Pogoni is a municipality in the Ioannina regional unit, Greece. The seat of the municipality is the village Kalpaki, the municipality has an area of 701.059 km2. Its population was 8,960 at the 2011 census and its territory corresponded with that of the current municipality Pogoni, except the municipal units Ano Kalamas and Kalpaki. Its seat was the village Delvinaki
First Balkan War
The First Balkan War, lasted from October 1912 to May 1913 and comprised actions of the Balkan League against the Ottoman Empire. The combined armies of the Balkan states overcame the numerically inferior and strategically disadvantaged Ottoman armies, as a result of the war, the League captured and partitioned almost all remaining European territories of the Ottoman Empire. Ensuing events led to the creation of an independent Albania, despite its success, Bulgaria was dissatisfied over the division of the spoils in Macedonia, which provoked the start of the Second Balkan War. By 1867, Serbia and Montenegro had both secured independence, which was confirmed by the Treaty of Berlin, the question of the viability of Ottoman rule was revived after the Young Turk Revolution of July 1908, which compelled the Sultan to restore the suspended Ottoman constitution. Serbias aspirations to take over Bosnia and Herzegovina were thwarted by the Bosnian crisis, the Serbs directed their expansionism to the south.
Following the annexation, the Young Turks tried to induce the Muslim population of Bosnia to emigrate to the Ottoman Empire and those who took up the offer were re-settled by the Ottoman authorities in districts of northern Macedonia where there were few Muslims. The experiment proved to be a catastrophe for the Empire since the immigrants readily united with the population of Albanian Muslims. They participated in the series of Albanian uprisings before and during the spring Albanian Revolt of 1912, some Albanian government troops switched sides. Serbia, which had helped arm the Albanian Catholic and Hamidian rebels and sent secret agents to some of the prominent leaders, things got so far out of hand that no one was satisfied with the situation in Turkey in Europe. It became unbearable for the Serbs, the Greeks and for the Albanians, by the grace of God, I have therefore ordered my brave army to join in the Holy War to free our brethren and to ensure a better future. To all of them we bring freedom and equality, in a search for allies, Serbia was ready to negotiate a treaty with Bulgaria.
The agreement provided that, in the event of victory against the Ottomans, serbias expansion was accepted by Bulgaria as being to the north of the Shar Mountains. The intervening area was agreed to be disputed, it would be arbitrated by the Tsar of Russia in the event of a war against the Ottoman Empire. After the successful coup détat for unification with Eastern Rumelia, Bulgaria began to dream that its national unification would be realized, for that purpose, it developed a large army, and identified as the Prussia of the Balkans. But Bulgaria could not win a war alone against the Ottomans and they wanted to reverse their defeat in the Greco-Turkish War of 1897 by the Ottomans. An emergency military reorganization led by a French military mission had been started for that purpose, in the discussions that led Greece to join the Balkan League, Bulgaria refused to commit to any agreement on the distribution of territorial gains, unlike its deal with Serbia over Macedonia. Bulgarias diplomatic policy was to push Serbia into an agreement limiting its access to Macedonia, Bulgaria believed that its army would be able to occupy the larger part of Aegean Macedonia and the important port city of Salonica before the Greeks.
In 1911, Italy had launched an invasion of Tripolitania in present-day Libya, the Italians decisive military victories over the Ottoman Empire encouraged the Balkan states to imagine they might win a war against the Ottomans
Metsovo is a town in Epirus, in the mountains of Pindus in northern Greece, between Ioannina to the north and Meteora to the south. The economy of Metsovo is dominated by agriculture and tourism, the latter of which flourishes in winter, Metsovo is served by Greek National Road 6 and by the Egnatia Odos motorway. From medieval times well into the 19th century, Metsovo was known, in various sources. From the end of the 18th century on, the form of Messovon makes its appearance. The town is known as Aminciu in Aromanian, or Vlach, in the Ottoman census records we see the word Mcwh, which is usually pronounced Miçova. In the Vlach language Metsovo is called Aminʤu, a word combining the preposition a— meaning to, the Vlach-speaking part of the population, that part which does not use the term Aminʤu, uses the name Meʤova. On the contrary, there appears to be a relation between the Vlach Minʤu and the Greek Metsovo, the latter being a combination of the stem Mets. In the 15th century Metsovo came under Ottoman rule and became part of the Sanjak of Ioannina, throughout the late period of Ottoman rule the Greek and Aromanian population of the region suffered from Albanian raiders.
