The Ionian Sea is an elongated bay of the Mediterranean Sea, south of the Adriatic Sea. It is bounded by Southern Italy including Calabria and the Salento peninsula to the west, southern Albania to the north, the west coast of Greece. All major islands in the sea belong to Greece, they are collectively named the Ionian Islands, the main ones being Corfu, Zakynthos and Ithaca. There are ferry routes between Patras and Igoumenitsa and Brindisi and Ancona, that cross the east and north of the Ionian Sea, from Piraeus westward. Calypso Deep, the deepest point in the Mediterranean at −5,267 m, is located in the Ionian Sea, at 36°34′N 21°8′E; the sea is one of the most seismically active areas in the world. The name Ionian comes from the Greek language Ἰόνιον, its etymology is unknown. Ancient Greek writers Aeschylus, linked it to the myth of Io. In Ancient Greek the adjective Ionios was used as an epithet for the sea because Io swam across it. According to the Oxford Classical Dictionary, the name may derive from Ionians who sailed to the West.
There were narratives about other eponymic legendary figures. When Dyrrhachus was attacked by his own brothers, passing through the area, came to his aid, but in the fight the hero killed his ally's son by mistake; the body was cast into the water, thereafter was called the Ionian Sea. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Ionian Sea as follows: On the North. A line running from the mouth of the Butrinto River in Albania, to Cape Karagol in Corfu, along the North Coast of Corfu to Cape Kephali and from thence to Cape Santa Maria di Leuca in Italy. On the East. From the mouth of the Butrinto River in Albania down the coast of the mainland to Cape Matapan. On the South. A line from Cape Matapan to Cape Passero, the Southern point of Sicily. On the West; the East coast of Sicily and the Southeast coast of Italy to Cape Santa Maria di Leuca. From south to north in the west north to south in the east: Syracuse, port, W Catania, port, W Messina, port, W Taranto, port N Himara, small port, NE Saranda, port and a beach, NE Kerkyra, port, E Igoumenitsa, port, E Parga, small port, E Preveza, port, E Astakos, port, E Argostoli, port, E Patra, port, E Kyparissia, port, E Pylos, port, E Methoni, small port and a beach Ionian Islands Strait of Messina, W Gulf of Catania, W Gulf of Augusta, W Gulf of Taranto, NW Gulf of Squillace, NW Ambracian Gulf, E Gulf of Patras, connecting the Gulf of Corinth, ESE Gulf of Kyparissia, SE Messenian Gulf, SE Laconian Gulf, ESE Corfu Kefalonia Ithaca Zakynthos Lefkada Paxi Kythira Calypso Deep The Ionian-Puglia Network of Ground Meteorological Stations
The Legibility Group is a series of serif typefaces created by the American Mergenthaler Linotype Company and intended for use in newspapers on Linotype's hot metal typesetting system. They were developed in-house by Linotype's design team, led by Chauncey H. Griffith, released from 1922, when the first member, Ionic No. 5, appeared. Griffith's aim with the Legibility Group typefaces was to create a design with more body than the rather spindly Didone typefaces standard in newspaper printing. To this end, the designs have low contrast in stroke weight, wide open counters and ball terminals, intended to make the letters distinguishable when printed on poor-quality newsprint paper; the Legibility Group typefaces were popular and remained used by many newspapers worldwide throughout the metal type period and beyond. A notable exception is Monotype's Times New Roman, created to take advantage of the unusually high standard of printing of the Times in the 1930s. In 1972, British printing manager Allen Hutt commented that "the majority of the world's newspapers are typeset in one or another of the traditional Linotype'Legibility Group', most of the rest in their derivatives."
The family became a large group due to the creation of different designs for different printing conditions, such as levels of inking used in different newspaper production processes and versions with different x-heights. Linotype carried out a survey of optometrists as part of their research process. Ionic No. 5 — the first in the family and successful. Sometimes criticised for having too high an x-height, making lower-case letters wide and reducing the difference between an "n" and an "h". Bitstream Inc.'s News 701 typeface is an unofficial digitisation. Textype — similar but with a lower x-height, giving a more delicate structure with more contrast between letters with and without ascenders. Excelsior — reduced x-height and intended for rubber-roller presses. Linotype has described its use as most common "in Europe, where newspaper columns are wide."Opticon — heavier, to compensate for printing that deliberately underinks to favour halftones. Paragon — lighter, to compensate for newspapers that deliberately overink to favour text and headlines.
