The Persian Gulf is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia. The body of water is an extension of the Indian Ocean through the Strait of Hormuz and lies between Iran to the northeast and the Arabian Peninsula to the southwest; the Shatt al-Arab river delta forms the northwest shoreline. The body of water is and internationally known as the "Persian Gulf"; some Arab governments refer to it as the "Arabian Gulf" or "The Gulf", but neither term is recognized internationally. The name "Gulf of Iran" is used by the International Hydrographic Organization; the Persian Gulf was a battlefield of the 1980–1988 Iran–Iraq War, in which each side attacked the other's oil tankers. It is the namesake of the 1991 Gulf War, the air- and land-based conflict that followed Iraq's invasion of Kuwait; the gulf has many fishing grounds, extensive reefs, abundant pearl oysters, but its ecology has been damaged by industrialization and oil spills. The Persian Gulf resides in the Persian Gulf Basin, of Cenozoic origin and related to the subduction of the Arabian Plate under the Zagros Mountains.
The current flooding of the basin started 15,000 years ago due to rising sea levels of the Holocene glacial retreat. This inland sea of some 251,000 square kilometres is connected to the Gulf of Oman in the east by the Strait of Hormuz. In Iran this is called "Arvand Rood", where "Rood" means "river", its length is 989 kilometres, with Iran covering most of the northern coast and Saudi Arabia most of the southern coast. The Persian Gulf is about 56 km wide in the Strait of Hormuz; the waters are overall shallow, with a maximum depth of 90 metres and an average depth of 50 metres. Countries with a coastline on the Persian Gulf are: Iran. Various small islands lie within the Persian Gulf, some of which are the subject of territorial disputes between the states of the region; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the Persian Gulf's southern limit as "The Northwestern limit of Gulf of Oman". This limit is defined as "A line joining Ràs Limah on the coast of Arabia and Ràs al Kuh on the coast of Iran".
The gulf is connected to Indian Ocean through Strait of Hormuz. Writing the water balance budget for the Persian Gulf, the inputs are river discharges from Iran and Iraq, as well as precipitation over the sea, around 180mm/year in Qeshm Island; the evaporation of the sea is high, so that after considering river discharge and rain contributions, there is still a deficit of 416 cubic kilometers per year. This difference is supplied by currents at the Strait of Hormuz; the water from the Gulf has a higher salinity, therefore exits from the bottom of the Strait, while ocean water with less salinity flows in through the top. Another study revealed the following numbers for water exchanges for the Gulf: evaporation = -1.84m/year, precipitation = 0.08m/year, inflow from the Strait = 33.66m/year, outflow from the Strait = -32.11m/year, the balance is 0m/year. Data from different 3D computational fluid mechanics models with spatial resolution of 3 kilometers and depth each element equal to 1–10 meters are predominantly used in computer models.
The Persian Gulf and its coastal areas are the world's largest single source of crude oil, related industries dominate the region. Safaniya Oil Field, the world's largest offshore oilfield, is located in the Persian Gulf. Large gas finds have been made, with Qatar and Iran sharing a giant field across the territorial median line. Using this gas, Qatar has built up a substantial liquefied natural petrochemical industry. In 2002, the Persian Gulf nations of Bahrain, Iraq, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the UAE produced about 25% of the world's oil, held nearly two-thirds of the world's crude oil reserves, about 35% of the world's natural gas reserves; the oil-rich countries that have a coastline on the Persian Gulf are referred to as the Persian Gulf States. Iraq's egress to the gulf is narrow and blockaded consisting of the marshy river delta of the Shatt al-Arab, which carries the waters of the Euphrates and the Tigris rivers, where the east bank is held by Iran. In 550 BC, the Achaemenid Empire established the first ancient empire in Persis, in the southwestern region of the Iranian plateau.
