Dish Network Corporation is a U. S. television provider. Based in Meridian, Colorado, it is the owner of the direct-broadcast satellite provider Dish, the over-the-top IPTV service Sling TV; as of November 2016, the company provided services to 13.7 million television and 580,000 broadband subscribers. The company has 17,000 employees. In January 2008, Dish Network was spun off from its former parent company EchoStar, founded by Charlie Ergen as a satellite television equipment distributor in 1980; the company began using Dish Network as its consumer brand in March 1997 after the successful launch of its first satellite, EchoStar I, in December 1995. That launch marked the beginning of its subscription television services, EchoStar has since launched numerous satellites, with nine owned and leased satellites in its fleet as of January 2013. EchoStar continues to be the primary technology partner to Dish Network. Joseph Clayton became president and chief executive officer of the company in June 2011, while Charlie Ergen remained chairman.
Clayton remained in the position until March 31, 2015 when he retired leaving Ergen to resume the post. Ergen has said diversifying and updating technology for the company will be a high priority, with an expectation that, over the coming decade, the company will provide internet and telephone service for both home and mobile applications. In December 2017, Dish Network announced that Ergen will be replaced by Erik Carlson. Dish Network began operations on March 4, 1996, as a service of EchoStar. EchoStar, a precursor to Dish Network, was formed in 1980 by its chairman and chief executive officer, Charlie Ergen along with colleagues Candy Ergen and Jim Defranco, as a distributor of C-band satellite television systems. In 1987, EchoStar applied for a direct-broadcast satellite broadcast license with the Federal Communications Commission and was granted access to orbital slot 119° west longitude in 1992. In 1998 EchoStar purchased the broadcasting assets of a satellite broadcasting joint venture of News Corporation and MCI Worldcom, called ASkyB.
With this purchase EchoStar obtained 28 of the 32 transponder licenses in the 110° West orbital slot, more than doubling existing continental United States broadcasting capacity at a value of $682.5 million. The acquisition inspired the company to introduce a multi satellite system called Dish 500, theoretically capable of receiving more than 500 channels on one Dish. In the same year, EchoStar, partnering with Bell Canada, launched Dish Network Canada. On December 7, 2007, EchoStar announced that it would spin off its technology and infrastructure assets into a separate company under the EchoStar name, after which the remainder of the company would be renamed Dish Network Corporation; the spun-out EchoStar began trading on January 3, 2008. In 2011, Dish Network spent over $3 billion in acquisitions of companies in bankruptcy, which The Motley Fool's Anders Bylund described as "a veritable buying rampage in the bargain bin." This includes the April 6, 2011, purchase of Blockbuster Inc. in a bankruptcy auction in New York, agreeing to pay $322 million in cash and assume $87 million in liabilities and other obligations for the nationwide video-rental company.
Dish Network acquired the defunct companies DBSD and Terrestar. Dish Network made a bid to purchase Hulu on October 2011, but Hulu's owners chose not to sell the company. There was speculation that Dish Network might purchase Sprint Nextel or Clearwire. In 2013, Dish made a bid for both companies. CEO Charles Ergen plans on adding wireless internet and mobile video services that can compete with Netflix and cable companies. About the new markets, Ergen said, "Given the assets we've been accumulating, I don't think it's hard to see we're moving in a different direction from pay-TV, a market that's becoming saturated."Dish Network put its Blockbuster acquisition to work by making available Dish Movie Pack for Dish Network subscribers and Sling TV for non-Dish Network subscribers. Blockbuster has agreements that allow it to receive movies 28 days before Netflix and Redbox which could encourage customers to use these services. Dish Network plans on offering high-speed internet; the company plans a hybrid satellite/terrestrial mobile broadband service.