Corona — condensed and large on the body. Walter Tracy praised it for carrying "the design of newspaper types to a new level."Although not part of the family, Linotype marketed its sans-serif family Metro and slab serif face Memphis as effective complements for headings. The Legibility Group faces resemble the "modern" or Didone faces of the nineteenth century, with ball terminals, a curled leg on the "R" and a looped "Q". However, stroke contrast is limited and the apertures are held wide open to differentiate letters; as the name "Ionic No. 5" suggests, the "legibility group" typefaces resembled slab serif typefaces of the nineteenth century, variously called "Clarendon" or "Ionic", but it is modified from these to have a build suitable for body text. Hutt suggests that the design was based on the popular family of the name Ionic from Miller & Richard and copies from other foundries bolder than was considered normal for body text during the late nineteenth century. G. Willem Ovink, has argued that a more direct influence was American Type Founders' Century Expanded a Didone face with reduced contrast, but that Linotype were unwilling to admit any influence from a competitor's work and so chose a name suggesting a more distant inspiration.
Miklavčič, Mitja. Three chapters in the development of clarendon /ionic typefaces. University of Reading. Archived from the original on November 25, 2011. Retrieved 6 October 2014. Consuegra, David. American Type Design & Designers. Allworth Communications, Inc.: 2004. ISBN 1-58115-320-1, ISBN 978-1-58115-320-0 Hutt, Allen. Changing Newspaper: Typographic Trends in Britain and America 1622–1972. Gordon Fraser.: 1973. ISBN 0-900406-22-4, ISBN 978-0-900406-22-5 Macmillan, Neil. An A-Z of Type Designers. Yale University Press.: 2006. ISBN 0-300-11151-7, ISBN 978-0-300-11151-4 Excelsior Font Family — by Chauncey H. Griffith Font Designer — Chauncey H. Griffith Advertisement in the UK Daily Mirror promoting the changeover to using Ionic Linotype advertisement explaining the design's structure
The Ionian Islands are a group of islands in Greece. They are traditionally called the Heptanese, i.e. "the Seven Islands", but the group includes many smaller islands as well as the seven principal ones. As a distinct historic region they date to the centuries-long Venetian rule, which preserved them from becoming part of the Ottoman Empire, created a distinct cultural identity with many Italian influences; the Ionian Islands became part of the modern Greek state in 1864. Administratively today they belong to the Ionian Islands Region except for Kythera, which belongs to the Attica Region; the seven islands are. The seventh island, Kythira, is off the southern tip of the Peloponnese, the southern part of the Greek mainland. Kythira is not part of the region of the Ionian Islands. In Ancient Greek the adjective Ionios was used as an epithet for the sea between Epirus and Italy in which the Ionian Islands are found because Io swam across it. Latin transliteration, as well as Modern Greek pronunciation, may suggest that the Ionian Sea and Islands are somehow related to Ionia, an Anatolian region.
In Modern Greek omicron and omega represent the same sound, but the two words are still distinguished by stress: the western "Ionia" is accented on the antepenult, the eastern on the penult. In English, the adjective relating to Ionia is Ionic, not Ionian; the islands themselves are known by a rather confusing variety of names. During the centuries of rule by Venice, they acquired Venetian names, by which some of them are still known in English. Kerkyra was known as Corfù, Ithaki as Val di Compare, Kythera as Cerigo, Lefkada as Santa Maura and Zakynthos as Zante. A variety of spellings are used for the Greek names of the islands in historical writing. Kefallonia is spelled as Cephallenia or Cephalonia, Ithaki as Ithaca, Kerkyra as Corcyra, Kythera as Cythera, Lefkada as Leucas or Leucada and Zakynthos as Zacynthus or Zante. Older or variant Greek forms are sometimes used: Kefallinia for Kefallonia and Paxos or Paxoi for Paxi; the islands were settled by Greeks at an early date as early as 1200 BC, by the 9th century BC.