In the Greek sources, the body of water that bordered this province came to be known as the "Persian Gulf". During the years 550 to 330 BC, coinciding with the sovereignty of the Achaemenid Persian Empire over the Middle East area the whole part of the Persian Gulf and some parts of the Arabian Peninsula, the name of "Pars Sea" is found in the compiled written texts. In the travel account of Pythagoras, several chapters are related to description of his travels accompanied by the Achaemenid king Darius the Great, to Susa and Persepolis, the area is described. From among the writings of others in the same period, there is the inscription and engraving of Darius the Great, installed at junction of waters of Red Sea and the Nile river and the Rome river which belongs to t
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis. The age of the organisms and their resulting fossil fuels is millions of years, sometimes exceeds 650 million years. Fossil fuels contain high percentages of carbon and include petroleum and natural gas. Other used derivatives include kerosene and propane. Fossil fuels range from volatile materials with low carbon to hydrogen ratios like methane, to liquids like petroleum, to nonvolatile materials composed of pure carbon, like anthracite coal. Methane can be found in hydrocarbon fields either alone, associated with oil, or in the form of methane clathrates; the theory that fossil fuels formed from the fossilized remains of dead plants by exposure to heat and pressure in the Earth's crust over millions of years was first introduced by Andreas Libavius "in his 1597 Alchemia " and by Mikhail Lomonosov "as early as 1757 and by 1763".
The first use of the term "fossil fuel" was by the German chemist Caspar Neumann, in English translation in 1759. In 2017 the world's primary energy sources consisted of petroleum, natural gas, amounting to an 85% share for fossil fuels in primary energy consumption in the world. Non-fossil sources in 2006 included nuclear and others amounting to 0.9%. World energy consumption was growing at about 2.3% per year. In 2015 about 18% of worldwide consumption was from renewable sources. Although fossil fuels are continually being formed via natural processes, they are considered to be non-renewable resources because they take millions of years to form and the known viable reserves are being depleted much faster than new ones are being made; the use of fossil fuels raises serious environmental concerns. The burning of fossil fuels produces around 21.3 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide per year. It is estimated that natural processes can only absorb about half of that amount, so there is a net increase of 10.65 billion tonnes of atmospheric carbon dioxide per year.
Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas that increases radiative forcing and contributes to global warming. A global movement towards the generation of low-carbon renewable energy is underway to help reduce global greenhouse gas emissions. Aquatic phytoplankton and zooplankton that died and sedimented in large quantities under anoxic conditions millions of years ago began forming petroleum and natural gas as a result of anaerobic decomposition. Over geological time this organic matter, mixed with mud, became buried under further heavy layers of inorganic sediment; the resulting high levels of heat and pressure caused the organic matter to chemically alter, first into a waxy material known as kerogen, found in oil shales, with more heat into liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons in a process known as catagenesis. Despite these heat driven transformations, the embedded energy is still photosynthetic in origin. Terrestrial plants, on the other hand, tended to form methane. Many of the coal fields date to the Carboniferous period of Earth's history.
Terrestrial plants form type III kerogen, a source of natural gas. There is a wide range of organic, or hydrocarbon, compounds in any given fuel mixture; the specific mixture of hydrocarbons gives a fuel its characteristic properties, such as boiling point, melting point, viscosity, etc. Some fuels like natural gas, for instance, contain only low boiling, gaseous components. Others such as gasoline or diesel contain much higher boiling components. Fossil fuels are of great importance because they can be burned, producing significant amounts of energy per unit mass; the use of coal as a fuel predates recorded history. Coal was used to run furnaces for the melting of metal ore. Semi-solid hydrocarbons from seeps were burned in ancient times, but these materials were used for waterproofing and embalming. Commercial exploitation of petroleum began in the 19th century to replace oils from animal sources for use in oil lamps. Natural gas, once flared-off as an unneeded byproduct of petroleum production, is now considered a valuable resource.
