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Ionic bonding

Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compounds. It is one of the main types of bonding along with Metallic bonding. Ions are atoms with an electrostatic charge. Atoms that gain electrons make negatively charged ions. Atoms which lose electrons make positively charged ions; this transfer of electrons is known as electrovalence in contrast to covalence. In the simplest case, the cation is a metal atom and the anion is a nonmetal atom, but these ions can be of a more complex nature, e.g. molecular ions like NH+4 or SO2−4. In simpler words, an ionic bond results from the transfer of electrons from a metal to a non-metal in order to obtain a full valence shell for both atoms, it is important to recognize that clean ionic bonding — in which one atom or molecule transfers an electron to another — cannot exist: all ionic compounds have some degree of covalent bonding, or electron sharing.

Thus, the term "ionic bonding" is given when the ionic character is greater than the covalent character – that is, a bond in which a large electronegativity difference exists between the two atoms, causing the bonding to be more polar than in covalent bonding where electrons are shared more equally. Bonds with ionic and covalent character are called polar covalent bonds. Ionic compounds conduct electricity when molten or in solution not when solid. Ionic compounds have a high melting point, depending on the charge of the ions they consist of; the higher the charges the stronger the cohesive forces and the higher the melting point. They tend to be soluble in water. Atoms that have an full or empty valence shell tend to be reactive. Atoms that are electronegative have only one or two empty orbitals in their valence shell, bond with other molecules or gain electrons to form anions. Atoms that are weakly electronegative have few valence electrons, which can be shared with atoms that are electronegative.

As a result, weakly electronegative atoms tend to distort their electron form cations. Ionic bonding can result from a redox reaction when atoms of an element, whose ionization energy is low, give some of their electrons to achieve a stable electron configuration. In doing so, cations are formed. An atom of another element with greater electron affinity accepts the electron to attain a stable electron configuration, after accepting electron an atom becomes an anion; the stable electron configuration is one of the noble gases for elements in the s-block and the p-block, particular stable electron configurations for d-block and f-block elements. The electrostatic attraction between the anions and cations leads to the formation of a solid with a crystallographic lattice in which the ions are stacked in an alternating fashion. In such a lattice, it is not possible to distinguish discrete molecular units, so that the compounds formed are not molecular in nature. However, the ions themselves can be complex and form molecular ions like the acetate anion or the ammonium cation.

For example, common table salt is sodium chloride. When sodium and chlorine are combined, the sodium atoms each lose an electron, forming cations, the chlorine atoms each gain an electron to form anions; these ions are attracted to each other in a 1:1 ratio to form sodium chloride. Na + Cl → Na+ + Cl− → NaClHowever, to maintain charge neutrality, strict ratios between anions and cations are observed so that ionic compounds, in general, obey the rules of stoichiometry despite not being molecular compounds. For compounds that are transitional to the alloys and possess mixed ionic and metallic bonding, this may not be the case anymore. Many sulfides, e.g. do form non-stoichiometric compounds. Many ionic compounds are referred to as salts as they can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an Arrhenius base like NaOH with an Arrhenius acid like HCl NaOH + HCl → NaCl + H2OThe salt NaCl is said to consist of the acid rest Cl− and the base rest Na+; the removal of electrons from the cation is endothermic, raising the system's overall energy.

There may be energy changes associated with breaking of existing bonds or the addition of more than one electron to form anions. However, the action of the anion's accepting the cation's valence electrons and the subsequent attraction of the ions to each other releases energy and, lowers the overall energy of the system. Ionic bonding will occur. In general, the reaction is exothermic, e.g. the formation of mercuric oxide is endothermic. The charge of the resulting ions is a major factor in the strength of ionic bonding, e.g. a salt C+A− is held together by electrostatic forces four times weaker than C2+A2− according to Coulombs law, where C and A represent a generic cation and anion respectively. The sizes of the ions and the particular packing of the lattice are ignored in this rather simplistic argument. Ionic compounds in the solid state form lattice structures; the two principal factors in determining the form of the lattice are the relative charges of the ions and their relative sizes. Some structures are adopted by a number of compounds.

Pauling's rules provide guidelines for predicti

Krishna II

Krishna II ascended the Rashtrakuta throne after the demise of his famous father Amoghavarsha I Nrupatunga. His Kannada name was Kannara, his queen was a Haihaya princess of Chedi called Mahadevi. From the chronology of inscriptions that mention the name of this king, it seems Krishna II may have started to rule during the lifetime of his father; the fact that Amoghavarsha in his last years renounced the affairs of the state in religious pursuits supports this claim. The rule of Krishna II saw significant advances in literature, although in the affairs of expansion of the empire, his reign was mixed, his rule was one of mixed fortunes. He suffered some reversals against the Eastern Chalukyas ruled by King Gunaga Vijyaditya III whose commander pursued Krishna II to central India. After the death of Vijayaditya III, Krishna II continued hostilities against Chalukya Bhima I in 892 and succeeded in defeating him and taking him prisoner. However, Bhima I freed himself and pushed back the Rashtrakutas from Vengi and crowned himself king.

