Vinton is a city in Benton County, United States. The population was 5,257 in the 2010 census, an increase from 5,102 in the 2000 census, it is part of the Cedar Rapids Metropolitan Statistical Area. Vinton is the county seat of Benton County. Vinton was founded in 1849, it was named for a state legislator. The first railroad line was extended to Vinton in 1869, it was incorporated as a city that same year. Vinton's longitude and latitude coordinatesin decimal form are 42.164144, -92.026077. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.83 square miles, of which, 4.74 square miles is land and 0.09 square miles is water. Vinton is located on U. S. Route 218 and the Cedar River, which has flooded parts of the city, most in 2008; the town's extensive tree cover was damaged by a derecho on July 11, 2011. This region has significant seasonal temperature differences, going from warm summers to cold winters. There is precipitation year-round, snowfall occurs in all years. Most summer rainfall occurs during thunderstorms and a occasional tropical system.
Vinton averages 32.7 inches of precipitation annually. May and June are the wettest months; this area is classified as humid because it is not dry enough to be classified as arid. As of the census of 2010, there were 5,257 people, 2,187 households, 1,397 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,109.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,299 housing units at an average density of 485.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.8% White, 0.3% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 0.2% from other races, 1.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.0% of the population. There were 2,187 households of which 30.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.9% were married couples living together, 11.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 36.1% were non-families. 31.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.91. The median age in the city was 40.3 years. 24.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.3% male and 52.7% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 5,102 people, 2,116 households, 1,390 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,187.7 people per square mile. There were 2,227 housing units at an average density of 518.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.26% White, 0.25% African American, 0.18% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.22% from other races, 0.80% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.94% of the population. There were 2,116 households out of which 30.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.8% were married couples living together, 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.3% were non-families. 29.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.91. 25.0% are under the age of 18, 7.9% from 18 to 24, 27.3% from 25 to 44, 19.5% from 45 to 64, 20.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $35,114, the median income for a family was $41,546. Males had a median income of $32,460 versus $19,988 for females; the per capita income for the city was $19,808. About 9.5% of families and 9.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.7% of those under age 18 and 6.0% of those age 65 or over. Movie appearancePortions of downtown Vinton, along with the Benton County courthouse, were featured in the 1996 John Travolta film Michael. Seen during the movie's opening credits was Prairie Creek Church, a rural area Christian church located six miles northeast of the city. Portions of downtown Vinton were used in the movie "The Final Season" Vinton is the home of the Iowa Braille and Sight Saving School, Iowa's state educational institution for vision-impaired students.
Residing in the Braille School since 2008 is the North Central Region headquarters for AmeriCorps National Civilian Community Corps. James Lorraine Geddes A native of Scotland he moved to Vinton before the American Civil War where he joined as a private but rose in rank to Brigadier General and became Superintendent of the Iowa Institution for the Education of the Blind from 1867 to 1869. Mary Ingalls was a student at the Iowa College for the Blind in the early 1880s; the town is mentioned in connection with the writings of her sister Laura Ingalls Wilder, author of Little House on the Prairie Seaman A. Knapp, whose farming experiments led to the formation of the U. S. Department of Agriculture's Cooperative Extension System, claimed Vinton, Iowa, as his hometown and named Vinton, after it. Bing Miller was a professional baseball coach for the Philadelphia Athletics. Sally Pederson, the 45th lieutenant governor of Iowa, graduated from Washington High School in Vi
Mary Amelia Ingalls was born near the town of Pepin, Wisconsin. She was the first child of Caroline and Charles Ingalls and older sister of author Laura Ingalls Wilder, known for her Little House on the Prairie book series. At the age of 14, Ingalls suffered an illness—thought to be scarlet fever—at the time believed to have caused her to lose her eyesight. A 2013 study published in the journal Pediatrics, concluded it was viral meningoencephalitis that caused Ingalls' blindness, based on evidence from first-hand accounts and newspaper reports of her illness as well as relevant school registries and epidemiologic data on blindness and infectious diseases. Between 1881 and 1889, Ingalls attended the Iowa Sight Saving School in Vinton, Iowa; the historical record is silent as to why Ingalls did not attend school during one year in that period, but she did finish the seven-year course of study in 1889 and graduated. She returned home to De Smet, South Dakota, living with her parents. Ingalls contributed to the family income by making fly nets for horses.