Natural gas deposits are the main source of the element helium. Heavy crude oil, much more viscous than conventional crude oil, oil sands, where bitumen is found mixed with sand and clay, began to become more important as sources of fossil fuel as of the early 2000s. Oil shale and similar materials are sedimentary rocks containing kerogen, a complex mixture of high-molecular weight organic compounds, which yield synthetic crude oil when heated; these materials have yet to be exploited commercially. With additional processing, they can be employed in lieu of other established fossil fuel deposits. More there has been disinvestment from exploitation of such resources due to their high carbon cost, relative to more processed reserves. Prior to the latter half of the 18th century and watermills provided the energy needed for industry such as milling flour, sawing wood or pumping water, burning wood or peat provided domestic heat; the widescale use of fossil fuels, coal at first and petroleum to fire steam engines enabled the Industrial Revolution.
At the same time, gas lights using natural gas or coal gas were coming into wide use. The invention of the internal combustion engine and its use in automobiles and trucks increased the demand for gasoline and diesel oil, both made from fossil fuels. Other forms of
The maritime fleet of the Islamic Republic of Iran Shipping Lines comprises 115 ocean-going vessels, with the total capacity of 3.3 million tons deadweight. The ownership structure of the fleet comprises 87 ocean-going vessels in IRISL and 28 different types of ships under the flag of subsidiaries, including Khazar Shipping, Valfajr as well as Iran-India Shipping Companies, they are manned by 6,000 Iranian personnel including shore staff and engine officers as well as ratings, who work under the flag of the Islamic Republic of Iran in the Caspian Sea, Persian Gulf, international waters and various ports of the world. IRISL has been sanctioned by the U. S. UN, EU and other parties for its role in advancing Iran's nuclear and ballistic missile programs. However, the return of the line to the world market was expected by early winter 2016, as a result of the Iran nuclear deal between Iran, the P5+1/EU3+3 powers, the EU in August 2015. IRISL has announced its plans to become one of the world's top ten shipping lines by 2020.
Due to the increase in the volume of imports into Iran since early 1960, consequence of, to employ many foreign flag vessels to trade within Iranian ports caused some concerns to the country. In addition, the need and importance of a regular carriage of goods by sea and considering peculiar geographical characteristic, accessibility to open seas, with having had long water boundary and water ways to and from Iran made the necessity in initiating a research study to establish the first and biggest integrated national shipping lines; the result of the research study, started in 1961, was approved by the first general assembly meeting to establish Iranian National Shipping Company in August 1967 with the name of Aria Shipping Lines. Aria Shipping started its activity in 1967 by two small-size vessels with capacity of 1,000 and 1,550 tonnes in Persian Gulf area and 4 ocean-going vessels, Aria Sep, Aria Far, Aria Naz and Aria Gaam with the total capacity of 61,252 tonnes, put into service between the Persian Gulf-Europe and America.
By the end of 1978 the number of Aria shipping vessels was 42, with the total capacity of 525,000 DWT, which proved the increasing of the sea transportation volume by Aria shipping lines and its effective role in Iran economy. After the Islamic Revolution and change of economical and political policy on January 5, 1979, the authority renamed the Aria Shipping to Islamic Republic of Iran Shipping Lines and affiliated the company to the ministry of commerce. During the Iran–Iraq War, numerous vessels such as Aria Boom, Aria Jahan, Aria Shaad, Aria Omid, became total losses due to missile attacks, as a result of which the IRISL suffered dearly. After this period, the names of all the vessels were changed to those of martyrs and cities with the prefix "IRAN". However, since American sanctions have begun to hinder IRISL has taken to renaming its ships under shell companies in order to continue trading in banned goods; the sanctions are removed as a result of JCPOA deal with P5 +1 powers on lifting of nuclear sanctions against Iran, as of Winter 2016.