A few years Krishna II suffered two more defeats at the hands of the Vengi Chalukyas at Niravadyapura and Peruvanguru. However other sources claim. Krishna II defeated the Gurjara Bhoja I of Prathihara dynasty of Gujarat, merging the Lata line of Rashtrakutas to bring it under his direct rule from Manyakheta, he defeated the kingdoms of Banga, Magadha. It is claimed his kingdom extended from the Ganges river in the north to Cape Comorin in the south, he held titles such as Shubatunga. His daughter had married the Chola king Aditya I. With this the king had hoped to achieve influence in Tamil country. After the death of Aditya I, instead of his grandson Kannara ascending the throne, Parantaka became the king. Krishna II invaded the Tamil kingdom with the help of his feudatories, the Banas and the Vaidumbas rulers, hoping to force the issue, he failed to consolidate his influence on the Cholas. The Rashtrakutas suffered a defeat in the battle of Vallala at the hands of Cholas under Parantaka in 916.

Sastri, Nilakanta K. A.. A history of South India from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar. New Delhi: Indian Branch, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-560686-8. Kamath, Suryanath U.. A concise history of Karnataka: from pre-historic times to the present. Bangalore: Jupiter books. LCCN 80905179. OCLC 7796041. Reu, Pandit Bisheshwar Nath. History of The Rashtrakutas. Jaipur: Publication scheme. ISBN 81-86782-12-5. History of Karnataka, Mr. Arthikaje

Ethan Nichtern

Ethan Nichtern is a Buddhist teacher, the author of The Road Home: A Contemporary Exploration of the Buddhist Path. The Road Home was selected as one of Library Journal's Best Books of 2015, was named as one of 9 Books That Define 2015 by Tech Insider, his next book for Farrar and Giroux, The Dharma of The Princess Bride was released in September 2017. Nichtern is the author of One City: A Declaration of Interdependence as well as various poetry and fiction, he is the founder of the Interdependence Project, a nonprofit organization dedicated to secular Buddhist study as it applies to activism and media projects, Western psychology. Nichtern has taught meditation and Buddhist psychology classes and retreats across North America since 2002, he is based in New York City. Nichtern has discussed the relevance of Buddhism in the 21st century on ABC/Yahoo News, CNN with Rick Sanchez, NPR's Tell Me More with Michel Martin, Dan Harris of ABC News, with Sally Singer, in the New York Times and other news outlets.

Nichtern is the son of musician/composer David Nichtern, a Buddhist teacher, Janice Ragland, a painter who became a psychotherapist. He was raised in New York City. On June 18, 2016 he married Marissa Dutton, covered in the Vows section of the New York Times on July 10, 2016. Overcoming Spiritual Bypassing, a Dharma Talk for Tricycle: The Buddhist Review Library Journal Reviews Tech Insider, December 4, 2015 Yahoo News/ABC interview "If It's Easy, You're Cheating" with Sara Haines May, 2014 "How To Meditate" by Sally Singer February, 2014 Publishers Weekly, July, 2013 NPR's Tell Me More with Michel Martin January, 2010 CNN Interview by Rick Sanchez January, 2010 New York Times by Eric V Copage^ Arul B. Louis. "Best Books 2015: Core Nonfiction". Library Journal. Retrieved 6 October 2016. ^ Drake Baer. "9 books that defined 2015". TECH Insider. Retrieved 6 October 2016. ^ "If It's Easy, You're Cheating". Yahoo. Retrieved 1 June 2016. ^ "How to Meditate 2.0: Vogue's Sally Singer Commits to Ten Minutes of Daily Silence".

1 April 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2016. ^ "Book Deals: Week of July 15, 2013". ^ "Brit Hume to Tiger Woods: Drop Buddha, Try Jesus". ^ ^

Shah Abdul Wahhab

Maulana Shah Abdul Wahhab, born Shah Abdul Wahhab known as, was a renowned Sunni Islamic scholar and reformer of the late 19th and early 20th Century from the southern part of India. Like Shah Waliullah Muhaddith Dehlvi he was worried about the state of Muslims of South India those of Nagore and its nearby regions, he founded the Madrasa Al-Baqiyat As-Salihat in Vellore in the year 1857. Wahhab was born on 1 Jumādā al-Ūlā of Hijri 1247 in Vellore, his father, Maulana Abdul Qadir Sahib, died when he was 4 years old in India. He moved into his mother's household in Vellore and his early education was in Vellore. In Vellore, after having finished his pre-school education with his mother and uncle, Wahhab did his primary schooling with Hakeem Jainul Abideen, a famous teacher and medical practitioner, who lived in the same street where Wahhab lived, he completed his primary education in Farsi languages with him. To complete the necessary education of the time, Wahhab left for Madurai. There he stayed with Al Arifbillah Qutbuz Zaman Syed Abdus Salaam Ibrahim who schooled him for 7 more years with all the necessary arts.

