Iraq the Republic of Iraq, is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west. The capital, largest city, is Baghdad. Iraq is home to diverse ethnic groups including Arabs, Assyrians, Shabakis, Armenians, Mandeans and Kawliya. Around 95% of the country's 37 million citizens are Muslims, with Christianity, Yarsan and Mandeanism present; the official languages of Iraq are Kurdish. Iraq has a coastline measuring 58 km on the northern Persian Gulf and encompasses the Mesopotamian Alluvial Plain, the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range and the eastern part of the Syrian Desert. Two major rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates, run south through Iraq and into the Shatt al-Arab near the Persian Gulf; these rivers provide Iraq with significant amounts of fertile land. The region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers known as Mesopotamia, is referred to as the cradle of civilisation.
It was here that mankind first began to read, create laws and live in cities under an organised government—notably Uruk, from which "Iraq" is derived. The area has been home to successive civilisations since the 6th millennium BC. Iraq was the centre of the Akkadian, Sumerian and Babylonian empires, it was part of the Median, Hellenistic, Sassanid, Rashidun, Abbasid, Mongol, Safavid and Ottoman empires. The country today known as Iraq was a region of the Ottoman Empire until the partition of the Ottoman Empire in the 20th century, it was made up of three provinces, called vilayets in the Ottoman language: Mosul Vilayet, Baghdad Vilayet, Basra Vilayet. In April 1920 the British Mandate of Mesopotamia was created under the authority of the League of Nations. A British-backed monarchy joining these vilayets into one Kingdom was established in 1921 under Faisal I of Iraq; the Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq gained independence from the UK in 1932. In 1958, the monarchy was overthrown and the Iraqi Republic created.
Iraq was controlled by the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party from 1968 until 2003. After an invasion by the United States and its allies in 2003, Saddam Hussein's Ba'ath Party was removed from power, multi-party parliamentary elections were held in 2005; the US presence in Iraq ended in 2011, but the Iraqi insurgency continued and intensified as fighters from the Syrian Civil War spilled into the country. Out of the insurgency came a destructive group calling itself ISIL, which took large parts of the north and west, it has since been defeated. Disputes over the sovereignty of Iraqi Kurdistan continue. A referendum about the full sovereignty of Iraqi Kurdistan was held on 25 September 2017. On 9 December 2017, then-Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi declared victory over ISIL after the group lost its territory in Iraq. Iraq is a federal parliamentary republic consisting of one autonomous region; the country's official religion is Islam. Culturally, Iraq has a rich heritage and celebrates the achievements of its past in both pre-Islamic as well as post-Islamic times and is known for its poets.
Its painters and sculptors are among the best in the Arab world, some of them being world-class as well as producing fine handicrafts, including rugs and carpets. Iraq is a founding member of the UN as well as of the Arab League, OIC, Non-Aligned Movement and the IMF; the Arabic name العراق al-ʿIrāq has been in use since before the 6th century. There are several suggested origins for the name. One dates to the Sumerian city of Uruk and is thus of Sumerian origin, as Uruk was the Akkadian name for the Sumerian city of Urug, containing the Sumerian word for "city", UR. An Arabic folk etymology for the name is "well-watered. During the medieval period, there was a region called ʿIrāq ʿArabī for Lower Mesopotamia and ʿIrāq ʿAjamī, for the region now situated in Central and Western Iran; the term included the plain south of the Hamrin Mountains and did not include the northernmost and westernmost parts of the modern territory of Iraq. Prior to the middle of the 19th century, the term Eyraca Arabic was used to describe Iraq.