In 2011, it petitioned the FCC to combine the S-Band spectrum it acquired from DBSD and Terrestar, combine this spectrum with LTE. Unlike LightSquared, Dish's spectrum has minimal risk of disrupting Global Positioning Systems. At the 2012 Consumer Electronics Show, Dish Network announced a corporate rebranding, under which the company would publicly refer to itself as just "Dish" rather than "Dish Network". After changing the position of a satellite orbital position from being over Mexico to Brazil in 2011, Dish Network sought companies that could make a deal, among them Telefónica. However, nothing came of this, Dish decided to enter the country itself. According to the Brazilian Agency of Telecommunications, they await the authorization of the application. Dish's main service is satellite television, its offerings are similar to other cable companies. Viewers can choose from a series of service bundles. A la carte programming is available, however limited other than p
Do it yourself
"Do it yourself" is the method of building, modifying, or repairing things without the direct aid of experts or professionals. Academic research describes DIY as behaviors where "individuals engage raw and semi-raw materials and parts to produce, transform, or reconstruct material possessions, including those drawn from the natural environment". DIY behavior can be triggered by various motivations categorized as marketplace motivations, identity enhancement; the term "do-it-yourself" has been associated with consumers since at least 1912 in the domain of home improvement and maintenance activities. The phrase "do it yourself" had come into common usage by the 1950s, in reference to the emergence of a trend of people undertaking home improvement and various other small craft and construction projects as both a creative-recreational and cost-saving activity. Subsequently, the term DIY has taken on a broader meaning. DIY is associated with the international alternative rock, punk rock, indie rock music scenes, indymedia networks, pirate radio stations, the zine community.
In this context, DIY is related to the Arts and Crafts movement, in that it offers an alternative to modern consumer culture's emphasis on relying on others to satisfy needs. It has become prevalent in the personal finance; when investing in the stock one can utilize a professional advisor or partake in do-it-yourself investing. Italian archaeologists unearthed the ruins of a 6th-century BC Greek structure in southern Italy that came with detailed assembly instructions and is being called an "ancient IKEA building"; the structure was a temple-like building discovered at Torre Satriano, near the southern city of Potenza, in Basilicata, a region where local people mingled with Greeks who settled along the southern coast known as Magna Graecia and in Sicily from the 8th century BC onwards. Professor Christopher Smith, director of the British School at Rome, said that the discovery was "the clearest example yet found of mason's marks of the time, it looks as if someone was instructing others how to mass-produce components and put them together in this way".
Much like the instruction booklets, various sections of the luxury building were inscribed with coded symbols showing how the pieces slotted together. The characteristics of these inscriptions indicate they date back to around the 6th century BC, which tallies with the architectural evidence suggested by the decoration; the building was built by Greek artisans coming from the Spartan colony of Taranto in Apulia. In North America, there was a DIY magazine publishing niche in the first half of the twentieth century. Magazines such as Popular Mechanics and Mechanix Illustrated offered a way for readers to keep current on useful practical skills, techniques and materials; as many readers lived in rural or semi-rural regions much of the material related to their needs on the farm or in a small town. The DIY movement is a re-introduction of the old pattern of personal involvement and use of skills in the upkeep of a house or apartment, making clothes; the philosopher Alan Watts reflected a growing sentiment: Our educational system, in its entirety, does nothing to give us any kind of material competence.
In other words, we don't learn how to cook, how to make clothes, how to build houses, how to make love, or to do any of the fundamental things of life. The whole education that we get for our children in school is in terms of abstractions, it trains you to be some kind of cerebral character. In the 1970s, DIY spread through the North American population of college- and recent-college-graduate age groups. In part, this movement involved the renovation of affordable, rundown older homes, but it related to various projects expressing the social and environmental vision of the 1960s and early 1970s. The young visionary Stewart Brand, working with friends and family, using the most basic of typesetting and page-layout tools, published the first edition of The Whole Earth Catalog in late 1968; the first Catalog, its successors, used a broad definition of the term "tools". There were informational tools, such as books, professional journals, courses and the like. There were specialized, designed items, such as carpenters' and masons' tools, garden tools, welding equipment, fiberglass materials and so on — early personal computers.