The International Maritime Organization has 140 member states with Iran ranking among the top 20. Iran plans to add 16 cargo ships to its naval fleet by mid-March 2010 to increase the total capacity to 5.8 million deadweight tons. The number of cargo ships in 2009 has reached 154, from 138 in 2008. In 2011, it was the biggest fleet in the Middle East with about 170 vessels; the Ports and shipping organization is a government agency under the authority of the Ministry of Roads and Urban Development, with responsibility for supervising maritime trade and the operation of commercial ports and shipping in Iranian waters. Marine transport is dependent on auxiliary capacities and facilities including ports, railroad and so on. Therefore, the port and shipping organization of Iran agreed to for operations of container terminals in Bandar Khorramshahr and Bandar Imam Khomeini to a subsidiary of IRISL in 2004. In addition, according to an agreement with the Islamic Republic of Iran Railways, a joint company was established to launch an express container line from southern Iranian ports to major destinations inside the country, as well as to CIS countries.
These measures were in line with the long-term policy of the government to develop the transit sector and activate North-South Transit Corridor. All port terminals are run by private companies. Negotiations for building six 75,000 DWT Panamax bulk carriers and 10 Handymax bulk carriers with the capacity of 53,000 DWT have been finalized with Iran Shipbuilding & Offshore Industries Complex Co. and SADRA shipyards and if the prices are finalized, total value of contracts signed with domestic shipyards will surpass $600 million. To support domestic industries, manufacturing containers inside the country has been encouraged; the first such contract, worth $10 million, was signed in 2001. It called for the production of 5,000 twenty-foot equivalent units worth of containers and, so far, 1,600 containers have been delivered; as per IRISL's director, Iran needs to purchase or build 40 vessels by 2009. Over the next two decades, Iran would need 500 new ships, including 120 oil tankers, 40 liquefied natural gas carriers and over 300 commercial vessels.
In 2009, in a move aimed at further enhancing Iran's shipbuilding industry, President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad said he will ban the purchase of foreign ships by Iranian organizations. Moreover, various kinds of industrial lubricants have been produced by Pars Oil Company as well as Behran Oil Company and, at present, about 70% of the lubricant needed by the fleet is supplied domestically. In Oct
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad is an Iranian politician and statesman who served as the sixth President of Iran from 2005 to 2013. He was the main political leader of the Alliance of Builders of Islamic Iran, a coalition of conservative political groups in the country. An engineer and teacher from a poor background, ideologically shaped by thinkers such as Navvab Safavi, Jalal Al-e-Ahmad and Ahmad Fardid, Ahmadinejad joined the Office for Strengthening Unity after the Iranian Revolution. Appointed a provincial governor, he was removed after the election of President Mohammad Khatami and returned to teaching. Tehran's council elected him mayor in 2003, he took a religious hard line. His 2005 presidential campaign, supported by the Alliance of Builders of Islamic Iran, garnered 62% of the runoff election votes, he became President on 3 August 2005. During his presidency, Ahmadinejad was a controversial figure within Iran, as well as internationally, he has been disregard for human rights. Internationally, he is criticized for his hostility towards countries including Israel, Saudi Arabia, the United Kingdom, the United States and other Western and Arab states.
In 2007, Ahmadinejad introduced a gas rationing plan to reduce the country's fuel consumption, cut the interest rates that private and public banking facilities could charge. He supports Iran's nuclear program, his election to a second term in 2009 was disputed and caused widespread protests domestically and drew significant international criticism. During his second term, Ahmadinejad came under fire not only from reformers but traditionalists in parliament and the Revolutionary Guard, from Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, over accusations of corruption, Ahmadinejad's dismissal of Intelligence minister Gholam-Hossein Mohseni-Eje'i, his support for his controversial close adviser Esfandiar Rahim Mashaei. On 14 March 2012, Ahmadinejad became the first president of the Islamic Republic of Iran to be summoned by the Islamic Consultative Assembly to answer questions regarding his presidency. Limited to two terms under the current Iranian constitution, Ahmadinejad supported Esfandiar Rahim Mashaei's campaign for president.