The early Eretrian settlement at Kerkyra was displaced by colonists from Corinth in 734 BC. The islands were a backwater during Ancient Greek times and played little part in Greek politics; the one exception was the conflict between Kerkyra and its mother-City Corinth in 434 BC, which brought intervention from Athens and triggered the Peloponnesian War. Ithaca was the name of the island home of Odysseus in the epic Ancient Greek poem the Odyssey by Homer. Attempts have been made to identify Ithaki with ancient Ithaca, but the geography of the real island cannot be made to fit Homer's description. Archeological investigations have revealed interesting findings in both Ithaca. By the 4th century BC, most of the islands were absorbed into the empire of Macedon; some remained under the control of the Macedonian Kingdom until 146 BC, when the Greek peninsula was annexed by Rome. After 400 years of peaceful Roman rule, the islands passed to the Eastern Byzantine Empire. Under Byzantine rule, from the mid-8th century, they formed the theme of Cephallenia.
The islands were a frequent target of Saracen raids and from the late 11th century, saw a number of Norman and Italian attacks. Most of the islands fell to William II of Sicily in 1185. Corfu and Lefkas remained under Byzantine control. Kefallonia and Zakynthos became the County palatine of Cephalonia and Zakynthos until 1357, when this entity was merged with Lefkada and Ithaki to become the Duchy of Leucadia under French and Italian dukes. Corfu and Kythera were taken by the Venetians in 1204, after the dissolution of the Byzantine Empire by the Fourth Crusade; these became important overseas colonies of the Republic and were used as way-stations for their maritime trade with the Levant. From 1204, the Republic of Venice controlled Corfu and all the Ionian islands fell under Venetian rule. In the 15th century, the Ottomans conquered most of Greece, but their attempts to conquer the islands were unsuccessful. Zakynthos passed permanently to Venice in 1482, Kefallonia and Ithaki in 1483, Lefkada in 1502.
Kythera had been in Venetian hands since 1238. The islands thus became the only part of the Greek-speaking world to escape Ottoman rule, which gave them both a unity and an importance in Greek history they would otherwise not have had. Corfu was the only Greek island never conquered by the Turks. Under Venetian rule, many of the upper classes spoke Italian and converted to Roman Catholicism, but the majority remained Greek ethnically and religiously. In the 18th century, a Greek national independence movement began to emerge, the free status of the Ion
The Ionian Mission
The Ionian Mission is the eighth historical novel in the Aubrey-Maturin series by Patrick O'Brian, first published in 1981. The story is set during the Napoleonic Wars; the plot begins with the marriage of Diana Villiers. Soon after, Captain Aubrey takes HMS Worcester on blockade duty around Toulon, until the ship is sent for refitting. With Worcester refitting, he is reassigned to HMS Surprise on which he, Maturin and Professor Graham seek a new ally among the pashas on the coast of the Ionian Sea. In reviews at the time of the 1991-92 reissue of this novel, one reviewer described Maturin's "hair-raising infiltration of the enemy coast" and the mission of the title by Aubrey and Maturin, "to the Greek islands to tinker with the balance of power at the fringes of the Turkish empire", summing it up as "splendid adventures at a stately pace". Another finds that time aboard the old ship Worcester has little excitement, while tension rises when "Aubrey is caught in a complex net of Turkish politics and rivalries", in which the fleet Admiral would be just as happy if Aubrey failed.
Maturin and Villiers are married. After a time together in their new house on Half Moon Street, Maturin settles in his rooms at The Grapes, where Diana comes and from which he walks to breakfast with her daily, he has missions to do, Aubrey needs to get away from his financial problems. Aubrey gets a stint on HMS Worcester for Toulon blockade duty. Jagiello brings the Maturins to port in his own carriage, which upsets, making Stephen’s arrival rather last-minute. While she is doing gunnery practice with gunpowder bought from a fireworks firm, Worcester encounters the French ship Jemmapes. Worcester engages not having changed to ordinary gunpowder. Jemmapes sees the bright colors as the sign of some new weapon, sails away; some of the crew practice an oratorio. Passengers are dropped off at Gibraltar and Port Mahon, though the parson Nathaniel Martin is aboard long enough for Maturin to discover their shared interest in birds, before Martin joins HMS Berwick. Worcester joins the squadron off Toulon.