The designer J. Baldwin acted as editor writing many of the reviews; the Catalog's publication both emerged from and spurred the great wave of experimentalism, convention-breaking, do-it-yourself attitude of the late 1960s. Copied, the Catalog appealed to a wide cross-section of people in North America and had a broad influence. DIY home improvement books burgeoned in the 1970s, first created as collections of magazine articles. An early, extensive line of DIY how-to books was created by Sunset Books, based upon published articles from their magazine, based in California. Time-Life, Better Homes and Gardens, Balcony Garden Web and other publishers soon followed suit. In the mid-1990s, DIY home-improvement content began to find its way onto the World Wide Web. HouseNet was the earliest bulletin-board style sit
A feature film or theatrical film is a film with a running time long enough to be considered the principal or sole film to fill a program. The term feature film referred to the main, full-length film in a cinema program that included a short film and a newsreel; the notion of how long a feature film should be has varied according to place. According to the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, the American Film Institute and the British Film Institute, a feature film runs for at least 45 minutes, while the Screen Actors Guild asserts that a feature's running time is 75 minutes or longer. Most feature films are between 210 minutes long; the first narrative feature film was the 60-minute The Story of the Kelly Gang. The first -feature-length adaptation was Les Misérables. Other early feature films include The Inferno, Defence of Sevastopol, Quo Vadis?, Oliver Twist, Richard III, From the Manger to the Cross and Cleopatra. The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, the American Film Institute, the British Film Institute all define a feature as a film with a running time of 2,700 seconds or longer.
The Centre National de la Cinématographie in France defines it as a 35 mm film longer than 1,600 metres, 58 minutes and 29 seconds for sound films, the Screen Actors Guild gives a minimum running time of at least 75 minutes. The term feature film came into use to refer to the main film presented in a cinema and the one, promoted or advertised; the term was used to distinguish the longer film from the short films presented before the main film, such as newsreels, animated cartoons, live-action comedies, documentaries. There was no sudden increase in the running times of films to the present-day definitions of feature-length. Early features had been produced in the United States and France, but were released in individual scenes; this left exhibitors the option of playing them alone, to view an incomplete combination of some films, or to run them all together as a short film series. Early features were documentary-style films of noteworthy events; some of the earliest feature-length productions were films of boxing matches, such as The Corbett-Fitzsimmons Fight, Reproduction Of The Corbett-Jeffries Fight, The Jeffries-Sharkey Fight.
Some consider the 100-minute The Corbett-Fitzsimmons Fight to be the first documentary feature film, but it is more characterized as a sports program as it included the full unedited boxing match. In 1900, the documentary film In the Army was made, it was about the training techniques of the British soldier. Inauguration of the Australian Commonwealth ran for 35 minutes, "six times longer than any previous Australian film", has been called "possibly the first feature-length documentary made in Australia"; the American company S. Lubin released a Passion Play titled Lubin's Passion Play in January 1903 in 31 parts, totaling about 60 minutes; the French company Pathé Frères released a different Passion Play, The Life and Passion of Jesus Christ, in May 1903 in 32 parts running about 44 minutes. Defined by length, the first dramatic feature film was the Australian 70-minute film The Story of the Kelly Gang; the first European feature was the 90-minute film L'Enfant prodigue, although, an unmodified record of a stage play.