On 15 June 2013, Hassan Rouhani was elected as Ahmadinejad's successor and assumed office on 3 August 2013. On 12 April 2017, Ahmadinejad announced that he intended to run for a third term in the 2017 Iranian presidential election, against the objections of Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khamenei, his nomination was rejected by the Guardian Council. During the 2017–18 Iranian protests Ahmedinejad criticized the current government of Iran. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad was born on 28 October 1956 near Garmsar, in the village of Aradan, in Semnan province, his mother, was a Sayyida, an honorific title given to those believed to be direct bloodline descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. His father, was a grocer and barber, was a religious Shia who taught the Quran; when Mahmoud was one year old, his family moved to Tehran. Mahmoud's father changed their family name from "Saborjhian" or "Sabaghian" to Ahmadinejad in 1960 to avoid discrimination when the family moved to the city. Sabor is Persian for a once common occupation within the Semnan carpet industry.
Ahmadinejad's uncle and his brother Davoud Ahmadinejad have confirmed that the previous surname was "Sabbaghian". Ahmadinejad is a composite name: Ahmadi Nejad. Ahmad was his father's name; the suffix Nejad in Persian means race, therefore the term Ahmadi Nejad means "the lineage of Ahmad". According to the interviews with the relatives of Ahmadi Nejad, his father who works in a small shop, sold his house in Tehran and bought a smaller one, giving the leftover to charity and poor people. In 1976, Ahmadinejad took Iran's national university entrance examination. According to his autobiography, he was ranked 132nd out of 400,000 participants that year, soon enrolled in the Iran University of Science and Technology, located at Tehran, as an undergraduate student of civil engineering, he would earn his doctorate in 1997 in transportation engineering and planning from Iran University of Science and Technology as well, when he was the mayor of Ardabil Province, located at the north-west of the country.
Some details of Ahmadinejad's life during the 1980s are not publicly known, but it is known that he held a number of administrative posts in the province of West Azerbaijan, Iran. Many reports say that after Saddam Hussein ordered the invasion of Iran, Ahmadinejad joined the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps and served in their intelligence and security apparatus, but his advisor Mojtaba Samareh Hashemi has said: "He has never been a member or an official member of the Revolutionary Guards", having been a Basiji-like volunteer instead. Ahmadinejad was accepted to a Master of Science program at his alma mater in 1986, he joined the faculty there as a lecturer in 1989, in 1997 received his doctorate in civil engineering and traffic transportation planning. After the Islamic Revolution, Ahmadinejad became a member of the Office for Strengthening Unity, an organization developed to prevent students from sympathizing or allying with the emerging militant Mojahedin-e Khalq organisation. Ahmadinejad first assumed political office as unelected governor to both Maku and Khoy in West Azarbaijan Province during the 1980s.
He became an advisor to the governor general of Kurdistan Province for two years. During his doctoral studies at Tehran, he was appointed governor general of newly formed Ardabil Prov
Floating production storage and offloading
A floating production storage and offloading unit is a floating vessel used by the offshore oil and gas industry for the production and processing of hydrocarbons, for the storage of oil. A FPSO vessel is designed to receive hydrocarbons produced by itself or from nearby platforms or subsea template, process them, store oil until it can be offloaded onto a tanker or, less transported through a pipeline. FPSOs are preferred in frontier offshore regions as they are easy to install, do not require a local pipeline infrastructure to export oil. FPSOs can be a vessel built specially for the application. A vessel used only to store oil is referred to as offloading vessel. Recent developments in LNG industry require relocation of conventional LNG processing trains into the sea to unlock remote, smaller gas fields that would not be economical to develop otherwise, reduce capital expenses, impact to environment. Emerging new type of FLNG facilities will be used. Unlike FPSOs apart of gas production and offloading, they will allow full scale deep processing, same as onshore LNG plant has to offer but squeezed to 25% of its footprint.