The term Sawad was used in early Islamic times for the region of the alluvial plain of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, contrasting it with the arid Arabian desert. As an Arabic word, عراق means "hem", "shore", "bank", or "edge", so that the name by folk etymology came to be interpreted as "the escarpment", viz. at the south and east of the Jazira Plateau, which forms the northern and western edge of the "al-Iraq arabi" area. The Arabic pronunciation is. In English, it is either or, the American Heritage Dictionary, the Random House Dictionary; the pronunciation is heard in US media. In accordance with the 2005 Constitution, the official name of the state is the "Republic of Iraq". Between 65,000 BC and 35,000 BC northern Iraq was home to a Neanderthal culture, archaeological remains of which have been discovered at Shanidar Cave This same region is the location of a number of pre-Neolithic cemeteries, dating from 11,000 BC. Since 10,000 BC, Iraq was one of centres of a Caucasoid Neolithic culture (k
Shia Islam is one of the two main branches of Islam. It holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor and the Imam after him, most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm, but was prevented from the caliphate as a result of the incident at Saqifah; this view contrasts with that of Sunni Islam, whose adherents believe that Muhammad did not appoint a successor and consider Abu Bakr, who they claim was appointed Caliph through a Shura, i.e. community consensus in Saqifa, to be the first rightful Caliph after the Prophet. Unlike the first three Rashidun caliphs, Ali was from the same clan as Muhammad, Banu Hashim as well as being the prophet's cousin and being the first male to become Muslim. Adherents of Shia Islam are called Shias of Ali, Shias or the Shi'a as a collective or Shi'i or Shi'ite individually. Shia Islam is the second largest branch of Islam: as of the late 2000s, Shia Muslims constituted 10-15% of all Muslims. Twelver Shia is the largest branch of Shia Islam, with 2012 estimates saying that 85% of Shias were Twelvers.
Shia Islam is based on the Quran and the message of Muhammad attested in hadith, on hadith taught by their Imams. Shia consider Ali to have been divinely appointed as the successor to Muhammad, as the first Imam; the Shia extend this Imammah doctrine to Muhammad's family, the Ahl al-Bayt, some individuals among his descendants, known as Imams, who they believe possess special spiritual and political authority over the community and other divinely ordained traits. Although there are many Shia subsects, modern Shia Islam has been divided into three main groupings: Twelvers and Zaidis, with Twelver Shia being the largest and most influential group among Shia; the word Shia means followers and is the short form of the historic phrase shīʻatu ʻAlī, meaning "followers of Ali", "faction of Ali", or "party of Ali". Shi'a and Shiism are the forms used in English, while Shi'ite or Shiite, as well as Shia, refer to its adherents; the term for the first time was used at the time of Muhammad. At present, the word refers to the Muslims who believe that the leadership of the community after Muhammad belongs to Ali and his successors.
Nawbakhti states that the term Shia refers to a group of Muslims that at the time of Muhammad and after him regarded Ali as the Imam and Caliph. Al-Shahrastani expresses that the term Shia refers to those who believe that Ali is designated as the Heir and caliph by Muhammad and Ali's authority never goes out of his descendants. For the Shia, this conviction is implicit in the history of Islam. Shia scholars emphasize that the notion of authority is linked to the family of the prophets as the verses 3:33,34 shows: "Indeed, God chose Adam and Noah and the family of Abraham and the family of'Imran over the worlds – Descendants, some of them from others, and God is Hearing and Knowing." Shia Muslims believe that just as a prophet is appointed by God alone, only God has the prerogative to appoint the successor to his prophet. They believe God chose Ali to be Muhammad's successor, the first caliph of Islam; the Shias believe. Ali was Muhammad's first-cousin and closest living male relative as well as his son-in-law, having married Muhammad's daughter Fatimah.
Muhammad invited people to Islam in secret for three years. In the fourth year of Islam, when Muhammad was commanded to invite his closer relatives to come to Islam he gathered the Banu Hashim clan in a ceremony. At the banquet, he was about to invite them to Islam when Abu Lahab interrupted him, after which everyone left the banquet; the Prophet ordered Ali to invite the 40 people again. The second time, Muhammad invited them to join, he said to them, I offer thanks to God for His mercies. I praise God, I seek His guidance. I believe in Him and I put my trust in Him. I bear witness. God has commanded me to invite you to His religion by saying:. I, warn you, call upon you to testify that there is no god but God, that I am His messenger. O ye sons of Abdul Muttalib, no one came to you before with anything better than what I have brought to you. By accepting it, your welfare will be assured in the Hereafter. Who among you will support me in carrying out this momentous duty? Who will share the burden of this work with me?
