukraine" has become less common in the English-speaking world, style-guides recommend not using the definite article.
"The Ukraine" now implies disregard for the country's sovereignty, according to U. S. ambassador William Taylor. The Ukrainian position is that the usage of "'The Ukraine' is incorrect both grammatically and politically." Neanderthal settlement in Ukraine is seen in the Molodova archaeological sites which include a mammoth bone dwelling. The territory is considered to be the location for the human domestication of the horse. Modern human settlement in Ukraine and its vicinity dates back to 32,000 BC, with evidence of the Gravettian culture in the Crimean Mountains. By 4,500 BC, the Neolithic Cucuteni–Trypillia culture flourished in wide areas of modern Ukraine including Trypillia and the entire Dnieper-Dniester region. During the Iron Age, the land was inhabited by Cimmerians and Sarmatians. Between 700 BC and 200 BC it was Scythia. Beginning in the sixth century BC, colonies of Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome and the Byzantine Empire, such as Tyras and Chersonesus, were founded on the northeastern shore of the Black Sea.
These colonies thrived well into the 6th century AD. The Goths stayed in the area but came under the sway of the Huns from the 370s AD. In the 7th century AD, the territory of eastern Ukraine was the centre of Old Great Bulgaria. At the end of the century, the majority of Bulgar tribes migrated in different directions, the Khazars took over much of the land. In the 5th and 6th centuries, the Antes were located in the territory of; the Antes were the ancestors of Ukrainians: White Croats, Polans, Dulebes and Tiverians. Migrations from Ukraine throughout the Balkans established many Southern Slavic nations. Northern migrations, reaching to the Ilmen l