An ion is an atom or molecule that has a net electrical charge. Since the charge of the electron is equal and opposite to that of the proton, the net charge of an ion is non-zero due to its total number of electrons being unequal to its total number of protons. A cation is a positively charged ion, with fewer electrons than protons, while an anion is negatively charged, with more electrons than protons; because of their opposite electric charges and anions attract each other and form ionic compounds. Ions consisting of only a single atom are termed atomic or monatomic ions, while two or more atoms form molecular ions or polyatomic ions. In the case of physical ionization in a fluid, "ion pairs" are created by spontaneous molecule collisions, where each generated pair consists of a free electron and a positive ion. Ions are created by chemical interactions, such as the dissolution of a salt in liquids, or by other means, such as passing a direct current through a conducting solution, dissolving an anode via ionization.
The word ion comes from the Greek word ἰόν, ions, "going", the present participle of ἰέναι, ienai, "to go". This term was introduced by English physicist and chemist Michael Faraday in 1834 for the then-unknown species that goes from one electrode to the other through an aqueous medium. Faraday did not know the nature of these species, but he knew that since metals dissolved into and entered a solution at one electrode and new metal came forth from a solution at the other electrode; this conveys matter from one place to the other. In correspondence with Faraday, Whewell coined the words anode and cathode, as well as anion and cation as ions that are attracted to the respective electrodes. Svante Arrhenius put forth, in his 1884 dissertation, his explanation of the fact that solid crystalline salts dissociate into paired charged particles when dissolved, for which he would win the 1903 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Arrhenius' explanation was. Arrhenius proposed that ions formed in the absence of an electric current.
Ions in their gas-like state are reactive and will interact with ions of opposite charge to give neutral molecules or ionic salts. Ions are produced in the liquid or solid state when salts interact with solvents to produce solvated ions, which are more stable, for reasons involving a combination of energy and entropy changes as the ions move away from each other to interact with the liquid; these stabilized species are more found in the environment at low temperatures. A common example is the ions present in seawater; as charged objects, ions are repelled by like charges. When they move, their trajectories can be deflected by a magnetic field. Electrons, due to their smaller mass and thus larger space-filling properties as matter waves, determine the size of atoms and molecules that possess any electrons at all. Thus, anions are larger than the parent molecule or atom, as the excess electron repel each other and add to the physical size of the ion, because its size is determined by its electron cloud.
Cations are smaller than the corresponding parent atom or molecule due to the smaller size of the electron cloud. One particular cation contains no electrons, thus consists of a single proton - much smaller than the parent hydrogen atom. Since the electric charge on a proton is equal in magnitude to the charge on an electron, the net electric charge on an ion is equal to the number of protons in the ion minus the number of electrons. An anion, from the Greek word ἄνω, meaning "up", is an ion with more electrons than protons, giving it a net negative charge. A cation, from the Greek word κάτω, meaning "down", is an ion with fewer electrons than protons, giving it a positive charge. There are additional names used for ions with multiple charges. For example, an ion with a −2 charge is known as a dianion and an ion with a +2 charge is known as a dication. A zwitterion is a neutral molecule with positive and negative charges at different locations within that molecule. Cations and anions are measured by their ionic radius and they differ in relative size: "Cations are small, most of them less than 10−10 m in radius.
But most anions are large, as is oxygen. From this fact it is apparent that most of the space of a crystal is occupied by the anion and that the cations fit into the spaces between them."A cation has radius less than 0.8 × 10−10 m while an anion has radius greater than 1.3 × 10−10 m. Ions are ubiquitous in nature and are responsible for diverse phenomena from the luminescence of the Sun to the existence of the Earth's ionosphere. Atoms in their ionic state may have a different colour from neutral atoms, thus light absorption by metal ions gives the colour of gemstones. In both inorganic and organic chemistry, the interaction of water and ions is important; the following sections describe contexts. Ions can be non-chemically prepared using various ion sources involving high voltage or temperature; these are used in a multitude of dev
Robert John Pearce was an Australian politician, a member of the Western Australian Legislative Assembly from 1977 until 1993 representing the seats of Gosnells and Armadale. Pearce was born in Perth to Ronald Malcolm Pearce, a professional fisherman, Betty Pearce, he was educated at Bayswater Primary School. During a three-year stay in Tasmania he attended Hobart High School for years 8–10, returning to Western Australia and Governor Stirling Senior High School for years 11 and 12 in 1962–1963, serving as school captain in his final year, he completed a Bachelor of Arts at the University of Western Australia, a Diploma of Education at Claremont Teachers' College, graduating in 1969. On 19 January 1969, he married Barbara Joy Collins at St Martin's Church in Kensington. Pearce became a secondary school teacher, teaching at Eastern Goldfields Senior High School in Kalgoorlie. Pearce was active in student politics. At UWA, he served as vice-president on two occasions. In 1969 he became an honorary Life Associate of the UWA Guild of Students and served as president of the National Union of Australian University Students in 1969.