Babbington and commander, joins the squadron in the Mediterranean as captain of the Dryad. Babbington has fallen in love with Admiral Harte’s daughter Fanny, but her father wants her to marry the wealthy Andrew Wray. Babbington figures that Harte combined got him assigned to blockade duty. Before Dryad, the Worcesters see. Admiral Thornton’s desire is to engage the French in a fleet action; the second-in-command, has lesser goals. Harte sends Aubrey and Babbington on a mission to the north coast of Africa, with the notion that Babbington will be taken by the French ships in the neutral port Medina. Babbington sees the ships. Having been told not to fire first at the French, Aubrey enters the neutral port in an unsuccessful attempt to draw French fire. Aubrey leaves port, feeling his image is tarnished. Worcester brings Maturin to the coast of France, waits to pick him up. Maturin's mission fails due to other British spies afoot. Waiting for the launch, Maturin meets the other British agent, Professor Graham, who has shot himself in the foot.
Maturin hands him over to the Captain of the Fleet to act as a Turkish advisor. The French fleet slips the blockade. Thornton is pleased; the French do not want return to port. A few shots are exchanged, killing the captain and first lieutenant of HMS Surprise, the Worcester, a poorly built ship, is strained beyond usefulness. Thornton tells Aubrey to take her to Malta to refit shift part of his crew to the Surprise for a mission to the Seven Islands on the Ionian coast; as they sail, a poetry contest is set up, with Rowan splitting the prize. The Surprise takes the blockade runner Bonhomme Richard, filled with spices and heaps of silver; the silver is shared out at once, Rowan takes the prize to Malta. Aubrey visits the three beys, Ismail and Sciahon, choosing the last as the best ally for Britain to take Corfu, if not more of the Seven Islands, from the French. Sciahon Bey holds the preferred base for naval operations. Surprise is long in port at Kutali being windbound; the Dryad and the gun-laden transports.
Graham engages in a harsh argument with Aubrey. Rumour spreads that Ismail has permission to take charge of Kutali, causing the locals to beg Aubrey to protect them. Graham travels by land to Ali Pasha of Ioannina learning that Mustapha lured Dryad and the transports into his port, is sailing on his ship Torgud to take Kutali; the rumour was started by Ali Pasha in his own double dealing, to fire up Mustapha against his enemy Ismail. Mustapha is with no approval from the Sultan of Turkey. Surprise is ready to sail on the instant as the winds have changed. Aubrey will attack both ships, Kitabi sailing with Torgud, they meet at sea, with Surprise firing broadsides and repeatedly. Torgud is cruelly damaged, with many dead. Young Williamson loses half his arm. Kitabi goes between Torgud, crashing into Torgud's side. Aubrey boards Kitabi, takes her. Boarding crew proceeds to Torgud. Pullings falls, so Aubrey stands above him and fights fiercely in the close hand-to-hand combat. Aubrey reaches Mustapha, wounded early in the action and sitting.
His aide Ulusan surrenders. Bonden carries the ensigns. Aubrey asks Mowett, they return to the Surprise. See
The Ionic order forms one of the three classical orders of classical architecture, the other two canonic orders being the Doric and the Corinthian. There are two lesser orders: the Tuscan, the rich variant of Corinthian called the composite order, both added by 16th-century Italian architectural writers, based on Roman practice. Of the three canonic orders, the Ionic order has the narrowest columns; the Ionic capital is characterized by the use of volutes. The Ionic columns stand on a base which separates the shaft of the column from the stylobate or platform. Since Vitruvius, a female character has been ascribed to the Ionic; the major features of the Ionic order are the volutes of its capital, which have been the subject of much theoretical and practical discourse, based on a brief and obscure passage in Vitruvius. The only tools required to design these features were a straight-edge, a right angle, string and a compass. Below the volutes, the Ionic column may have a wide collar or banding separating the capital from the fluted shaft, or a swag of fruit and flowers may swing from the clefts or "neck" formed by the volutes.