First 3 FLNG's are under construction: Prelude FLNG, PFLNG1 and PFLNG2. Oil has been produced from offshore locations since the late 1940s. All oil platforms sat on the seabed, but as exploration moved to deeper waters and more distant locations in the 1970s, floating production systems came to be used; the first oil FPSO was built in 1977 on the Shell Castellon field, located in the Spanish Mediterranean. Today, over 270 vessels are deployed worldwide as oil FPSOs. On July 29, 2009, Shell and Samsung announced an agreement to build up to 10 LNG FPSOs, at same Samsung Yard Flex LNG appeared to construct smaller units. On May 20, 2011, Royal Dutch Shell announced the planned development of a floating liquefied natural gas facility, called Prelude with 488 m long and 74 m wide, to be situated 200 km off the coast of Western Australia and is due for completion in around 2016, the largest vessel man-made ever. Royal Dutch Shell, LNG FPSO, Samsung Heavy Industries at a cost of $12 Billion. In June 2012, Petronas made a contract of procurement engineering, construction and commissioning, a project with the Technip and DSME consortium.
The unit is destined for the Kanowit gas field off Malaysia. It is expected to be the World's First Floating Liquefaction Unit in operation when completed in 2015. At the opposite end of the LNG chain, the first conversion of an LNG carrier, Golar LNG owned Moss type LNG carrier into an LNG floating storage and regasification unit was carried out in 2007 by Keppel shipyard in Singapore. Oil produced from offshore production platforms can be transported to the mainland either by pipeline or by tanker; when a tanker is chosen to transport the oil, it is necessary to accumulate oil in some form of storage tank, such that the oil tanker is not continuously occupied during oil production, is only needed once sufficient oil has been produced to fill the tanker. Floating production and offloading vessels are effective in remote or deep water locations, where seabed pipelines are not cost effective. FPSOs eliminate the need to lay expensive long-distance pipelines from the processing facility to an onshore terminal.
This can provide an economically attractive solution for smaller oil fields, which can be exhausted in a few years and do not justify the expense of installing a pipeline. Furthermore, once the field is depleted, the FPSO can be moved to a new location. A Floating Storage and Offloading unit is a simplified FPSO, without the capability for oil or gas processing. Most FSOs are converted single hull supertankers. An example is ex Seawise Giant, which for many years was the world's largest ship, it was converted into an FSO for offshore use before being scrapped. At the other end of the LNG logistics chain, where the natural gas is brought back to ambient temperature and pressure, specially modified ships may be used as floating storage and regasification units. A LNG floating storage and regasification unit receives liquefied natural gas from offloading LNG carriers, the onboard regasification system provides natural gas exported to shore through risers and pipelines. FSO, Floating Storage and Offloading FPSO, Floating Production and Offloading FDPSO, Floating and Production, Storage and Offloading FSRU, Floating Storage Regasification Unit.
In addition to the historical records mentioned, a few more are added in this section. The FPSO operating in the deepest waters is the FPSO BW Pioneer and operated by BW Offshore on behalf of Petrobras Americas INC; the FPSO is moored at a depth of 2,600 m in Block 249 Walker Ridge in the US Gulf of Mexico and is rated for 80,000 bbl/d. The EPCI contract was awarded in October 2007 and production started in early 2012; the FPSO conversion was carried out at MMHE Shipyard Pasir Gudang in Malaysia, while the topsides were fabricated in modules at various international vendor locations. The FPSO has a disconnectable turret; the vessel can reconnect with minimal down time. A contract for an FPSO to operate in deeper waters for Shell's Stones field in the US Gulf of Mexico was awarded to SBM Offshore in July 2013. One of the world's largest FPSO is the Kizomba A, with a storage capacity of 2.2 million barrels. Built at a cost of over US$800 million by Hyundai Heavy Industries in Ulsan
Strait of Hormuz
The Strait of Hormuz is a strait between the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. It provides the only sea passage from the Persian Gulf to the open ocean and is one of the world's most strategically important choke points. On the north coast lies Iran, on the south coast the United Arab Emirates and Musandam, an exclave of Oman. At its narrowest, the strait has a width of 21 nautical miles. About 20% of the world's petroleum passes through the strait, making it a important strategic location for international trade; the opening to the Persian Gulf was described, but not given a name, in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, a 1st-century mariner's guide: At the upper end of these Calaei islands is a range of mountains called Calon, there follows not far beyond, the mouth of the Persian Gulf, where there is much diving for the pearl-mussel. To the left of the straits are great mountains called Asabon and to the right there rises in full view another round and high mountain called Semiramis. At the upper end of this gulf there is a market-town designated by law called Apologus, situated near Charaex Spasini and the River Euphrates.