The first Russian feature was Defence of Sevastopol in 1911. Early Italian features were The Inferno, Quo Vadis?, The Last Days of Pompeii, Cabiria. The first UK features were the documentary With Our King and Queen Through India, filmed in Kinemacolor and Oliver Twist; the first American features were adaptations of Oliver Twist, From the Manger to the Cross and Richard III. The latter starring actor Frederick Warde starred in some of these movie adaptations; the first Asian feature was Japan's The Life Story of Tasuke Shiobara, the first Indian feature was Raja Harishchandra, the first South American feature was Brazil's O Crime dos Banhados, the first African feature was South Africa's Die Voortrekkers. 1913 saw China's first feature film, Zhang Shichuan's Nan Fu Nan Qi. By 1915 over 600 feature films were produced annually in the United States, it is incorrectly cited that The Birth of a Nation was the first American feature film. The most prolific year of U. S. feature production was 1921, with 682 releases.
Between 1922 and 1970, the U. S. and Japan alternated as leaders in the quantity of feature film production. Since 1971, the country with the highest feature output has been India, which produces a thousand films in more than twelve Indian languages each year. In 1927, Warner Bros. released the first feature-length film with sound, The Jazz Singer, whose audio track was recorded with a proprietary technology called Vitaphone. The film's success persuaded other studios to go to the considerable expense of adding microphones to their sets, scramble to start producing their own "talkies". One of the next major advancements made in movie production was color film. Before color was a possibility in movies, early film makers were interested in how color could enhance their stories. Early technique
Cincinnati is a major city in the U. S. state of Ohio, is the government seat of Hamilton County. Settled in 1788, the city is located at the northern side of the confluence of the Licking and Ohio rivers, the latter of which marks the state line with Kentucky; the city drives the Cincinnati–Middletown–Wilmington combined statistical area, which had a population of 2,172,191 in the 2010 census making it Ohio's largest metropolitan area. With a population of 296,943, Cincinnati is the third-largest city in Ohio and 65th in the United States, its metropolitan area is the fastest growing economic power in the Midwestern United States based on increase of economic output and it is the 28th-largest metropolitan statistical area in the U. S. Cincinnati is within a day's drive of 49.70% of the United States populace. In the nineteenth century, Cincinnati was an American boomtown in the middle of the country. Throughout much of the 19th century, it was listed among the top 10 U. S. cities by population, surpassed only by New Orleans and the older, established settlements of the United States eastern seaboard, as well as being the sixth-biggest city for a period spanning 1840 until 1860.
As Cincinnati was the first city founded after the American Revolution, as well as the first major inland city in the country, it is regarded as the first purely "American" city. Cincinnati developed with fewer immigrants and less influence from Europe than East Coast cities in the same period. However, it received a significant number of German immigrants, who founded many of the city's cultural institutions. By the end of the 19th century, with the shift from steamboats to railroads drawing off freight shipping, trade patterns had altered and Cincinnati's growth slowed considerably; the city was surpassed in population by other inland cities Chicago, which developed based on strong commodity exploitation and the railroads, St. Louis, which for decades after the Civil War served as the gateway to westward migration. Cincinnati is home to three major sports teams: the Cincinnati Reds of Major League Baseball; the city's largest institution of higher education, the University of Cincinnati, was founded in 1819 as a municipal college and is now ranked as one of the 50 largest in the United States.
Cincinnati is home to historic architecture with many structures in the urban core having remained intact for 200 years. In the late 1800s, Cincinnati was referred to as the "Paris of America", due to such ambitious architectural projects as the Music Hall, Cincinnatian Hotel, Shillito Department Store. Cincinnati is the birthplace of the 27th President of the United States. Cincinnati began in 1788 when Mathias Denman, Colonel Robert Patterson, Israel Ludlow landed at a spot at the northern bank of the Ohio opposite the mouth of the Licking and decided to settle there; the original surveyor, John Filson, named it "Losantiville". In 1790, Arthur St. Clair, the governor of the Northwest Territory, changed the name of the settlement to "Cincinnati" in honor of the Society of the Cincinnati, made up of Revolutionary War veterans, of which he was a member; the introduction of steamboats on the Ohio River in 1811 opened up the city's trade to more rapid shipping, the city established commercial ties with St. Louis and New Orleans downriver.