During the First Balkan War, Metsovo was burnt by raiding bands, the battle lasted until 4 p. m. when the Ottoman soldiers inside the besieged Turkish garrison raised a white flag and surrendered. Socially, the residents of Metsovo, up until the beginning of the 20th century, were divided into three classes, the arhontzi, the vinitsi and the algi or, mockingly and this socioeconomic stratification developed during the Ottoman occupation. The arhontzi were the wealthiest part of society and their revenues derived from wholesale and retail commercial activities. Although locally very powerful, they were not a group in terms of social mobility. Wealth gave anyone the right to climb up the ladder to the next higher level. The vinitsi comprised the middle and lower classes of the settlement that were not occupied in livestock breeding and it mostly included farmers, small business owners, mule drivers, and small-scale merchants. Despite the economic and professional diversification among the vinitsi, they saw themselves as a social class.
For example, they would marry among themselves but never with members of the algi, the algi were the class of traveling sheepherders, whose occupation was large-scale sheepherding, livestock breeding, as well as woodcarving. They had set rules regarding the roles of their members. The social differences between the two classes were not based on income criteria but on the fact that their members came from very different exonomic structures
Administrative regions of Greece
The administrative regions of Greece are the countrys thirteen first-level administrative entities, each comprising several second-level units, originally prefectures and, since 2011, regional units. The current regions were established in July 1986, by decision of then-Interior Minister Menios Koutsogiorgas as a second-level administrative entities, as part of a decentralization process inspired by then-Interior Minister Alekos Papadopoulos, they were accorded more powers in the 1997 Kapodistrias reform of local and regional government. They were transformed into separate entities by the 2010 Kallikratis Plan. In the 2011 changes, the general secretary was replaced with a popularly elected regional governor. Many powers of the prefectures, which were abolished or reformed into regional units, were transferred to the region level. The regional organs of the government were in turn replaced by seven decentralized administrations. Bordering the region of Central Macedonia there is one region, Mount Athos.
It is located on the easternmost of the three large peninsulas jutting into the Aegean from the Chalcidice Peninsula, ISO 3166-2, GR Administrative divisions of Greece
Kastoria (regional unit)
Kastoria is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of West Macedonia and its capital is the town of Kastoria. Kastoria is situated at the end of Macedonia in the far north of the country. It borders the regional units of Florina to the north, Kozani to the southeast, Grevena to the south, the international border with the Albanian district of Korçë lies on the western edge of the regional unit. The main mountain ranges are Gramos and Voio in the west, the river Haliacmon flows through the area. Lake Orestiada is the largest lake, the regional unit is mountainous with a pronounced continental climate, characterised by cold winters and hot summers. The regional unit Kastoria is subdivided into 3 municipalities and these are, Kastoria Nestorio Orestida Kastoria was created as a prefecture in 1941. As a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the regional unit Kastoria was created out of the former prefecture Kastoria, the prefecture had the same territory as the present regional unit.
At the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below, NE GR-20/E90, S, only passes through Eptachori List of settlements in the Kastoria regional unit Dispilio Tablet
Lake Pamvotida or Pamvotis, commonly Lake of Ioannina is the largest lake of Epirus, located in the central part of the Ioannina regional unit in northern Greece. The regional capital Ioannina to the west and the town of Perama to the north are urban settlements fringing the lake while the remaining of its periphery is composed of farmland, the lake features small fishing ports and a boating port. There is a boat service to the Ioannina Island. The Greek National Road 6 surrounds the northern half of the lake, Lake Pamvotida is situated at 470 m elevation, south of the Mitsikeli mountains. It is fed by small rivers. It has no outflow, but it is drained through karstic sinkholes towards the rivers Arachthos, Louros. In 1960 a tunnel and ditch were constructed that drain from the end of the lake to the river Kalamas. The small inhabited Ioannina Island, where Ali Pasha was hiding during the last days of his reign, is situated near the northern shore and pollution are threatening the lake ecosystem, home to small mammals, waterbirds and a rich fish and crustacean fauna.
