Ephesus was an ancient Greek city on the coast of Ionia, three kilometres southwest of present-day Selçuk in İzmir Province, Turkey. It was built in the 10th century BC on the site of the former Arzawan capital by Attic and Ionian Greek colonists. During the Classical Greek era it was one of the twelve cities of the Ionian League; the city flourished after it came under the control of the Roman Republic in 129 BC. The city was famed for the nearby Temple of one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Among many other monumental buildings are the Library of Celsus, a theatre capable of holding 25,000 spectators. Ephesos was one of the seven churches of Asia; the Gospel of John may have been written here. The city was the site of several 5th-century Christian Councils; the city was destroyed by the Goths in 263, although rebuilt, the city's importance as a commercial centre declined as the harbour was silted up by the Küçükmenderes River. It was destroyed by an earthquake in AD 614; the ruins of Ephesus are a favourite international and local tourist attraction owing to their easy access from Adnan Menderes Airport or from the cruise ship port of Kuşadası, some 30 km to the South.
The area surrounding Ephesus was inhabited during the Neolithic Age, as was revealed by excavations at the nearby höyük of Arvalya and Cukurici. Excavations in recent years have unearthed settlements from the early Bronze Age at Ayasuluk Hill. According to Hittite sources, the capital of the Kingdom of Arzawa was Apasa; some scholars suggest that this is the Greek Ephesus. In 1954, a burial ground from the Mycenaean era with ceramic pots was discovered close to the ruins of the basilica of St. John; this was the period of the Mycenaean Expansion when the Achaioi settled in Asia Minor during the 14th and 13th centuries BC. The names Apasa and Ephesus appear to be cognate, found inscriptions seem to pinpoint the places in the Hittite record. Ephesus was founded as an Attic-Ionian colony in the 10th century BC on a hill, three kilometers from the centre of ancient Ephesus; the mythical founder of the city was a prince of Athens named Androklos, who had to leave his country after the death of his father, King Kodros.
According to the legend, he founded Ephesus on the place. Androklos drove away most of the native Carian and Lelegian inhabitants of the city and united his people with the remainder, he was a successful warrior, as a king he was able to join the twelve cities of Ionia together into the Ionian League. During his reign the city began to prosper, he died in a battle against the Carians when he came to the aid of Priene, another city of the Ionian League. Androklos and his dog are depicted on the Hadrian temple frieze. Greek historians such as Pausanias and Herodotos and the poet Kallinos reassigned the city's mythological foundation to Ephos, queen of the Amazons; the Greek goddess Artemis and the great Anatolian goddess Kybele were identified together as Artemis of Ephesus. The many-breasted "Lady of Ephesus", identified with Artemis, was venerated in the Temple of Artemis, one of the Seven Wonders of the World and the largest building of the ancient world according to Pausanias. Pausanias mentions that the temple was built by Ephesus, son of the river god Caystrus, before the arrival of the Ionians.
Of this structure, scarcely a trace remains. Ancient sources seem to indicate. About 650 BC, Ephesus was attacked by the Cimmerians who razed the city, including the temple of Artemis. After the Cimmerians had been driven away, the city was ruled by a series of tyrants. Following a revolt by the people, Ephesus was ruled by a council; the city prospered again under a new rule, producing a number of important historical figures such as the elegiac poet Callinus and the iambic poet Hipponax, the philosopher Heraclitus, the great painter Parrhasius and the grammarian Zenodotos and physicians Soranus and Rufus. About 560 BC, Ephesus was conquered by the Lydians under king Croesus, though a harsh ruler, treated the inhabitants with respect and became the main contributor to the reconstruction of the temple of Artemis, his signature has been found on the base of one of the columns of the temple. Croesus made the populations of the different settlements around Ephesus regroup in the vicinity of the Temple of Artemis, enlarging the city.