The volutes lay in a single plane. This feature of the Ionic order made it more pliant and satisfactory than the Doric to critical eyes in the 4th century BC: angling the volutes on the corner columns ensured that they "read" when seen from either front or side facade; the 16th-century Renaissance architect and theorist Vincenzo Scamozzi designed a version of such a four-sided Ionic capital. The Ionic column is always more slender than the Doric. Ionic columns are most fluted. After a little early experimentation, the number of hollow flutes in the shaft settled at 24; this standardization kept the fluting in a familiar proportion to the diameter of the column at any scale when the height of the column was exaggerated. Roman fluting leaves a little of the column surface between each hollow. In some instances, the fluting has been omitted. English architect Inigo Jones introduced a note of sobriety with plain Ionic columns on his Banqueting House at Whitehall Palace and when Beaux-Arts architect John Russell Pope wanted to convey the manly stamina combined with intellect of Theodore Roosevelt, he left colossal Ionic columns unfluted on the Roosevelt memorial at the American Museum of Natural History, New York City, for an unusual impression of strength and stature.
Wabash Railroad architect R. E. Mohr included 8 unfluted Ionic frontal columns on his 1928 design for the railroad's St. Louis suburban stop Delmar Station; the entablature resting on the columns has three parts: a plain architrave divided into two, or more three, with a frieze resting on it that may be richly sculptural, a cornice built up with dentils, with a corona and cyma molding to support the projecting roof. Pictorial narrative bas-relief frieze carving provides a characteristic feature of the Ionic order, in the area where the Doric order is articulated with triglyphs. Roman and Renaissance practice condensed the height of the entablature by reducing the proportions of the architrave, which made the frieze more prominent; the Ionic anta capital is the ionic version of the anta capital, the crowning portion of an anta, the front edge of a supporting wall in Greek temple architecture. The anta is crowned by a stone block designed to spread the load from superstructure it supports, called an "anta capital" when it is structural, or sometimes "pilaster capital" if it is only decorative as during the Roman period.
In order not to protrude unduly from the wall, these anta capitals display a rather flat surface, so that the capital has more or less a rectangular-shaped structure overall. The ionic anta capital, in contrast to the regular column capitals, is decorated and includes bands of alternating lotuses and flame palmettes, bands of eggs and darts and beads and reels patterns, in order to maintain continuity with the decorative frieze lining the top of the walls; this difference with the column capitals disappeared with Roman times, when anta or pilaster capitals have designs similar to those of the column capitals. The ionic anta capitals as can be seen in the Ionic-order temple of the Erechtheion, are characteristically rectangular Ionic anta capitals, with extensive bands of floral patterns in prolongation of adjoining friezes; the Ionic order originated in the mid-6th century BC in Ionia, the southwestern coastland and islands of Asia Minor settled by Ionian Greeks, where an Ionian dialect was spoken.
The Ionic order column was being practiced in mainland Greece in the 5th century BC. It was most popular in the Archaic Period in Ionia; the first of the great Ionic temples was the Temple of Hera on Samos, built about 570–560 BC by the architect Rhoikos. It stood for only a decade. A longer-lasting 6th century Ionic temple was the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, one of t
Ionia was an ancient region on the central part of the western coast of Anatolia in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir, Smyrna. It consisted of the northernmost territories of the Ionian League of Greek settlements. Never a unified state, it was named after the Ionian tribe who, in the Archaic Period, settled the shores and islands of the Aegean Sea. Ionian states were identified by their use of Eastern Greek. Ionia proper comprised a narrow coastal strip from Phocaea in the north near the mouth of the river Hermus, to Miletus in the south near the mouth of the river Maeander, included the islands of Chios and Samos, it was bounded by Aeolia to Lydia to the east and Caria to the south. The cities within the region figured large in the strife between the Persian Empire and the Greeks. According to Greek tradition, the cities of Ionia were founded by colonists from the other side of the Aegean, their settlement was connected with the legendary history of the Ionic people in Attica, which asserts that the colonists were led by Neleus and Androclus, sons of Codrus, the last king of Athens.