After her father died in 1902, Ingalls and her mother rented out a room in their home for extra income. Following her mother's death in April 1924, Ingalls lived for a time with her sister, Grace Ingalls Dow in Manchester, South Dakota. After that, Ingalls travelled to Keystone, South Dakota, to live with her sister Carrie Ingalls Swanzey, it was there. She died not long after as a result of pneumonia on October 20, 1928, at the age of 63, her body was returned to De Smet, where she was buried in the Ingalls family plot next to her parents at De Smet Cemetery. Ingalls was portrayed in the television series Little House on the Prairie by actress Melissa Sue Anderson. Unlike her real-life counterpart, the television version of Mary Ingalls became a teacher in a school for the blind and married a blind fellow teacher, Adam Kendall, portrayed by Linwood Boomer. Zochert, Donald. Laura - The Life of Laura Ingalls Wilder. Avon Books. ISBN 0-380-01636-2. "Mary Ingalls Era 1877-1889." Vinton School for the Blind.
Mary Ingalls at Find Jennifer. "The Real Reason Mary Ingalls Went Blind". CNN
Iowa is a state in the Midwestern United States, bordered by the Mississippi River to the east and the Missouri River and Big Sioux River to the west. It is bordered by six states. In colonial times, Iowa was a part of Spanish Louisiana. After the Louisiana Purchase, people laid the foundation for an agriculture-based economy in the heart of the Corn Belt. In the latter half of the 20th century, Iowa's agricultural economy made the transition to a diversified economy of advanced manufacturing, financial services, information technology and green energy production. Iowa is the 26th most extensive in land area and the 30th most populous of the 50 U. S states, its capital and largest city by population is Des Moines. Iowa has been listed as one of the safest states in, its nickname is the Hawkeye State. Iowa derives its name from the Ioway people, one of the many Native American tribes that occupied the state at the time of European exploration. Iowa is bordered by the Mississippi River on the east.
The southern border is the Des Moines River and a not-quite-straight line along 40 degrees 35 minutes north, as decided by the U. S. Supreme Court in Missouri v. Iowa after a standoff between Missouri and Iowa known as the Honey War. Iowa is the only state whose east and west borders are formed by rivers. Iowa has 99 counties; the state capital, Des Moines, is in Polk County. Iowa's bedrock geology increases in age from west to east. In northwest Iowa, Cretaceous bedrock can be 74 million years old. Iowa is not flat. Iowa can be divided into eight landforms based on glaciation, soils and river drainage. Loess hills lie along the western border of the state. Northeast Iowa along the Upper Mississippi River is part of the Driftless Area, consisting of steep hills and valleys which appear mountainous. Several natural lakes exist, most notably Spirit Lake, West Okoboji Lake, East Okoboji Lake in northwest Iowa. To the east lies Clear Lake. Man-made lakes include Lake Odessa, Saylorville Lake, Lake Red Rock, Coralville Lake, Lake MacBride, Rathbun Lake.
The state's northwest area has many remnants such as Barringer Slough. Iowa's natural vegetation is tallgrass prairie and savanna in upland areas, with dense forest and wetlands in flood plains and protected river valleys, pothole wetlands in northern prairie areas. Most of Iowa is used for agriculture; the Southern part of Iowa is categorised as the Central forest-grasslands transition ecoregion. The Northern, drier part of Iowa is categorised as the Central tall grasslands and is thus considered to be part of the Great Plains. There is a dearth of natural areas in Iowa; as of 2005 Iowa ranked 49th of U. S. states in public land holdings. Threatened or endangered animals in Iowa include the interior least tern, piping plover, Indiana bat, pallid sturgeon, the Iowa Pleistocene land snail, Higgins' eye pearly mussel, the Topeka shiner. Endangered or threatened plants include western prairie fringed orchid, eastern prairie fringed orchid, Mead's milkweed, prairie bush clover, northern wild monkshood.