Eutrophication results in algal blooms in summer, Lake Pamvotida is home to Tsima, a species of fish endemic to the lake. Two bryozoan species have recently reported from the lake. As revealed by the results, the lake is impaired by pollutants from sewage, list of lakes in Greece Kyra Frosini, who was famously executed by drowning in the lake, alongside 16 other women, for adultery on the order of the Ottoman governor. Franz X. Bogner & Georg Pilidis, Lake of Ioannina - Limni Pamvotis, photos of Lake Pamvotida, Ioannina by Dimitrios Sioutis Ioannina on GTP Travel Pages
Konitsa is a town of Ioannina in Epirus, near the Albanian border. It is located north of the capital Ioannina, and northeast of a group of known as the Zagorochoria. The town was built amphitheatrically-shaped on a slope of the Pindos mountain range from where it overlooks the valley where the river Aoos meets the river Voidomatis. Konitsa acts as a hub for several small villages of Pindos, and features many shops, schools. The town itself is known in Greek as Kónitsa, the villages surrounding it are known as the Konitsochoria. The town is known in Albanian as Konicë, in Aromanian/Vlach as Conița, during the Middle Bronze Age the region of Konitsa was inhabited by Proto-Greek populations. Latter in classical antiquity, the area was part of the territory of the Molossians, at the time of the reign of Pyrrhus of Epirus a number of forts existed in strategically important positions. The town of Konitsa is recorded the for first time under its name in the Chronicle of Ioannina of 1380. The chronicle mentioned that the defences of the castle of Konitsa were strengthened by the local Despot of Epirus, in 15th century Konitsa came under Ottoman rule and became part of the Sanjak of Ioannina.
The town was the centre of a kaza. During the Ottoman period some local Greek landowners converted to Islam to preserve their holdings and these converts formed a powerful and influential group in the area, living in the upper part of Konitsa alongside the Christians. A Greek school was operating already from the end of the 18th century under Georgios Mostras, Greek education was flourishing and in 1906 the kaza of Konitsa had 31 schools and 1,036 pupils. On the other hand, the local Greek population displayed tolerance towards actions by the Albanians that did not reveal chauvinist inclinations, by the late 19th century the town had a Muslim majority population of 62% and was mainly Greek-speaking, while the kaza had a Christian majority. In 1924 Konitsa was a town that consisted of a total of 800 dwelings,200 of which were considered Albanian or Turkish. As a result of the exchange agreement of 1923 between Greece and Turkey, roughly two thirds of Konitsas Muslims, were considered “Turks by origin” and left for Turkey in 1925.
They were replaced with around 1.000 Greeks from Cappadocia, during the Greek Civil War the surrounding region became a major battleground, while in December 1947 communist guerrilla units unsuccessfully tried to capture the town. The province of Konitsa was one of the provinces of the Ioannina Prefecture and it had the same territory as the present municipality. Konstantinos Dovas, Prime minister of Greece and Army general, Saint John Vrachoritis, Greek Orthodox Saint Eleftherios Oikonomou, former Chief of the Greek Police
The Arachthos is a river in eastern Epirus, Greece. Its source is in the Pindus mountains, near the town Metsovo and its upper course is known as Metsovitikos. From its confluence with the Dipotamos near the village of Batza it is called Arachthos and it flows towards the south, passing between the Athamanika and the Xerovouni mountains. In this place meets the Plaka Bridge, the largest one-arch stone bridge in Greece and it enters the large Pournari Reservoir, in the Arta regional unit, which is about 18 km² and prevents flooding of the city of Arta and supplies water to most of Epirus. The town of Peta is situated near the dam, about 8 km downstream of the dam, is the largest town on the river. Artas historic landmark is the stone Bridge of Arta over the Arachthos, the river continues through the lowlands south of Arta, and finally empties into the Ambracian Gulf near Kommeno,16 km southeast of Arta. Arachthos River on GTP Travel Pages MandraPhotos Photo of Arachthos Lake Arachthos River on Webshots Arachthos Gorge photo Arahthos Festival
Preveza (regional unit)
Preveza is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the Epirus region and its capital is the town of Preveza. The regional unit of Preveza is located northwest of the Ambracian Gulf, the Ionian Sea lies to the west. The mountains of Xerovouni are in the far northeast, rivers include the Louros in the east, and Acheron in the north. Its climate is typically Mediterranean with hot dry summers and cool winters, snow is not uncommon in winter at higher elevations. The regional unit Preveza is subdivided into 3 municipalities and these are, Parga Preveza Ziros Preveza was established as a prefecture in 1915. As a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the regional unit Preveza was created out of the former prefecture Preveza, the prefecture had the same territory as the present regional unit. At the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below, the area was first settled by the Greek tribe of the Thesprotians and subsequently formed part of the Kingdom of Epirus and the Roman Empire.