In accordance with this view the "Ionic migration", as it was called by chronologers, was dated by them one hundred and forty years after the Trojan War, or sixty years after the return of the Heracleidae into the Peloponnese. Ionia was of small extent, not exceeding 150 kilometres in length from north to south, with a breadth varying from 60 to 90 kilometres, but to this must be added the peninsula of Mimas, together with the two islands. So intricate is the coastline that the voyage along its shores was estimated at nearly four times the direct distance. A great part of this area was, occupied by mountains. Of these the most lofty and striking were Mimas and Corycus, in the peninsula which stands out to the west, facing the island of Chios. None of these mountains attains a height of more than 1,200 metres; the district comprised three fertile valleys formed by the outflow of three rivers, among the most considerable in Asia Minor: the Hermus in the north, flowing into the Gulf of Smyrna, though at some distance from the city of that name.
With the advantage of a peculiarly fine climate, for which this part of Asia Minor has been famous in all ages, Ionia enjoyed the reputation in ancient times of being the most fertile of all the rich provinces of Asia Minor. The geography of Ionia placed it in a strategic position, both advantageous and disadvantageous. Ionia was always a maritime power founded by a people who made their living by trade in peaceful times and marauding in unsettled times; the coast was rocky and the arable land slight. The native Luwians for the most part kept their fields further inland and used the rift valleys for wooded pasture; the coastal cities were placed in defensible positions on islands or headlands situated so as to control inland routes up the rift valleys. The people of those valleys were of different ethnicity; the populations of the cities came from many civilizations in the eastern Mediterranean. Ancient demographics are available only from literary sources. Herodotus states that in Asia the Ionians kept the division into twelve cities that had prevailed in Ionian lands of the north Peloponnese, their former homeland, which became Achaea after they left.
These Asian cities were Miletus, Priene, Colophon, Teos, Erythrae and Phocaea, together with Samos and Chios. Smyrna an Aeolic colony, was afterwards occupied by Ionians from Colophon, became an Ionian city — an event which had taken place before the time of Herodotus; these cities do not match those of Achaea. Moreover, the Achaea of Herodotus' time spoke Doric, but in Homer it is portrayed as being in the kingdom of Mycenae, which most spoke Mycenaean Greek, not Doric. If the Ionians came from Achaea, they departed during or after the change from East Greek to West Greek there. Mycenaean continued to evolve in the mountainous region of Arcadia. There is no record of any people named Ionians in Late Bronze Age Anatolia but Hittite texts record the Achaeans of Ahhiyawa, of location not certain, but in touch with the Hittites of that time. Miletus and some other cities founded earlier by non-Greeks received populations of Mycenaean Greeks under the name of Achaeans; the tradition of Ionian colonizers from Achaea suggests that they may have been known by both names then.
In the absence of archaeological evidence of discontinuity at Miletus the Achaean population whatever their name appears to have descended to archaic Ionia, which does not exclude the possibility of another colonizing and founding event from Athens. In the Indian historic literary texts, the Ionians are referred to as "yavana" or "yona", are described as wearing leather and wielding whips. In modern Turkish, the people of that region and the Greeks were called "yunan" and
Blue Star Line
The Blue Star Line was a British passenger and cargo shipping company formed in 1911, in operation until 1998. Blue Star Line was formed as an initiative by the Vestey Brothers, a Liverpool-based butchers company, who had founded the Union Cold Storage Company to take advantage of refrigeration practices, they developed a large importation business, shipping frozen meat from South America to Britain from Argentina on ships of the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company, other shipping lines that called at South American ports. The high prices charged for transport by these companies led the Vestey brothers to start to operate their own ships, they chartered their first ships from 1904, began to buy their own ships from 1909 onwards. The Blue Star Line was inaugurated on 28 July 1911 using second-hand ships, they ordered their first new ship in 1914, by the outbreak of the First World War were operating twelve refrigerated cargo ships. These were prefixed'Brod', e.g. Brodfield and Brodland. Ships of the company were identifiable by their red funnels with black tops and narrow white and black bands, with a white circle with blue five-pointed star on the red background.