There is little proof to suggest that the explosion in the number of high-density livestock facilities in Iowa has led to increased rural water contamination and a decline in air quality. In fact, covered manure storage in modern barns prevent that manure from washing away into surface water, as it does in open lots as snow melts and thunderstorms occur. Other factors negatively affecting Iowa's environment include the extensive use of older coal-fired power plants and pesticide runoff from crop production, diminishment of the Jordan Aquifer. Iowa has a humid continental climate throughout the state with extremes of both cold; the average annual temperature at Des Moines is 50 °F. Winters are harsh and snowfall is common. Spring ushers in the beginning of the severe weather season. Iowa averages about 50 days of thunderstorm activity per year; the 30 year annual average Tornadoes in Iowa is 47. In 2008, twelve people were killed by tornadoes in Iowa, making it the deadliest year since 1968 and the second most tornadoes in a year with 105, matching the total from 2001.
Iowa summers are known for heat and humidity, with daytime temperatures sometimes near 90 °F and exceeding 100 °F. Average winters in the state have been known to drop well below freezing dropping below −18 °F. Iowa's all-time hottest temperature of 118 °F was recorded at Keokuk on July 20, 1934. Iowa has a smooth gradient of var
State schools are primary or secondary schools mandated for or offered to all children without charge, funded in whole or in part by taxation. While such schools are to be found in every country, there are significant variations in their structure and educational programs. State education encompasses primary and secondary education, as well as post-secondary educational institutions such as universities and technical schools that are funded and overseen by government rather than by private entities; the position before there were government-funded schools varied: in many instances there was an established educational system which served a significant, albeit elite, sector of the population. The introduction of government-organised schools was in some cases able to build upon this established system, both systems have continued to exist, sometimes in a parallel and complementary relationship and other times less harmoniously. State education is inclusive, both in its treatment of students and in that enfranchisement for the government of public education is as broad as for government generally.
It is organised and operated to be a deliberate model of the civil community in which it functions. Although provided to groups of students in classrooms in a central school, it may be provided in-home, employing visiting teachers, and/or supervising teachers, it can be provided in non-school, non-home settings, such as shopping mall space. State education is available to all. In most countries, it is compulsory for children to attend school up to a certain age, but the option of attending private school is open to many. In the case of private schooling, schools operate independently of the state and defray their costs by charging parents tuition fees; the funding for state schools, on the other hand, is provided by tax revenues, so that individuals who do not attend school help to ensure that society is educated. In poverty stricken societies, authorities are lax on compulsory school attendance because child labour is exploited, it is these same children whose income-securing labour cannot be forfeited to allow for school attendance.
The term "public education" when applied to state schools is not synonymous with the term "publicly funded education". Government may make a public policy decision that it wants to have some financial resources distributed in support of, it may want to have some control over, the provision of private education. Grants-in-aid of private schools and vouchers systems provide examples of publicly funded private education. Conversely, a state school may rely on private funding such as high fees or private donations and still be considered state by virtue of governmental ownership and control. State primary and secondary education involves the following: compulsory student attendance. In some countries, private associations or churches can operate schools according to their own principles, as long as they comply with certain state requirements; when these specific requirements are met in the area of the school curriculum, the schools will qualify to receive state funding. They are treated financially and for accreditation purposes as part of the state education system though they make decisions about hiring and school policy, which the state might not make itself.
Government schools are free to attend for Australian citizens and permanent residents, whereas independent schools charge attendance fees. They can be divided into two categories: selective schools; the open schools accept all students from their government-defined catchment areas. Government schools educate 65% of Australian students, with 34% in Catholic and independent schools. Regardless of whether a school is part of the Government or independent systems, they are required to adhere to the same curriculum frameworks of their state or territory; the curriculum framework however provides for some flexibility in the syllabus, so that subjects such as religious education can be taught. Most school students wear uniforms. Public or Government funded; these schools teach students from Year 1 to 10, with examinations for students in years 5, 8, 10. All public schools follow the National Board Curriculum. Many children girls, drop out of school after completing the 5th Year in remote areas. In larger cities such as Dhaka, this is uncommon.