The Battle of Actium took place in the area in 31 BC, the area became part of the Byzantine Empire, and following the Fourth Crusade, split off along with the rest of Epirus to form the Despotate of Epirus. The area passed to Ottoman rule in the 14th century, which lasted until 1913, following the Balkan Wars, the area was awarded to Greece in 1913, at which point the prefecture was created. The prefecture included the island of Lefkada, until the latter was split off in 1955 as a separate prefecture Lefkada, the ruins of the ancient cities of Nicopolis and Cassope, and the Necromanteion lie in the prefecture. Zalongo is a village, known for its monastery. Parga is a port town and a resort. The Aktio-Preveza Undersea Tunnel, which runs underneath the Ambracian Gulf, connects Preveza with Aetolia-Acarnania to the south
Vehicle registration plates of Greece
Greek vehicle registration plates are composed of three letters and four digits per plate. The letters represent the district that issues the plates while the numbers begin from 1000 to 9999, similar plates with digits beginning from 1 to 999 are issued for motorcycles which exceed 50 cc. With the exception of Athens and Thessaloniki, all districts are represented by the first 2 letters, the final letter in the sequence changes in Greek alphabetical order after 9,000 issued plates. For example, Patras plates are ΑΧΑ-1000, where ΑΧ represents the Achaia prefecture of which Patras is the capital, when ΑΧΑ-9999 is reached the plates turn to ΑΧΒ-1000 and this continues until ΑΧΧ is finished. Only the letters from the intersection between the Latin and Greek alphabets by glyph appearance are used, namely Α, Β, Ε, Ζ, Η, Ι, Κ, Μ, Ν, Ο, Ρ, Τ, Υ, Χ. This is because Greece is a party to the Vienna Convention on Road Traffic. The rule applies in a way in Russia, Belarus and Herzegovina. Combinations used for residents are L-NNNN and are limited.
Until 2003, taxis used L-NNNN, the plate was aligned with the prefecture, when number plates were introduced to Greece, they were numbered and in the late 1950s the system was L-NNN and LL-NNN. The letters were Greek letters and Latin letters, respectively, in 1956, the system was NNNNNN. In 1972, they became lettered and the system was LL-NNNN while trucks used L-NNNN, in 1983, the system was LLL-NNNN and the first two letters are prefecture letters. In 2004, the euroband was added, the first 2 of 3 letters of a licence plate usually represent the prefecture where the car was registered. Π. — Disabled in war ΔΟΚ — Test plates ΔΣ — Corps Diplomatique or foreign delegation Ε. Α. or ΕΛ. ΑΣ. — Hellenic Police ΛΣ — Coast Guard ΞΑ — Foreign missions ΕΣ — Hellenic Army ΠΑ — Hellenic Air Force ΠΝ — Hellenic Navy ΠΣ — Fire Guard ΠΚ — President of the Government, i. e
Tymfi or Mt Tymphe, Tymphi is a mountain in the northern Pindus mountain range, northwestern Greece. It is part of the unit of Ioannina and lies in the region of Zagori. Tymfi forms a massif with its highest peak, Gamila, at 2,497 m, the massif of Tymfi includes in its southern part the Vikos Gorge, while they both form part of the Vikos–Aoös National Park which accepts over 100,000 visitors per year. The former municipality of the name owed its name to the mountain. It gave its name to the ancient land known as Tymphaea and to the Tymphaeans, Tymfi is tranlitareted in similar forms, Timfi, Tymphi. The name Tymphe or Stymphe is mentioned by ancient geographer Strabo and it gave its name to the district of Tymphaea, the etymology of the peaks are mainly of Greek origin. The highest peak Gamila derives from the Greek word for camel, megala Litharia stands for Big rocks and Karteros for mighty, powerful. The word Astraka means gutter and its origins can be either Greek or Slavic, a notable exception is the peak of Tsouka Rossa which is in Aromanian and stands for red peak.
The mountain is surrounded by various massifs that form part of the northern Pindus mountain range. Northeast of Tymfi lies the highest mountain of Pindus, the mountain of Trapezitsa lies to the north, Lygkos to the east and Mitsikeli to the south. The Aoos river flows to the north and its tributary Voidomatis to the southwest, Vikos Gorge is formed by the latter to the southwestern side of the mountain. The length of the mountain is approximately 20 to 25 km with a direction from east to west, the southern and southeastern slopes of the mountain are comparatively smooth. The north side, forms cliffs reaching 400 m, the massif includes several peaks that stand above 2400m. With the exception of Astraka, the peaks are arranged from north to northeast with their southern slopes forming a plateau, being the only peak located to the south, dominates that plateau with its north face. A mountain hut, which operates during the months, is located at the mountain pass between the peaks of Astraka and Lapatos at 1930m of altitude.
Several lakes are formed on the some of whom drain during the summer. From those that maintain water around the year the most famous is Drakolimni and it is located at a height of 2,000 m northwest of Ploskos. Its maximum depth is 4.95 m, while its surface covers 1 ha, the lower slopes are dominated by younger flysch rocks, which consist of thin beds of graded sandstones intercalated with softer, fissile siltstones