In the same century, the Lydians under Croesus invaded Persia. The Ionians refused a peace offer from siding with the Lydians instead. After the Persians defeated Croesus, the Ionians offered to make peace, but Cyrus insisted that they surrender and become part of the empire, they were defeated by the Persian army commander Harpagos in 547 BC. The Persians incorporated the Greek cities of Asia Minor into the Achaemenid Empire; those cities were ruled by satraps. Ephesus has intrigued archaeologists because for the Archaic Period there is no definite location for the settlement. There are numerous sites to suggest the movement of a settlement between the Bronze Age and the Roman period, but the silting up of the natural harbou
Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+
Anaximenes of Miletus
Anaximenes of Miletus was an Ancient Greek Pre-Socratic philosopher active in the latter half of the 6th century BC. The details of his life are undocumented because none of his work has been preserved. Anaximenes’s ideas and philosophies are known today because of comments made by Aristotle and other writers on the history of Greek Philosophy. Apollodurus noted the dates Anaximander was alive in relation to defining historical events, estimated Anaximenes’s lifespan to occur in same time period that Cyrus beat Croesus in the Battle of Thymbra in 546 BCE; some of his writings survived the Hellenistic Age, but no record of these documents exist. As one of the three Milesian philosophers that were considered the first revolutionary thinkers of the Western world, he is best known and identified as a younger friend or student of Anaximander. Much of his astronomical thought was based on Anaximander’s, but he altered Anaximander’s astrological ideas to better fit his own philosophical views on physics and the natural world.
The Ionian school was the first school on record that encouraged their pupils to constructively criticize their master’s teachings, which aptly demonstrated a tolerance toward new ideas and logic for their time. Thales taught Anaximander, Anaximander taught Anaximenes; each philosopher developed a distinct system of cosmology without rejecting their teacher’s view of universe or creating major disagreement between them. Anaximenes, like others in his school of thought, practiced material monism; this tendency to identify one specific underlying reality made up of a material thing is what Anaximenes is principally known for today. Anaximenes was the last known Milesian philosopher, as Miletus was taken over by the Persian army in 494 BC; because none of his works contain theological references, there is no evidence as to whether or not he practiced religion or if he was an atheist. While his predecessors Thales and Anaximander proposed that the archai were water and the ambiguous substance apeiron Anaximenes asserted that aer was this primary substance of which all natural things are made.
By rejecting his teacher’s theory based on the concept of discontinuity, Anaximenes took a more empirical approach to understanding the underlying processes of genesis and change on two assumptions: origination retains properties of the aperion, but it has an tangible state of existence as air that can evolve other substances and genesis and change depend on a cohesive, mechanistic process known as condensation and rarefaction. He believed that air was divine. Anaximenes was first to use the word Pneuma as a synonym with air. One of the only surviving quotes by Anaximenes reads, “Just as our soul...being air holds us together, so pneuma and air encompass the whole world.” The analogy compared atmospheric air as the human air as souls that animate people. This relation of the macroscopic and microscopic suggested Anaximenes believed there was an overarching principle that regulated all life and behavior, he thought air was the primary substance that held the Universe together. Interestingly, The Old Testament features a similar analogy to the founding of the world and creation of man, but Anaximenes did not recognize a creator of the universe and did not think the pneuma as a creator to guide man.
The choice of air may seem arbitrary, but Anaximenes based his conclusion on observable phenomena in the processes of rarefaction and condensation. The primary difference in the forms of air as matter was the degree of density; when air condenses it becomes visible, according to Anaximenes, the spread-out, infinite air was condensed to wind formed into clouds, which condensed further to produce mist and other forms of precipitation. As the condensed air cooled, Anaximenes supposed that Earth itself was an early condensate of air-- the process continued until the air was condensed enough to form solids like the Earth and stones. By contrast, Anaximenes was able to visually see how water evaporates into air and based his concept of rarefaction on this observation. According to him, any object that held light was made of fire, fire was made from the rarefaction of air. While other philosophers recognized such transitions in states of matter, Anaximenes was the first to associate the qualitative change in hot/dry and cold/wet pairings with the density of a single material adding a quantitative dimension to the Milesian monistic system.
He attributed condensation to cold/wet rarefaction to the interaction of hot/dry air. This concept was the foundation for understanding the existence of different substances and elements due to their arrangement of atoms and number of subatomic particles. Since language and communication were limited in his time, Anaximenes’s analogies were key in explaining the uncertain through the certain. For example, he knew for certain that blowing air on his hand with his mouth wide open produced hot air, while blowing on his hand with half-closed lips produced cold air; these observations were key in his postulate that the hot air was due to rarefaction and expansion, whereas the cold air was due to condensation and compression. Although in modern times it is known that this is the opposite, Anaximenes was key in arriving at this conclusion, his analogies connected parallels between man and the cosmos, insinuating that the same natural laws observable on earth applied to the heavens. Over 2000 years Isaac Newton proved this to be true.