Cincinnati was incorporated as a city on March 1, 1819. Exporting pork products and hay, it became a center of pork processing in the region. From 1810 to 1830 its population nearly tripled, from 9,642 to 24,831. Completion of the Miami and Erie Canal in 1827 to Middletown, Ohio further stimulated businesses, employers struggled to hire enough people to fill positions; the city had a labor shortage until large waves of immigration by Irish and Germans in the late 1840s. The city grew over the next two decades, reaching 115,000 people by the year 1850. Construction on the Miami and Erie Canal began on July 21, 1825, when it was called the Miami Canal, related to its origin at the Great Miami River; the first section of the canal was opened for business in 1827. In 1827, the canal connected Cincinnati to nearby Middletown. During this period of rapid expansion and prominence, residents of Cincinnati began referring to the city as the Queen City. After the steamboats, railroads were the next major form of commercial transportation to come to Cincinnati.
In 1836, the Little Miami Railroad was chartered. Construction began soon after, to connect Cincinnati with the Mad River and Lake Erie Railroad, provide access to the ports of the Sandusky Bay on Lake Erie. Cincinnati acted as a "border town" during the slave-owning period between 1810 and 1863, its location, on the border between the free state of Ohio and the slave state of Kentucky, made it a prominent location for slaves to escape the slave-owning south. Many prominent abolitionists called Cincinnati their home during this period, made it a popular stop on the Underground Railroad. In 2004, the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center was completed along Freedom Way in Downtown, honoring the city's past involvement in the Underground Railroad. In 1859, Cincinnati laid out six streetcar lines. By 1872, Cincinnatians could travel on the streetcars within the city and transfer to rail cars for travel to the hill communities; the Cincinnati Inclined Plane Company began transporting people t
Rookie Blue is a Canadian police drama television series starring Missy Peregrym and Gregory Smith. It was created by Tassie Cameron and Ellen Vanstone; the police drama premiered on June 24, 2010, at 9:00 p.m. Eastern/8:00 p.m. Central, aired on Global in Canada and ABC in the United States. On July 17, 2013, Global and ABC announced. Intended to be a single season consisting of 22 episodes, the season was split in two. Season 5 premiered in 2014 - May 19 on Global, on June 19 on ABC, on July 20 on Universal Channel in the UK; the second 11 episodes aired in 2015 and were re-branded as season 6. The final episode of Season 6 aired that July. On October 16, 2015, it was announced that Rookie Blue had completed its run after six seasons and would not be returning. There's something primal about the idea of being a rookie—it hits that horrible, eternal sense of feeling like a fraud, like a kid dressed in grown-up clothes, trying to pretend you know what you're doing, and I thought, what if you were feeling just like that—but with a gun?
—Tassie Cameron, Executive Producer Set in Toronto, the series follows the lives of five rookie cops from fictional 15 Division who have just graduated from the academy. Training's over, life begins, they must learn not only to deal with their duties as police officers, but deal with the problems and expectation of their families and friends. They are first responders and they are about to learn that no amount of training prepares you for life."To serve, protect and..." is used in the parade room before shift starts by the cop leading the reunion. It always has a significant meaning in the episode context; the one they use more though is "to serve and don't screw up". It has been described as Grey's Anatomy in the world of rookie cops; the series is set in Toronto. The streets are recognizable, as is the case with Jameson Avenue in Parkdale, the location of a call-out in the pilot episode. Missy Peregrym portrays the series protagonist, she is driven by the desire to do the right thing if it means not following procedure.