Many good public schools conduct an entrance exam, although most public schools in the villages and small towns do not. Public schools are the only option for parents and children in rural areas, but there are large numbers of private schools in Dhaka and Chittagong. Many Bangladeshi private schools teach their students in English and follow curricula from overseas, but in public schools lessons are taught in Bengali. Per the Canadian constitution, public-school education in Canada is a provincial responsibility and, as such, there are many variations among the provinces. Junior kindergarten exists as an official program in only Ontario and Quebec while kindergarten is available in every province, but provincial funding and the level of ho
Special education is the practice of educating students in a way that addresses their individual differences and needs. Ideally, this process involves the individually planned and systematically monitored arrangement of teaching procedures, adapted equipment and materials, accessible settings; these interventions are designed to help individuals with special needs achieve a higher level of personal self-sufficiency and success in school and in their community which may not be available if the student were only given access to a typical classroom education. Special education includes learning disabilities, communication disorders and behavioral disorders, physical disabilities, developmental disabilities and many other disabilities. Students with these kinds of disabilities are to benefit from additional educational services such as different approaches to teaching, the use of technology, a adapted teaching area, or a resource room. Intellectual giftedness is a difference in learning and can benefit from specialized teaching techniques or different educational programs, but the term "special education" is used to indicate instruction of students with disabilities.
Gifted education is handled separately. Whereas special education is designed for students with learning disabilities, remedial education can be designed for any students, with or without special needs. For example people of high intelligence can be under-prepared if their education was disrupted, for example, by internal displacement during civil disorder or a war. In most developed countries, educators modify teaching methods and environments so that the maximum number of students are served in general education environments. Therefore, special education in developed countries is regarded as a service rather than a place. Integration can improve academic achievement for many students; the opposite of special education is general education. General education is the standard curriculum supports. Students receiving special education services can sometimes enroll in a General education setting to learn along with students without disabilities; some children are identified as candidates for special needs due to their medical history.
For example, they may have been diagnosed with a genetic condition, associated with intellectual disability, may have various forms of brain damage, may have a developmental disorder, may have visual or hearing disabilities, or other disabilities. On the other hand, for students with less obvious disabilities, such as those who have learning difficulties, two primary methods have been used for identifying them: the discrepancy model and the response to intervention model; the discrepancy model depends on the teacher noticing that the students' achievements are noticeably below what is expected. At which the teacher may make the decision for the student to receive support from a special education specialist. Before doing so, the teacher must show documentation of low academic achievement; the response to intervention model advocates earlier intervention. In the discrepancy model, a student receives special education services for a specific learning difficulty if the student has at least normal intelligence and the student's academic achievement is below what is expected of a student with his or her IQ.
Although the discrepancy model has dominated the school system for many years, there has been substantial criticism of this approach among researchers. One reason for criticism is that diagnosing SLDs on the basis of the discrepancy between achievement and IQ does not predict the effectiveness of treatment. Low academic achievers who have low IQ appear to benefit from treatment just as much as low academic achievers who have normal or high intelligence; the alternative approach, response to intervention, identifies children who are having difficulties in school in their first or second year after starting school. They receive additional assistance such as participating in a reading remediation program; the response of the children to this intervention determines whether they are designated as having a learning disability. Those few who still have trouble may receive designation and further assistance. Sternberg has argued that early remediation can reduce the number of children meeting diagnostic criteria for learning disabilities.
He has suggested that the focus on learning disabilities and the provision of accommodations in school fails to acknowledge that people have a range of strengths and weaknesses and places undue emphasis on academics by insisting that students should be supported in this arena and not in music or sports. A special education program should be customized to address each individual student's unique needs. Special educators provide a continuum of services, in which students with various disabilities receive multiple degrees of support based on their individual needs, it is crucial for special education programs to be individualized so that they address the unique combination of needs in a given student. In the United States and the UK, educational professionals use a student's Individualized Education Program. Another name for a student's Individualized Education Plan is a student's Individual Learning Pl