In the 10th–17th centuries AD, the Kingdom of Ormus, which seems to have given the strait its name, was located here. Scholars and linguists derive the name "Ormuz" from the local Persian word هورمغ Hur-mogh meaning date palm. In the local dialects of Hurmoz and Minab this strait is still called Hurmogh and has the aforementioned meaning; the resemblance of this word with the name of the Persian god هرمز Hormoz has resulted in the popular belief that these words are related. Jodocus Hondius labels the Strait Basora fretum on his 1606 map of the Ottoman Empire. To reduce the risk of collision, ships moving through the Strait follow a Traffic Separation Scheme: inbound ships use one lane, outbound ships another, each lane being two miles wide; the lanes are separated by a two-mile-wide "median". To traverse the Strait, ships pass through the territorial waters of Iran and Oman under the transit passage provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Although not all countries have ratified the convention, most countries, including the U.
S. accept these customary navigation rules as codified in the Convention. In April 1959 Iran altered the legal status of the strait by expanding its territorial sea to 12 nautical miles and declaring that it would recognize only transit by innocent passage through the newly expanded area. In July 1972, Oman expanded its territorial sea to 12 nautical miles by decree. Thus, by mid-1972, the Strait of Hormuz was "closed" by the combined territorial waters of Iran and Oman. During the 1970s, neither Iran or Oman attempted to impede the passage of warships through the strait, but in the 1980s, both countries asserted claims that were different from customary law. Upon ratifying UNCLOS in August 1989, Oman submitted declarations confirming its 1981 royal decree that only innocent passage is permitted through its territorial sea; the declarations further asserted that prior permission was required before foreign warships could pass through Omani territorial waters. Upon signing the convention in December 1982, Iran entered a declaration stating “that only states parties to the Law of the Sea Convention shall be entitled to benefit from the contractual rights created therein”, including “the right of transit passage through straits used for international navigation”.
In May 1993, Iran enacted a comprehensive law on maritime areas, several provisions of which conflict with UNCLOS provisions, including a requirement that warships and nuclear-powered ships obtain permission before exercising innocent passage through Iran’s territorial waters. The United States does not recognize any of the claims by Oman and Iran and has contested each of them. Oman has a radar site Link; this site is on a small island on the peak of Musandam Governorate. A 2007 report from the Center for Strategic and International Studies stated that 17 million barrels passed out of the Persian Gulf daily, but that oil flows through the Strait accounted for 40% of all world-traded oil. According to the U. S. Energy Information Administration, in 2011, an average of 14 tankers per day passed out of the Persian Gulf through the Strait carrying 17 million barrels of crude oil; this was said to represent 35% of the world's seaborne oil shipments and 20% of oil traded worldwide. The report stated that more than 85% of these crude oil exports went to Asian markets, with Japan, South Korea and China the largest destinations.
The Tanker War phase of the Iran–Iraq War started when Iraq attacked the oil terminal and oil tankers at Iran's Kharg Island in early 1984. Saddam's aim in attacking Iranian shipping was, among other things, to provoke the Iranians to retaliate with extreme measures, such as closing the Strait of Hormuz to all maritime traffic, thereby bringing American intervention. Iran limited the retaliatory attacks to Iraqi shipping. On 18 April 1988, the U. S. Navy waged a one-day battle against Iranian forces around the strait; the battle, dubbed Operation Praying Mantis by the U. S. was launched in retaliation for the USS Samuel B. Roberts striking a mine laid in the channel by Iran on 14 April. U. S. forces sank one frigate, one gunboat, up to six armed speedboats, as well as damaging a second frigate. On 3 July 1988, 290 pe