Her father, Tommy McNally, was a homicide detective before he burned out. As a result, McNally carries her father's baggage, trying to prove herself. Andy is the most positive person on the job—because she knows first-hand where the job can take you, she does not want to go there, her mother, Claire, is a social services worker. She studied Sociology/Psychology before becoming a cop and she was an A student. At the beginning of the series she begins a relationship with homicide detective Luke Callaghan, the two move in together at the end of season 1, although she and her training officer, Sam Swarek, have a palpable chemistry. After having shot her first person on the job, she is confused and runs to him, intending to sleep with him in order to stop thinking. Before it progresses too far, she walks out on him, something that leaves them in discomfort for several episodes, she becomes engaged to Callaghan but breaks up with him after he sleeps with his ex-girlfriend, Detective Jo Rosati. She admits that she has feelings for Swarek, but by the time she is ready to tell him he has left on an undercover mission.
The last three episodes of Season 2 show viewers the beginning of Swarek and McNally's relationship though he is undercover, which leads them both to suspension for "conduct unbecoming" when they are discovered. In the beginning of season 3, Andy returns from a trip after her three months' suspension and gets her job back as well as restarting her relationship with Swarek; when her mother appears in her life due to a work case, she decides to let her back in after she asks for a second chance. After Detective Barber's death, Swarek breaks up with her. After a month and a half, in a life-threatening situation when she is holding a grenade, Swarek says to her that he loves her and he tries to get her back, but for Andy, it is too late. Detective Callaghan asks her to participate in a task force, which will keep her isolated and away from 15 Division for an extended period of time, she accepts but has to leave which leaves Swarek drinking at the Penny while waiting for her. In the first episode of season 4, when she returns, she finds out he has been dating Officer Marlo Cruz while she was gone.
She is a bit competitive but decides to move on. She becomes closer to Nick Collins, her partner undercover, resulting in the two of them beginning a new relationship; when Sam gets shot in the season 4 finale, she goes in the ambulance with Sam, confesses that she still loves him. It is shown in season 5. At the end of season 5, Andy escapes unharmed. In Season 6, when it is revealed that Marlo is pregnant with Sam's child, it causes tension between Andy and Sam, with Andy feeling left out. However, their relationship remains strong and they marry at the end of Season 6. Charlotte Sullivan portrays Gail Peck, she spent a few years as a half-goth. Underneath her caustic exterior, Gail feels lonely; because of her connections to high-ranking officials in the police force she is seen by others as getting preferential treatment. Her mother is a superintendent, her father is an inspector, her brother a successful narcotics detective, her godfather is the chief of police; because of this, she feels the need to prove to herself and others that she can do the job without help, which further is
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Saving Hope is a Canadian supernatural medical drama television series set in the fictional Hope Zion Hospital in Toronto, Ontario. The show's premise originated with Malcolm MacRury and Morwyn Brebner, who are both credited as creators and executive producers; the pilot was filmed in Toronto. Saving Hope aired from June 7, 2012, to August 3, 2017, on CTV, on NBC for its first season. During the course of the series, 85 episodes of Saving Hope aired over five seasons; the protagonist of the show is Dr. Alex Reid, a doctor whose fiancé, Dr. Charles Harris, is in a coma after a car accident while on his way to their wedding; the show follows the life of Charlie in his comatose state and Alex dealing with her patients, all the while hoping that he will survive. Dr. Reid is the Chief Surgical Resident while Dr. Harris was the Chief of Surgery until his accident. Dr. Harris recovers at the end of season 1, but in subsequent seasons he continues to be able to see the spirits of comatose and dead patients.
The show stars Dr. Joel Goran, an orthopedic surgeon and Alex's former lover. Reid works alongside Dr. Shahir Hamza, a neurosurgeon, Dr. Maggie Lin, a third year surgical resident on rotation in the General Surgery department, Dr. Gavin Murphy, a psychiatry resident, Dr. Zachary Miller, the ER doctor, OR nurse Victor Reis, Dr. Tom Reycraft, Dr. Melanda Tolliver, Dr. Dawn Bell, a cardiologist, Charlie's ex-wife. Erica Durance as Dr. Alex Reid: At the start of the series, Chief Surgical Resident and Charlie Harris' fiancée. Michael Shanks as Dr. Charles "Charlie" Harris: Chief of Surgery, orthopedic surgeon, Alex's fiancé. Daniel Gillies as Dr. Joel Goran: New orthopedic surgeon at Hope Zion and Alex's on-and-off boyfriend. Huse Madhavji as Dr. Shahir Hamza: Chief of Neurosurgery, skilled but awkward due to his Asperger syndrome. Julia Taylor Ross as Dr. Maggie Lin: A third year surgical resident on rotation in the hospital's General Surgery department and in the OB-GYN department. Kristopher Turner as Dr. Gavin Murphy: A psychiatry resident and Maggie's former boyfriend.