He subsequently joined the State School Teachers' Union of Western Australia, was elected vice-president in 1976, whilst in Kalgoorlie and Lynwood he served as secretary of local Labor party branches, serving on the party's State Executive in 1973. Whilst in Kalgoorlie and Lynwood he served as secretary of local Labor party branches, as well as being a member of the party's State Executive in 1973, he was preselected for the new seat of Gosnells ahead of the 1977 state election, beating Nick Clarke, a telecommunications technician, narrowly won the seat, beating his Liberal rival by 238 votes. He was appointed Deputy Opposition Whip in 1977, in June 1978, he was commissioned to write a report into improving Labor's prospects at the 1980 election, he recommended. From 1980, he served as the Shadow Minister for Women's Interests. With Labor's election victory at the February 1983 election under leader Brian Burke, at which Pearce contested and won the new seat of Armadale, Pearce was promoted to the Ministry, serving as Minister for Education in the Burke ministry.
On 20 December 1984 he was given the Planning portfolio, on 16 March 1987 the Intergovernmental Relations portfolio. From 12 May 1986 until 25 July 1986, he was the Minister for Police and Emergency Services after Arthur Tonkin's departure from the Ministry. At this time he became Leader of the House in the Legislative Assembly, responsible for managing government business, held that position until his departure from the Ministry; when Peter Dowding became premier in February 1988, in a cabinet reshuffle designed to move ministers from portfolios in which they had been controversial, Pearce moved to the Transport portfolio and took on the Parliamentary and Electoral Reform portfolio, overseeing the implementation of the Acts Amendment Act 1987, steered through by former deputy premier Mal Bryce. Following the February 1989 election, at which the Environment Minister Barry Hodge lost his seat, Pearce took on the portfolio; when Carmen Lawrence became premier in February 1990, Pearce lost all roles except Environment and Leader of the House in the Legislative Assembly, but increased in seniority within the Cabinet.
On 20 October 1992, it was announced by the Premier, following the delivery of Part One of the Royal Commission into WA Inc, that a finding of improper conduct had been made against Pearce and that he would stand down from the Ministry and vacate his parliamentary seat after the next election. He was accused of acting improperly in making information public about the Liberal Party president's fund withdrawals from the Teachers' Credit Society, which failed in 1987. Pearce denied the allegations, but stated that Westminster conventions meant he was required to resign anyway. On 26 October 1992, he was replaced as Environment Minister by Jim McGinty, as Leader of the House by Eric Ripper. In 1998, he became Executive Director of the Forest Industries Federation of Western Australia and in March 2008, he became director of the National Association of Forest Industries
The Angling Trust, based at Leominster, Herefordshire, is an organisation formed from the merger of six angling authorities to form a single and more powerful organisation for the benefit of anglers. The body oversees the development of angling for three disciplines — coarse and game fishing; the Angling Trust was set up to promote anglers' rights, fish conservation, preservation of habitat and fish and angler welfare. In 2009, after two years of discussion, six Angling organisations merged to create the Angling Trust: the Anglers' Conservation Association, the Fisheries and Angling Conservation Trust, the National Association of Fisheries and Angling Consultatives, the National Federation of Anglers, the National Federation of Sea Anglers, the Specialist Anglers' Alliance; the Salmon & Trout Association pulled out of the merger consultations owing to wishing to keep its charitable status: under the law of England and Wales, charities are not allowed to merge. The Angling Development Board merged with the Angling Trust in 2012.
The Angling Trust is run for the protection of angling. The body encourages increased government support and Environment Agency protection for angling and fisheries, as well as the prevention of fish disease and parasites. Other issues include the control of nuisance predators, co-ordinated action on poaching and fish theft, the provision of education and coaching to people in the wider community; the AT runs national and international competitions, assists the development of angling clubs. The Angling Trust incorporates the British Record Fish Committee which oversees and adjudicates the British Record Fish list for saltwater and freshwater fish caught by rod and line method. Fish Legal represents the Angling Trust in cases brought against polluters, those who contribute to the problem of litter, over-abstraction, commercial overfishing, habitat degradation, fish theft, unlawful navigation, the erection of barriers such as weirs, hydropower schemes designed with inappropriate concern for anglers or fish welfare.
One case in which the body has acted was on behalf of the Pride of Derby & Derbyshire Angling Association to preserve fishing rights in the local weir from developers. List of waterway societies in the United Kingdom Fish Legal Angling Trust DEFRA