Having finished his schooling, Wahhab returned to Vellore. He started his family life, he wanted to learn more. So, on the 15th of the Islamic month of Shaʿbān of Hijri 1284, he left for Hijaz while his 3-year-old son and family stayed in India. In Mecca, he learned from Maulana Rahmatullah Keeranvi, Maulana Haji Imdhadhullah Muhaajir Makki and Maulana Syed Muhammad Hussein Peshawari. According to Historians, Wahhab is believed to have learned some Islamic books and Munazara from Maulana Rahmatullah Keeranvi, he completed his higher studies in Hadith and Usool ul Hadith from Maulana Syed Muhammad Hussein Peshawari. He got his Bay'ath from his teacher Maulana Haji Imdhadhullah Muhaajir Makki and started his spiritual journey. While his spiritual journey to Hijaz found these scholars, he found yet another teacher in Maulana Shah Abdul Latheef back home in Vellore. A strange coincidence noteworthy to be mentioned here is that Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi, the founder of the Madrasa Darul Uloom Deoband in North India and A'la Hadrat, the founder of the Madrasa Al-Baqiyat As-Salihat in South India shared a common lineage in their Islamic Studies.

The teachers of A'la Hadrat were, Maulana Rahmatullah Keeranvi, Maulana Syed Muhammad Hussein Peshawari and Maulana Shah Abdul Latheef. And the scholar who taught these three was Maulana Shah Muhammad Is-haaq; the teacher of Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi in his higher studies was Maulana Shah Abdul Ghani. And his teacher was Maulana Shah Muhammad Is-haaq. Maulana Shah Muhammad Is-haaq's teacher was Maulana Shah Abdul Aziz and whose teacher was none other than Shah Waliullah Muhaddith Dehlvi, and thus this common lineage of Wahhab and Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi in Islamic Higher Studies goes as far as Shah Waliullah Muhaddith Dehlvi. Further, in their spiritual studies and journey and Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi are more related. Both their spiritual teacher was none other than Maulana Haji Imdhadhullah Muhaajir Makki. Though these two scholars and Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi, shared a common lineage in the Islamic Studies and Spiritual path, there is no definite proof that these two Islamic Reformers of the Indian Sub-Continent met.

After completing his studies, Wahhab was offered the post of Deputy Collector when he was visiting Hyderabad. But he turned down the offer. Returning from Hyderabad, the first thing he did was to make himself financially stable, he bought land in Vellore. This provided him with an income. After he attended to his personal financial statement, he commenced his Islamic Social Services, he visited villages and towns and called Muslims to live their lives according to Shariah and stressed the need for it. When it came to Bid ` ah, he voiced against it publicly. In this course, he stayed in Thittachery for a long period and educated the Muslims about Islam and Bid'ah that had crept into their beliefs again and again. Though the people of Thittachery vowed to stay away from Bid'ahs and Shirk, they did it only for a short period, it is said, at this juncture, the famous Islamic Scholar from Nagore, Arifbillah Maulana Mohamed Ghouse advised him to start a Madrasa so that those scholars and reformists who graduated from the Madrasa would aid him in his Islamic Social Reform and carry on the service when he is no more and Wahhab seemed to have taken to this idea.

So the Islamic Madrasa Al-Baqiyat As-Salihat was found by Wahhab in the year 1884 with the intention of realising his Islamic Social Reform in Tamil Nadu and elsewhere. In addition to the Madrasa Al-Baqiyat As-Salihat, Wahhab started the Khanqahey Baqiyat in the city of Vaniambadi, it served as a centre for Tariqa of Chishtiya. On the lines of his teacher Maulana Rahmatullah Keeranvi, Wahhab started a Madrasa in his house without many resources. Maulana Rahmatullah Keeranvi was founding the Madrasa Sawlatiyya in Mecca around that time. There is no reference to the name of this small Madrasa; this Madrasa founded in a small house grew into the Madrasa Al-Baqiyat As-Salihat with a new Syllabus at its present location in 1884. The Madrasa had three objectives; the First was Islamic Education, the second was emphasise and call Muslims towards the Sunnah and the third was to create Service Minded Islamic Scholars who would be steadfast in their fight against Bid'ah or un-Islamic Innovations in Islam.

