Iran called Persia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, to the west by Turkey and Iraq; the country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE, it was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history.
The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE; the Islamization of Iran led to the decline of Zoroastrianism, by the country's dominant religion, Iran's major contributions to art and science spread within the Muslim rule during the Islamic Golden Age. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were conquered by the Seljuq Turks and the Ilkhanate Mongols; the rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses.
The Iranian Constitutional Revolution in the early 20th century led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing Western political influence. Subsequent widespread dissatisfaction and unrest against the monarchy led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for eight years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides; the sovereign state of Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy.
The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage sites, the third largest number in Asia and 11th largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians, Azeris and Lurs. Organizations including Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have criticized Iran's women's rights record; the term Iran derives directly from Middle Persian Ērān, first attested in a third-century inscription at Rustam Relief, with the accompanying Parthian inscription using the term Aryān, in reference to the Iranians. The Middle Iranian ērān and aryān are oblique plural forms of gentilic nouns ēr- and ary-, both deriving from Proto-Iranian *arya-, recognized as a derivative of Proto-Indo-European *ar-yo-, meaning "one who assembles". In the Iranian languages, the gentilic is attested as a self-identifier, included in ancient inscriptions and the literature of the Avesta, remains in other Iranian ethnic names Alan and Iron.
Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due to the writings of Greek historians who referred to all of Iran as Persís, meaning "land of the Persians", while Persis itself was one of the provinces of ancient Iran, today defined as Fars. As the most extensive interaction the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, the term persisted long after the Greco-Persian Wars. In 1935, Reza Shah requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, effective March 22 that year; as The New York Times explained at the time, "At the suggestion of the Persian Legation in Berlin, the Tehran government, on the Persian New Year, March 21, 1935, substituted Iran for Persia as the official name of the country." Opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision, Professor Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, propagated a move to use Persia and Iran interchangeably. Today, both Iran and Persia are used in cultural contexts, while Iran remains irreplaceab
Persian traditional music
Persian traditional music or Iranian traditional music known as Persian classical music or Iranian classical music, refers to the classical music of Iran. It consists of characteristics developed through the country's classical and contemporary eras. Due to the exchange of musical science throughout history, many of Iran's classical melodies and modes are related to those of its neighboring cultures. Iran's classical art music continues to function as a spiritual tool, as it has throughout history, much less of a recreational activity, it belongs for the most part to the social elite, as opposed to the folkloric and popular music, in which the society as a whole participates. However, the parameters of Iran's classical music have been incorporated into folk and pop music compositions; the history of musical development in Iran dates back thousands of years. Archaeological records attributed to "pre-Iranian" civilizations, such as those of Elam in the southwest and of Oxus in the northeast, demonstrate musical traditions in the prehistoric times.
Little is known about the music of the classical Iranian empires of the Medes, the Achaemenids, the Parthians. However, an elaborate musical scene is revealed through various fragmentary documents, including those that were observed at the court and in public theaters and those that accompanied religious rituals and battle preparations. Jamshid, a king in Iranian mythology, is credited with the "invention" of music; the history of Sasanian music is better documented than the earlier periods, the names of various instruments and court musicians from the reign of the Sasanians have been attested. Under the Sasanian rule, modal music was developed by a highy-celebrated poet-musician of the court named Barbad, remembered in many documents, he may have invented the lute and the musical tradition, to transform into the forms of dastgah and maqam. He has been credited to have organized a musical system consisting of seven "royal modes", 30 derived modes, 360 melodies. Iran's academic classical music, in addition to preserving melody types attributed to Sasanian musicians, is based on the theories of sonic aesthetics as expounded by the likes of Iranian musical theorists in the early centuries of after the Muslim conquest of the Sasanian Empire, most notably Avicenna, Qotb-ed-Din Shirazi, Safi-ed-Din Urmawi.
It is linked directly to the music of the 16th–18th-century Safavid Empire. Under the reign of the 19th-century Qajar dynasty, the classical melody types were developed, alongside the introduction of modern technologies and principles from the West. Mirza Abdollah, a prominent tar and setar master and one of the most respected musicians of the court of the late Qajar period, is considered a major influence on the teaching of classical Iranian music in Iran's contemporary conservatories and universities. Radif, the repertoire that he developed in the 19th century, is the oldest documented version of the seven dastgah system, is regarded as a rearrangement of the older 12 maqam system. During the late Qajar and the early Pahlavi periods, numerous musical compositions were produced within the parameters of classical Iranian modes, many involved western musical harmonies; the introduction and popularity of western musical influences in the early contemporary era was criticized by traditionalists, who felt that traditional music was becoming endangered.