Wendy Crewson as Dr. Dana Kinney: Chief of Plastic Surgery, appointed Interim Chief of Surgery following Charlie's coma. Benjamin Ayres as Dr. Zach Miller: An ER doctor. Glenda Braganza as Dr. Melanda Tolliver: A friend of Alex's and an ICU doctor. Salvatore Antonio as Victor Reis: An OR nurse and Shahir's former boyfriend. K. C. Collins as Dr. Tom Reycraft: A fourth year surgical resident, appointed Chief Surgical Resident in place of Alex. Joseph Pierre as Jackson Wade: An ICU nurse. Michelle Nolden as Dr. Dawn Bell: A cardiologist and Charlie's ex-wife chief of staff. Stacey Farber as Dr. Sydney Katz: An OB/GYN. Kim Shaw as Dr. Cassie Williams: A book-smart intern learning to apply the applications of medication rather than just reading about them. Conrad Coates as Bryan Travers: The main executive of Hope Zion. Steve Cumyn as Dr. George Baumann: An anesthesiologist. Mac Fyfe as Dr. James Dey: A psychiatry resident. Max Bennett as Dr. Patrick Curtis: A general surgeon and surgical fellow who filled in for Alex during her maternity leave.
Dejan Loyola as Dr. Dev Sekara: A junior resident doctor. Parveen Kaur as Dr. Asha Mirani: A junior resident doctor. Jess Salgueiro as Nurse Carbrera: A nurse. Nicole Underhay as Kristine Fields: A nurse in palliative care who, like Charlie, is a medium. Peter Mooney as Dr. Jeremy Bishop: A general surgeon and who has a past with Charlie. Allison Wilson-Forbes as Nurse Alice: A nurse who works in the ER. Jarod Joseph as Dr. Emanuel Palmer: A young interventional radiologist with a unique prospective and a laissez-faire attitude. Greg Calderone as Dr. Billy Scott: A new transfer intern and Dev's former med school rival. Christopher Jacot as Jonathan: Shahir's boyfriend; the series premiered on June 7, 2012 on both CTV in NBC in the United States. On July 25, 2012, CTV ordered a second, 13 episode season for the summer of 2013. NBC, pulled the show's final two episodes from its broadcast schedule and made them available on their official website. On November 16, 2012, CTV announced they had increased their episode order for season 2 to eighteen episodes.
On November 7, 2013, CTV ordered a third season of Saving Hope that consisted of eighteen episodes and aired in 2014. On November 10, 2014, CTV ordered a fourth season of Saving Hope that consisted of eighteen episodes, premiered on September 24. 2015. On December 17, 2015, CTV ordered a fifth and final season of Saving Hope that consisted of 18 episodes. In 2015, Ion Television announced that they had secured the American broadcast rights to the show, began airing it in 2016. Malcolm MacRury and Morwyn Brebner devised the concept of the series. MacRury had co-created the comedy series Republic of Doyle for CBC, while Brebner had co-created television drama Rookie Blue for the Global Television Network. Canadian broadcaster CTV had picked up the pilot episode in November 2011. Executive producers of the show went to Los Angeles, California, to pitch the series to U. S. broadcasters. Their efforts convinced NBC to pick up the series for airing in the United States. CTV and NBC ordered 13 episodes f