Following the footsteps of his teacher Maulana Rahmatullah Ke

My Sassy Girl 2

My Sassy Girl 2 is a 2010 Chinese romantic comedy film directed by Joe Ma and starring Lynn Hung, Leon Jay Williams, He Jiong, Abby Feng and Bosco Wong. The film is an unofficial sequel of the 2001 South Korean film My Sassy Girl, it was released on November 5, 2010. Lynn Hung as Shangzhen Leon Jay Williams as Jianyu He Jiong as Zhikai Abby Feng as Yongzhen Bosco Wong as Yang Guo On, James Mudge said the film "offers up an hour and a half of effective comedy, a few touches of romance, lots of scenes of aggressive women kicking the hell out of less masculine men." My Sassy Girl 2 on IMDb HKcinemagic entry


Bootmen is a 2000 Australian comedy-drama film, directed by Dein Perry. It was distributed by Fox Searchlight Pictures in Canada and United States and 20th Century Fox Distribution in Australia and funded by the Australian Film Finance Corporation. Production was from 19 June to 18 August 1999 in Sydney and Newcastle by cinematographer Steve Mason who won two cinematography awards in the 2000 AFI awards and the 2001 FCCA Awards, it stars Sophie Lee, Sam Worthington. The film was released in Australia on 5 October 2000 and was Dein Perry's debut film, involved with stage shows such as Tap Dogs and Steel City, it is known as Tap Dogs in Japan. Sean and Mitchell are young adult brothers, having grown up in the rugged Australian steel city town of Newcastle; the father is a tough coal miner and they have no mother. Mitchell is a small-time criminal, their father does not approve of Sean's dancing, so he hides his passion. Sean falls in love with her. Things look promising between them. Mitchell confesses his love for her and she thinks Sean has left, so they end up getting drunk together and having a one night stand.

Meanwhile, Sean gets a role as a dancer in a show. The star's girlfriend flirts with him and the star gives Sean a difficult time, culminating with Sean outdancing him, they get into a shouting match. Sean is fired. Sean returns to Newcastle and tries to pick up where he left off with Linda, only to be told that she is pregnant with Mitchell's child, he breaks ties with both Linda and Mitchell, creates his own dance troupe and plans to show the people of Newcastle what they can do. Their father's work needs money to keep the company open and Sean plans a benefit show. Mitchell gets in trouble with local escapes on his motorbike, they catch him in a warehouse and he plunges to his death. The police charge the culprit. Sean, depressed over the death of his brother and that he was unforgiving, thinks about quitting until he finds a tool that Mitchell designed, solving a technical problem with the show. Realizing that his brother believes in him, Sean is determined to honor his memory; the show goes on.

They charge $10 a head and estimate 5,000 patrons will attend the event Sean's proud Dad who now accepts his son as a dancer and tells Sean his mother would be happy. Sean realises his dream of being a respected dancer, reconciles with Linda and pledges to help take care of his brother's child. Adam Garcia as Sean Okden Sophie Lee as Linda Sam Worthington as Mitchell Okden Richard Carter as Gary Okden Andrew Kaluski as Colin Christopher Horsey as Angus Lee McDonald as Derrick Matt Lee as Johnno William Zappa as Walter Susie Porter as Sara Anthony Hayes Justine Clarke Grant Walmsley Andrew Doyle Bruce Venables Australian Cinematographers Society: Award of Distinction Australian Film Institute: Best Achievement in Cinematography: Steve Mason Best Achievement in Costume Design: Tess Schofield Best Achievement in Production Design: Murray Picknett Best Achievement in Sound: David Lee, Laurence Maddy, Andrew Plain, Ian McLoughlin Best Original Music Score: Cezary Skubiszewski Film Critics Circle of Australia Awards: Best Cinematography: Steve Mason Best Editing: Jane Moran Best Music Score: Cezary Skubiszewski.

Australian Film Institute: Best Achievement in Editing: Jane Moran Best Film: Hilary Linstead Best Performance by an Actor in a Leading Role: Sam Worthington The film was released on home video on 27 February 2001 by Fox Home Entertainment. The Bootmen Soundtrack was released by RCA Victor in 2000 and composed by Cezary Skubiszewski and other various artists. Rumble - You Am I Opening Sequence - Cezary Skubiszewski Strange Human Beings - Regurgitator Tease Me - Paul Kelly My Family - Banana Oil Sign Post - Grinspoon Love Theme - Cezary Skubiszewski Radio Loves This - Deborah Conway Hit Song - Custard Giveway - Supaskuba Better Off Dead - Grinspoon Don't It Get You Down - Deadstar Nothing On My Mind - Paul Kelly Nipple - Icecream Hands Deeper Water - Deadstar Finale Part 2 - Cezary Skubiszewski Shiver - Oblivia "Even When I'm Sleeping" – Leonardo's Bride Junk - You Am I Tap Forge - Dein Perry Bootmen grossed $2,720,302 at the box office in Australia. Cinema of Australia Bootmen on IMDb Bootmen at Rotten Tomatoes Bootman] at Oz Movies