It was prior to the 1950s. In 1968, Dariush Safvat and Nur-Ali Borumand helped form an institution called the Center for Preservation and Propagation of Iranian Music, with the help of Reza Ghotbi, director of the National Iranian Radio and Television, an act, credited with saving traditional music in the 1970s; the "Radif of Iranian music" was inscribed on the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in 2009, described as "the traditional repertoire of the classical music of Iran". Iran's classical art music relies on both improvisation and composition, is based on a series of modal scales and tunes. Compositions can vary immensely from start to finish alternating between low, contemplative pieces and athletic displays of musicianship called tahrir; the common repertoire consists of more than 200 short melodic motions, which are classified into seven modes. Two of these modes have secondary modes branching from them; this whole body is called radif, of which there are several versions, each in accordance to the teachings of a particular master.
By the end of the Safavid Empire, more complex musical movements in 10, 14, 16 beats stopped being performed. In the early Qajar era, the rhythmic cycles were replaced by a meter based on the qazal, the maqam system of classification was reconstructed into the radif system. Today, rhythmic pieces are performed with some exceptions; the reng are always in a 6/8 time frame. A typical Iranian classical performance consists of five parts, namely pišdarāmad, čahārmezrāb, āvāz, reng. A performance forms a sort of suite. Unconventionally, these parts may be omitted. Iran's classical art music is vocal based, the vocalist plays a crucial role, as he or she decides what mood to express and which dastgah relates to that mood. In many cases, the vocalist is responsible for choosing the lyrics. If the performance requires a singer, the singer is accompanied by at least one wind or string instrument, at least one type
"The Royal Salute" known as "The Health of the Shah" was the royal and national anthem of Persia between 1873 and 1909. Alfred Jean Baptiste Lemaire composed this anthem in 1873 on the orders of Naser al-Din Shah, it had no lyrics. Salām-e Shāh was played in official ceremonies during the reign of Naser al-Din Shah, Mozaffar ad-Din Shah and Mohammad Ali Shah, it was played as Persian national anthem during Naser al-Din Shah’s and Mozaffar ad-Din Shah’s European tours. In 1909 after the fall of Mohammad Ali Shah, the anthem was abolished and after coronation of his son and successor Ahmad Shah in 1914, Salute of Sublime State of Persia was adopted as Persian national anthem; this anthem was rearranged and orchestrated by the Iranian composer Siavash Beizai. Only the main parts of this hymn are derived from the original version. There are some harmonic and formal corrections in this piece; the Introduction, the middle part and the closing part are composed by Siavash Beizai too. After the great popularity of this Anthem, it has been misused by the official Iranian Radio and Television and the Government without any permission of the cocomposer Siavash Beizai.
Bijan Taraqi was asked by Peyman Soltani, the leader of Melal Orchestra of Iran, to write a lyric for the old national anthem. This new version of the anthem was performed in October 2005 by Melal Orchestra of Iran; the singer of this version is Salar Aghili. "Irān-e Javān" means "Young Iran" in English. It is known as "Vatanam", which means "My Homeland". Original version of Salām-e Shāh قطعه وطنم با خوانندگي مهران مديري به همراه اركستري به رهبري شهرداد روحاني در جشن خانه سينما First Iran National Anthem: Vatanam وطنم National anthem of Persia - Mp3 download First National anthem of Persia The First National Anthem of Iran, vocal: Shaghayegh Kamali "نخستين سرود ملی ايران" "Vatanam Vatanam" "وطنم وطنم" The First National Anthem of Iran, vocal Salar Aghili https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RwQePjRuKfs The original performance of the First National Anthem of Iran Freedom, the Cry of my Country, Iran.