Throughout history, Anaximenes’
Miletus was an ancient Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia, near the mouth of the Maeander River in ancient Caria. Its ruins are located near the modern village of Balat in Turkey. Before the Persian invasion in the middle of the 6th century BC, Miletus was considered the greatest and wealthiest of Greek cities. Evidence of first settlement at the site has been made inaccessible by the rise of sea level and deposition of sediments from the Maeander; the first available evidence is of the Neolithic. In the early and middle Bronze age the settlement came under Minoan influence. Legend has it; the site was renamed Miletus after a place in Crete. The Late Bronze Age, 13th century BC, saw the arrival of Luwian language speakers from south central Anatolia calling themselves the Carians. In that century other Greeks arrived; the city at that time rebelled against the Hittite Empire. After the fall of that empire the city was destroyed in the 12th century BC and starting about 1000 BC was resettled extensively by the Ionian Greeks.
Legend offers an Ionian foundation event sponsored by a founder named Neleus from the Peloponnesus. The Greek Dark Ages were a time of Ionian settlement and consolidation in an alliance called the Ionian League; the Archaic Period of Greece began with a sudden and brilliant flash of art and philosophy on the coast of Anatolia. In the 6th century BC, Miletus was the site of origin of the Greek philosophical tradition, when Thales, followed by Anaximander and Anaximenes began to speculate about the material constitution of the world, to propose speculative naturalistic explanations for various natural phenomena. Miletus is the birthplace of the Hagia Sophia's architect Isidore of Miletus and Thales, a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher in c. 624 BC. The ruins appear on satellite maps at 37°31.8'N 27°16.7'E, about 3 km north of Balat and 3 km east of Batıköy in Aydın Province, Turkey. In antiquity the city possessed a Harbor at the southern entry of a large bay, on which two more of the traditional twelve Ionian cities stood: Priene and Myus.
The harbor of Miletus was additionally protected by the nearby small island of Lade. Over the centuries the gulf silted up with alluvium carried by the Meander River. Priene and Myus had lost their harbors by the Roman era, Miletus itself became an inland town in the early Christian era. There is a Great Harbor Monument where, according to the New Testament account, the apostle Paul stopped on his way back to Jerusalem by boat, he met the Ephesian Elders and headed out to the beach to bid them farewell, recorded in the book of Acts 20:17-38. During the Pleistocene epoch the Miletus region was submerged in the Aegean Sea, it subsequently emerged the sea reaching a low level of about 130 meters below present level at about 18,000 BP. The site of Miletus was part of the mainland. A gradual rise brought a level of about 1.75 meters below present at about 5500 BP, creating several karst block islands of limestone, the location of the first settlements at Miletus. At about 1500 BC the karst shifted due to small crustal movements and the islands consolidated into a peninsula.
Since the sea has risen 1.75 m but the peninsula has been surrounded by sediment from the Maeander river and is now land-locked. Sedimentation of the harbor began at about 1000 BC, by AD 300 Lake Bafa had been created; the earliest available archaeological evidence indicates that the islands on which Miletus was placed were inhabited by a Neolithic population in 3500–3000 BC. Pollen in core samples from Lake Bafa in the Latmus region inland of Miletus suggests that a grazed climax forest prevailed in the Maeander valley, otherwise untenanted. Sparse Neolithic settlements were made at springs and sometimes geothermal in this karst, rift valley topography; the islands offshore were settled for their strategic significance at the mouth of the Maeander, a route inland protected by escarpments. The graziers in the valley may have belonged to them. Recorded history at Miletus begins with the records of the Hittite Empire and the Mycenaean records of Pylos and Knossos, in the Late Bronze Age; the prehistoric archaeology of the Early and Middle Bronze Age portrays a city influenced by society and events elsewhere in the Aegean, rather than inland.