Their hull colours were either black or black with a white band, red boot-topping. The company supplied beef to allied forces in France during the war, began an expansion programme after it was over; the name format was altered with the introduction of the "Star" suffix to ship names, starting with Royalstar launched in 1919 renamed Royal Star. The company expanded its operations to include services to the Pacific coast of North America from 1920, Australia and New Zealand from 1933; the Blue Star Line operated it as a subsidiary. Blue Star expanded into passenger transport, notably with five 12,900 GRT liners built in 1926–27 for its new London – Rio de Janeiro – Buenos Aires route. Cammell Laird of Birkenhead built three sister ships: Almeda and Arandora. John Brown & Company of Clydebank built two: Avila; the quintet came to be called the "Luxury Five". The five ships had refrigerated holds to carry frozen meat from South America to Britain; the new service was a challenge to both foreign competitors and the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company, whose Royal Mail Ships had been the premier UK carrier of mail and some cargoes between Britain and the River Plate for 75 years.
RMSP Chairman Lord Kylsant called the Blue Star ships "very keen competition" though at the same time his company introduced two larger and more luxurious new ocean liners for passenger and refrigerated cargo on the route, the 22,200 GRT Asturias and Alcantara. In 1929 Blue Star added "Star" to the end of the name of each of its ships; this may have been to help distinguish Blue Star from Royal Mail Steam Packet Company, whose ships bore similar Spanish names. RMSP was an old company with a distinguished history, but had got into difficulties and collapsed amid financial scandal in 1932. In 1935 Harland and Wolff in Belfast launched Imperial Star, the first of a new class of refrigerated cargo motor ships designed to carry frozen meat on Blue Star's regular route from Australia and New Zealand to the UK. By the end of 1939 Harland and Wolff had completed six Imperial Star-class ships and Cammell Laird in Birkenhead had completed three. By 1939 Blue Star Line operated 39 ships. In 1940 an Imperial Star-class ship being built by Burmeister & Wain in Denmark was captured in the German invasion of Denmark and completed as a Kriegsmarine submarine tender.
Because the Imperial Star-class were refrigerated and in merchant shipping terms fast, several sailed in high-risk convoys to relieve the siege of Malta. Melbourne Star and Sydney Star took part in Operation Substance in July 1941, Imperial Star and Dunedin Star were in Operation Halberd the following month, in August 1942 Melbourne Star and Brisbane Star served in Operation Pedestal. In February 1942 another ship of the same class, Empire Star evacuated an estimated 2,160 people from the fall of Singapore. Blue Star suffered heavy losses. 29 ships were sunk: a total of 309,390 gross register tons. They included all of the Luxury Five liners, two Empire ships that the company was managing for the Ministry of War Transport. Another 16 vessels, including three more Empire ships under Blue Star management, were damaged. By the end of hostilities only 12 "Star" ships remained in the fleet. 646 Blue Star personnel, 272 passengers and 78 DEMS gunners were killed. Blue Star Line bought Lamport and Holt Line in 1944 and Booth Steamship Company in 1946, ships were transferred back and forth between the subsidiary companies.
Another building programme was enacted to replace wartime losses, supplemented by the purchase or hire of existing ships including Empire ships such as Empire Castle and Empire Strength from the Ministry of War Transport. In 1952 Austasia Line was formed to operate services between Singapore, Indonesia and Australia, while Blue Star Line took over the North American routes operated by Donaldson Line in 1954. In 1957 Blue Star Line joined with three other shipping companies, the New Zealand Shipping Company, Port Line and Shaw, Savill & Albion to form the Crusader Shipping Company, in 1965 entered a partnership with Italian shippers to form Calmeda S.p. A di Nav, Cagliari. Blue Star Line now had global interests, with ports of call on the Pacific North American coast, in Japan, New Zealand, Canada, South America and Italy, they were one of the major shareholders, along with several other large shipping firms, in British United Airways. Blue