Vigen or Viguen, known as "King of Iranian pop" and the "Sultan of Jazz", was an Iranian pop music singer and actor, well known throughout the Near East. Vigen sang both in Armenian. Vigen was of Iranian-Armenian ethnicity and during the golden age of Persian pop until the 1979 Islamic Revolution, many Iranian performers and celebrities—among them Delkash and Elaheh—yearned to be associated with him. Vigen's innovative and upbeat style of music had a great influence on paving the way for a new genre of Iranian music, influenced by Western European and Latin American styles, his musical and performing talents soon captured the attention of many prominent Iranian lyricists and composers such as Parveez Vakili and Kareem Fakkour, together they created some of Iran's most memorable songs. Viguen was born into an Iranian-Armenian family of eight children in the western Iranian city of Hamadan, his father died of complications related to pneumonia. He was raised by his older brother and his mother after moving away from the family property because of a disagreement with her father.
Karo Derderian, Viguen's older brother was a well known Iranian poet and wrote the lyrics for Viguen's signature song, "Lala'ee". During World War II, the family moved to the northern city of Tabriz where local Azerbaijani nationalists declared the area a separatist republic, with the help of the occupying Soviet forces; this is where Viguen bought his first guitar from a Russian soldier and discovered his affinity for American and Spanish music and adopted many of those melodies for his songs with Persian lyrics that became some of Iran's most popular music to date. In his mid teens, Viguen moved to Tehran and in 1951 he was hired to perform at the Café Shemiran, an upscale restaurant & bar on the northern outskirts of the capital city. One fateful day while picnicking by the sea with his family and friend-songwriter Nasser Rastegarenejad, he was discovered by a national radio network producer, Mr. Vahkili and his first song, "Mahtab", was broadcast on Tehran radio - and became an instant hit.
Equated to Elvis Presley by some fans in Iran, Viguen's debonair looks and his tall and athletic physique added to his appeal as Iran's first male pop star - among young Iranian women at a time when ideas of emancipation and liberalism were taking hold in the 1950s and 60s. He was one of the first Iranian entertainers to perform with a guitar. Viguen settled in California, he would return to Iran yearly to perform in Vegas-styled nightclubs. After the Islamic Revolution of 1979, he was exiled to the United States because pop music was no longer allowed in Iran, he celebrated the 50th anniversary of his career at the Hollywood Palladium in Los Angeles in February 2001. Some of his most notable songs are "Baroon Barooneh", "Asb-e Ablagh", "Mahtab", Lala'ee, "Gol-e Sorkh", "Ragheeb", "Simin-bari", "Awazekhan" and "Del-e Divaneh". More than 600 songs were recorded during his long career. Vigen's cinematic debut came in 1955 when he was discovered by the prominent Armenian-Iranian director Samuel Khachikian for a role in his film "Chaharrahe Havades".
In years, he played roles in many other motion pictures by Khachikian and other producers, among them "Zalembala", "Tappeheh Eshgh", "Arshin Malalan" and "Cheshmeh Oshagh","Atash Khakestar", "Arooseh Darya". He on founded "Vigen film" to produce his own movies but did not pursue the enterprise.' His first wife was named Olga and they had three daughters together, including actress Aylin Vigen, Aylin's fraternal twin sister, singer Jaklin Munns, Katrin Vigen. His second wife was named Nadia and they had one daughter named, Evelyn Vigen, one son named Edwin Derderian, his third wife was Karen Holston Derderian and he had a step-daughter, Robin Navonne Brakefield. Vigen died at home on October 26, 2003 from cancer and was buried at Pierce Brothers Valley Oaks Cemetery in Westlake Village, California. At the time of his death he had recorded more than six hundred songs, starred in six motion pictures and made guest appearances on various popular TV shows including The Bob Hope Show, The Jack Benny Show and Mission Impossible.
List of Iranian musicians Music of Iran Persian pop music List of Iranian Armenians List of Iranian Americans Rock and alternative music in Iran Vigen Death in BBC Vigen Biography on BBC Persian Vigen Bio on Iranian Chamber Sheet Music of songs by Viguen
The double bass, or the bass, is the largest and lowest-pitched bowed string instrument in the modern symphony orchestra. It is a standard member of the orchestra's string section, as well as the concert band, is featured in concertos and chamber music in Western classical music; the bass is used in a range of other genres, such as jazz, 1950s-style blues and rock and roll, psychobilly, traditional country music, bluegrass and many types of folk music. The bass is a transposing instrument and is notated one octave higher than tuned to avoid excessive ledger lines below the staff; the double bass is the only modern bowed string instrument, tuned in fourths, rather than fifths, with strings tuned to E1, A1, D2 and G2. The instrument's exact lineage is still a matter of some debate, with scholars divided on whether the bass is derived from the viol or the violin family; however the body shape where it curves into the neck matches the viol family whereas in the rest of the violin family, the body meets the neck with no blending curve.