Beginning at about 1900 BC artifacts of the Minoan civilization acquired by trade arrived at Miletus. For some centuries the location received a strong impulse from that civilization, an archaeological fact that tends to support but not confirm the founding legend—that is, a population influx, from Crete. According to Strabo:Ephorus says: Miletus was first founded and fortified above the sea by Cretans, where the Miletus of olden times is now situated, being settled by Sarpedon, who brought colonists from the Cretan Miletus and named the city after that Miletus, the place being in possession of the Leleges; the legends recounted as history by the ancient historians and geographers are the strongest. Miletus was a Mycenaean stronghold on the coast of Asia Minor from c. 1450 to 1100 BC. In c. 1320 BC, the city supported an anti-Hittite rebellion of Uhha-Ziti of nearby Arzawa. Muršili or
Classical elements refer to the concepts—earth, air and aether—which were proposed to explain the nature and complexity of all matter in terms of simpler substances. Ancient cultures in Greece, Japan and India had similar lists, sometimes referring in local languages to "air" as "wind" and the fifth element as "void"; the Chinese Wu Xing system lists Wood, Earth and Water, though these are described more as energies or transitions rather than as types of material. These different cultures and individual philosophers had varying explanations concerning their attributes and how they related to observable phenomena as well as cosmology. Sometimes these theories were personified in deities; some of these interpretations included atomism but other interpretations considered the elements to be divisible into infinitely small pieces without changing their nature. While the classification of the material world in ancient Indian, Hellenistic Egypt, ancient Greece into Air, Earth and Water was more philosophical, during the Islamic Golden Age medieval middle eastern scientists used practical, experimental observation to classify materials.
In Europe, the Ancient Greek system of Aristotle evolved into the medieval system, which for the first time in Europe became subject to experimental verification in the 1600s, during the Scientific Revolution. Modern science does not support the classical elements as the material basis of the physical world. Atomic theory classifies atoms into more than a hundred chemical elements such as oxygen and mercury; these elements form chemical compounds and mixtures, under different temperatures and pressures, these substances can adopt different states of matter. The most observed states of solid, liquid and plasma share many attributes with the classical elements of earth, water and fire but these states are due to similar behavior of different types of atoms at similar energy levels, not due to containing a certain type of atom or a certain type of substance. In classical thought, the four elements earth, water and fire as proposed by Empedocles occur; the concept of the five elements formed a basis of analysis in both Buddhism.
In Hinduism in an esoteric context, the four states-of-matter describe matter, a fifth element describes that, beyond the material world. Similar lists existed in ancient China and Japan. In Buddhism the four great elements, to which two others are sometimes added, are not viewed as substances, but as categories of sensory experience. In Babylonian mythology, the cosmogony called Enûma Eliš, a text written between the 18th and 16th centuries BC, involves four gods that we might see as personified cosmic elements: sea, sky, wind. In other Babylonian texts these phenomena are considered independent of their association with deities, though they are not treated as the component elements of the universe, as in Empedocles; the system of five elements are found in Vedas Ayurveda, the pancha mahabhuta, or "five great elements", of Hinduism are bhūmi, ap or jala, tejas or agni, vayu or pavan and vyom or shunya or akash. They further suggest that all of creation, including the human body, is made up of these five essential elements and that upon death, the human body dissolves into these five elements of nature, thereby balancing the cycle of nature.
The five elements are associated with the five senses, act as the gross medium for the experience of sensations. The basest element, created using all the other elements, can be perceived by all five senses – hearing, sight and smell; the next higher element, has no odor but can be heard, felt and tasted. Next comes fire, which can be heard and seen. Air can be felt. "Akasha" is beyond the senses of smell, taste and touch. In the Pali literature, the mahabhuta or catudhatu are earth, water and air. In early Buddhism, the four elements are a basis for understanding suffering and for liberating oneself from suffering; the earliest Buddhist texts explain that the four primary material elements are the sensory qualities solidity, fluidity and mobility. The Buddha's teaching regarding the four elements is to be understood as the base of all observation of real sensations rather than as a philosophy; the four properties are cohesion, solidity or inertia, expansion or vibration and heat or energy content.
He promulgated a categorization of mind and matter as composed of eight types of "kalapas" of which the four elements are primary and a secondary group of four are color, smell and nutriment which are derivative from the four primaries. Thanissaro Bhikkhu renders an extract of Shakyamuni Buddha's from Pali into English thus: Just as a skilled butcher or his apprentice, having killed a cow, would sit at a crossroads cutting it up into pieces, the monk contemplates this body – however it stands, however it is disposed – in terms of properties:'In this body there is the earth property, the liquid property, the fire pro
The Milesian school was a school of thought founded in the 6th century BC. The ideas associated with it are exemplified by three philosophers from the Ionian town of Miletus, on the Aegean coast of Asia Minor: Thales and Anaximenes, they introduced new opinions contrary to the prevailing belief of how the world was organized, in which natural phenomena were explained by the will of anthropomorphized gods. The Milesians conceived of nature in terms of methodologically observable entities, as such was one of the first scientific philosophies; the Milesian school is not synonymous with the Ionian, which includes the philosophies of the Milesians plus distinctly different Ionian thinkers such as Heraclitus. The Ionian School contains the three philosophers that form the Milesian School as well as a few more who were added on during the 5th Century, but the Ionian School looked more into the thought behind everything while the Milesian School was more focused on nature. History of metaphysical naturalism Ionian Enlightenment Ionian School Pre-Socratic philosophy Lahaye, Robert.
La philosophie ionienne. L'École de Milet, Cèdre, Paris, 1966
Ionia was an ancient region on the central part of the western coast of Anatolia in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir, Smyrna. It consisted of the northernmost territories of the Ionian League of Greek settlements. Never a unified state, it was named after the Ionian tribe who, in the Archaic Period, settled the shores and islands of the Aegean Sea. Ionian states were identified by their use of Eastern Greek. Ionia proper comprised a narrow coastal strip from Phocaea in the north near the mouth of the river Hermus, to Miletus in the south near the mouth of the river Maeander, included the islands of Chios and Samos, it was bounded by Aeolia to Lydia to the east and Caria to the south. The cities within the region figured large in the strife between the Persian Empire and the Greeks. According to Greek tradition, the cities of Ionia were founded by colonists from the other side of the Aegean, their settlement was connected with the legendary history of the Ionic people in Attica, which asserts that the colonists were led by Neleus and Androclus, sons of Codrus, the last king of Athens.
In accordance with this view the "Ionic migration", as it was called by chronologers, was dated by them one hundred and forty years after the Trojan War, or sixty years after the return of the Heracleidae into the Peloponnese. Ionia was of small extent, not exceeding 150 kilometres in length from north to south, with a breadth varying from 60 to 90 kilometres, but to this must be added the peninsula of Mimas, together with the two islands. So intricate is the coastline that the voyage along its shores was estimated at nearly four times the direct distance. A great part of this area was, occupied by mountains. Of these the most lofty and striking were Mimas and Corycus, in the peninsula which stands out to the west, facing the island of Chios. None of these mountains attains a height of more than 1,200 metres; the district comprised three fertile valleys formed by the outflow of three rivers, among the most considerable in Asia Minor: the Hermus in the north, flowing into the Gulf of Smyrna, though at some distance from the city of that name.
With the advantage of a peculiarly fine climate, for which this part of Asia Minor has been famous in all ages, Ionia enjoyed the reputation in ancient times of being the most fertile of all the rich provinces of Asia Minor. The geography of Ionia placed it in a strategic position, both advantageous and disadvantageous. Ionia was always a maritime power founded by a people who made their living by trade in peaceful times and marauding in unsettled times; the coast was rocky and the arable land slight. The native Luwians for the most part kept their fields further inland and used the rift valleys for wooded pasture; the coastal cities were placed in defensible positions on islands or headlands situated so as to control inland routes up the rift valleys. The people of those valleys were of different ethnicity; the populations of the cities came from many civilizations in the eastern Mediterranean. Ancient demographics are available only from literary sources. Herodotus states that in Asia the Ionians kept the division into twelve cities that had prevailed in Ionian lands of the north Peloponnese, their former homeland, which became Achaea after they left.
These Asian cities were Miletus, Priene, Colophon, Teos, Erythrae and Phocaea, together with Samos and Chios. Smyrna an Aeolic colony, was afterwards occupied by Ionians from Colophon, became an Ionian city — an event which had taken place before the time of Herodotus; these cities do not match those of Achaea. Moreover, the Achaea of Herodotus' time spoke Doric, but in Homer it is portrayed as being in the kingdom of Mycenae, which most spoke Mycenaean Greek, not Doric. If the Ionians came from Achaea, they departed during or after the change from East Greek to West Greek there. Mycenaean continued to evolve in the mountainous region of Arcadia. There is no record of any people named Ionians in Late Bronze Age Anatolia but Hittite texts record the Achaeans of Ahhiyawa, of location not certain, but in touch with the Hittites of that time. Miletus and some other cities founded earlier by non-Greeks received populations of Mycenaean Greeks under the name of Achaeans; the tradition of Ionian colonizers from Achaea suggests that they may have been known by both names then.
In the absence of archaeological evidence of discontinuity at Miletus the Achaean population whatever their name appears to have descended to archaic Ionia, which does not exclude the possibility of another colonizing and founding event from Athens. In the Indian historic literary texts, the Ionians are referred to as "yavana" or "yona", are described as wearing leather and wielding whips. In modern Turkish, the people of that region and the Greeks were called "yunan" and