The double bass is played by plucking the strings. In orchestral repertoire and tango music, both arco and pizzicato are employed. In jazz and rockabilly, pizzicato is the norm. Classical music uses the natural sound produced acoustically by the instrument, as does traditional bluegrass. In jazz and related genres, the bass is amplified; the double bass stands around 180 cm from scroll to endpin. However, other sizes are available, such as a 1⁄2 or 3⁄4, which serve to accommodate a player's height and hand size; these sizes do not reflect the size relative to 4⁄4 bass. It is constructed from several types of wood, including maple for the back, spruce for the top, ebony for the fingerboard, it is uncertain whether the instrument is a descendant of the viola da gamba or of the violin, but it is traditionally aligned with the violin family. While the double bass is nearly identical in construction to other violin family instruments, it embodies features found in the older viol family. Like other violin and viol-family string instruments, the double bass is played either with a bow or by plucking the strings.
In orchestral repertoire and tango music, both arco and pizzicato are employed. In jazz and rockabilly, pizzicato is the norm, except for some solos and occasional written parts in modern jazz that call for bowing. In classical pedagogy all of the focus is on performing with the bow and producing a good bowed tone. Bowed notes in the lowest register of the instrument produce a dark, mighty, or menacing effect, when played with a fortissimo dynamic. Classical bass students learn all of the different bow articulations used by other string section players, such as détaché, staccato, martelé, sul ponticello, sul tasto, tremolo and sautillé; some of these articulations can be combined. Classical bass players do play pizzicato parts in orchestra, but these parts require simple notes, rather than rapid passages. Classical players perform both bowed and pizz notes using vibrato, an effect created by rocking or quivering the left hand finger, contacting the string, which transfers an undulation in pitch to the tone.
Vibrato is used to add expression to string playing. In general loud, low-register passages are played with little or no vibrato, as the main goal with low pitches is to provide a clear fundamental bass for the string section. Mid- and higher-register melodies are played with more vibrato; the speed and intensity of the vibrato is varied by the performer for an emotional and musical effect. In jazz and other related genres, much or all of the focus is on playing pizzicato. In jazz and jump blues, bassists are required to play rapid pizzicato walking basslines for extended periods; as well and rockabilly bassists develop virtuoso pizzicato techniques that enable them to play rapid solos that incorporate fast-moving triplet and sixteenth note figures. Pizzicato basslines performed by leading jazz professionals are much more difficult than the pizzicato basslines that Classical bassists encounter in the standard orchestral literature, which are whole notes, half notes, quarter notes, occasional eighth note passages.
In jazz and related styles, bassists add semi-percussive "ghost notes" into basslines, to add to the rhythmic feel and to add fills to a bassline. The double bass player stands, or sits on a high stool, leans the instrument against their body, turned inward to put the strings comfortably in reach; this stance is a key reason for the bass's sloped shoulders, which mark it apart from the other members of the violin family—the narrower shoulders facilitate playing the strings in their higher registers. The double bass is regarded as a modern descendant of the string family of instruments that originated in Europe in the 15th century, as such has been described as a bass Violin. Before the 20th century many double basses had only three strings, in contrast to the five to six strings typical of instruments in the viol family or the four strings of instruments in the violin family; the double bass's proportions are di
The clarinet is a family of woodwind instruments. It has a single-reed mouthpiece, a straight, cylindrical tube with an cylindrical bore, a flared bell. A person who plays a clarinet is called a clarinetist. While the similarity in sound between the earliest clarinets and the trumpet may hold a clue to its name, other factors may have been involved. During the Late Baroque era, composers such as Bach and Handel were making new demands on the skills of their trumpeters, who were required to play difficult melodic passages in the high, or as it came to be called, clarion register. Since the trumpets of this time had no valves or pistons, melodic passages would require the use of the highest part of the trumpet's range, where the harmonics were close enough together to produce scales of adjacent notes as opposed to the gapped scales or arpeggios of the lower register; the trumpet parts that required this specialty were known by the term clarino and this in turn came to apply to the musicians themselves.
It is probable that the term clarinet may stem from the diminutive version of the'clarion' or'clarino' and it has been suggested that clarino players may have helped themselves out by playing difficult passages on these newly developed "mock trumpets". Johann Christoph Denner is believed to have invented the clarinet in Germany around the year 1700 by adding a register key to the earlier chalumeau. Over time, additional keywork and airtight pads were added to improve the playability. In modern times, the most popular clarinet is the B♭ clarinet. However, the clarinet in A, just a semitone lower, is used in orchestral music. An orchestral clarinetist must own both a clarinet in A and B♭ since the repertoire is divided evenly between the two. Since the middle of the 19th century the bass clarinet has become an essential addition to the orchestra; the clarinet family ranges from the BBB♭ octo-contrabass to the A♭ piccolo clarinet. The clarinet has proved to be an exceptionally flexible instrument, used in the classical repertoire as in concert bands, military bands, marching bands, klezmer and other styles.
The word clarinet may have entered the English language via the French clarinette, or from Provençal clarin, "oboe". It would seem however that its real roots are to be found amongst some of the various names for trumpets used around the Renaissance and Baroque eras. Clarion and the Italian clarino are all derived from the medieval term claro which referred to an early form of trumpet; this is the origin of the Italian clarinetto, itself a diminutive of clarino, of the European equivalents such as clarinette in French or the German Klarinette. According to Johann Gottfried Walther, writing in 1732, the reason for the name is that "it sounded from far off not unlike a trumpet"; the English form clarinet is found as early as 1733, the now-archaic clarionet appears from 1784 until the early years of the 20th century. The cylindrical bore is responsible for the clarinet's distinctive timbre, which varies between its three main registers, known as the chalumeau and altissimo; the tone quality can vary with the clarinetist, instrument and reed.
The differences in instruments and geographical isolation of clarinetists led to the development from the last part of the 18th century onwards of several different schools of playing. The most prominent were French school; the latter was centered on the clarinetists of the Conservatoire de Paris. The proliferation of recorded music has made examples of different styles of playing available; the modern clarinetist has a diverse palette of "acceptable" tone qualities to choose from. The A and B ♭ clarinets use the same mouthpiece. Orchestral clarinetists using the A and B♭ instruments in a concert could use the same mouthpiece; the A and B♭ have nearly identical tonal quality, although the A has a warmer sound. The tone of the E♭ clarinet is brighter and can be heard through loud orchestral or concert band textures; the bass clarinet has a characteristically deep, mellow sound, while the alto clarinet is similar in tone to the bass. Clarinets have the largest pitch range of common woodwinds; the intricate key organization that makes this possible can make the playability of some passages awkward.
The bottom of the clarinet's written range is defined by the keywork on each instrument, standard keywork schemes allowing a low E on the common B♭ clarinet. The lowest concert pitch depends on the transposition of the instrument in question; the nominal highest note of the B♭ clarinet is a semitone higher than the highest note of the oboe. Since the clarinet has a wider range of notes, the lowest note of the B♭ clarinet is deeper than the lowest note of the oboe. Nearly all soprano and piccolo clarinets have keywork enabling them to play the E below middle C as their lowest written note, though some B♭ clarinets go down to E♭3 to enable them to match the range of the A clarinet. On the B♭ soprano clarinet, the concert pitch of the lowest note is D3, a whole tone lower than the written pitch. Most alto and bass clarinets have an extra key to allow a E♭3. Modern professional-quality bass clarinets have additional keywork to written C3. Among the less encountered members of t
PMC (TV channel)
PMC is a free-to-air satellite TV network owned by Persian Media Corporation with its headquarters in Dubai Media City. It was launched in 2003; the network is devoted to Persian music videos from ex-pat Iranian singers, as well as Iranian singers based in Iran. Arabic and Turkish hit songs are shown on the network; the channel is widely viewed in Iran, Middle East, Central Asia and Northern Africa via free-to-air satellite. In March 2017 the broadcasting via Hotbird was discontinued. In April 2017 PMC started a new broadcasting frequency via Astra. In December 2017 the channel returned to Hotbird. After the channel was only available on Yahsat for a while, it changed to Hotbird, Eutelsat 7A and Eutelsat 7B. PMC Music PMC on Facebook Persian Media Corporation Address