Who will respond to my call? Who will become my vicegerent, my deputy and my wazir? Ali was the only one to answer Muhammad's call. Muhammad told him to sit down, saying, "Wait! Someone older than you might respond to my call." Muhammad asked the members of Banu Hashim a second time. Once again, Ali was the only one to respond, again, Muhammad told him to wait. Muhammad asked the members of Banu Hashim a third time. Ali was still the only volunteer; this time, Ali's offer was accepted by Muhammad. Muhammad "drew close, pressed him to his heart, said to the assembly:'This is my wazir, my successor and my vicegerent. Listen to him and obey his commands.'" In another narration, when Muhammad accepted Ali's eager offer, Muhammad "threw up his arms around the generous youth, pressed him to his bosom" and said, "Behold my brother, my vizir, my vicegerent... Let all listen to his words, obey him." Sir Richard Burton writes about the banquet in his 1898 book, saying, "It won for a proselyte worth a thousand sabers in the pers
Osama Abdul Aziz al-Nujaifi or Najifi is an Iraqi politician and one of the three Vice Presidents of the country. As the Speaker of the Council of Representatives, the informal leader of the moderate Sunni al-Hadba party was the highest ranking Sunni politician of Iraq. An engineer by profession, al-Nujaifi served as Minister of Industry in the 2005–06 Iraqi Transitional Government, he won the 2010 parliamentary election and was elected the Speaker of the Council of Representatives. During this time, he built up a reputation as prime minister al-Maliki staunchest adversary, whom as a Sunni he could defy but not challenge. After leaving offices together with al-Maliki in 2014, he was rewarded the ceremonial post of a Vice President of Iraq, which he held until 2015; the positions of all three Vice Presidents was restored in October 2016. Al-Nujaifi was born 1956 in Mosul to a wealthy family of politicians. Both his grandfather Muhammad and his father served as members of parliament during the monarchist era.
He grew up racing Arabian horses for his family. In 1978, al-Nujaifi earned a degree from the University of Mosul. Shortly after graduation, he worked in the Iraqi government's electricity ministry for 12 years, involved in building power plants. Together with his brother Atheel, the governor of Ninawa, in the early 1990s he took over his family’s agricultural company, started out in the Arabian horse trade. During the rule of Saddam Hussein, the al-Nujaifi family remained out of politics, returning to the public scene following his toppling in 2003, they were however accused of harboring sympathies for Saddam's Baath Party, were indeed involved in horse trades with Saddam's sons Uday and Qusai. In the Iraqi Transitional Government, al-Nujaifi was appointed Minister of Industry. During his one-year tenure, he privatized most of the state-owned companies which included firms working in sectors from petrochemical and cement to sugar and heavy industry, he campaigned against the ratification of the Constitution of Iraq.
Following the Iraqi legislative election of December 2005, he was nominated by the Iraqi National List to become a member of the Council of Representatives. On 26 January 2006, he survived an assassination attempt, when a roadside bomb detonated close to his convoy near the town of Balad, killing three of his bodyguards. Heading a parliamentary committee to assess the humanitarian situation in Nineveh Province, he criticized the conduct of governor Duraid Kashmoula: "We have seen no trace of the huge sums of money said to have been appropriated for the province and could gather no idea on how they were spent."In September 2006 al-Nujaifi's bodyguard was assassinated. That month, al-Nujaifi sparked a walkout by the 55 MPSs of the Kurdistan Alliance when in a parliamentary speech he belittled the historical and current role of Kurds in Mosul area, his speech was seen chauvinist by the Kurds, urging fellow members of the Iraqi National List to distance themselves from al-Nujaifi's words. Al-Nujaifi claimed in October 2008 that the 2008 attacks on Christians in Mosul were carried out by Kurdish peshmerga and intelligence operatives.
The al-Nujaifi brothers' al-Hadba party contested the 2010 parliamentary election as part of the cross-sectarian Iraqiyya bloc, which became the largest parliamentary force. Iraqiyya however didn't manage to secure a clear majority to elect its Shiite leader Ayad Allawi to replace current prime minister Nuri al-Maliki. On 11 November 2010, after three days of pressure talk, al-Nujaifi was elected the Speaker of the Council of Representatives, obtaining 227 votes out of 295, with 30 MPs not attending the session. In turn, the power-sharing deal brokered by Kurdish politician Massoud Barzani secured al-Maliki and President Jalal Talabani's posts. In his first parliamentary speech, Nujafi however held al-Maliki's government responsible for the country’s "fear, hunger and corruption," adding that Iraq was considered today "the most corrupt country in the world."In his first visit to the US as Iraqi parliament speaker, al-Nujaifi refused following protocol, denying to place a wreath on the Arlington Tomb of the Unknowns on the basis that he considered the Americans "an occupying force rather than liberators".
When he revisited Washington in early 2014 to discuss the ongoing Sunni insurgency in Anbar province, he took a different stance, stressing the importance of the US role in Iraq "to support the political process developed in Iraq." He criticized the treatment of the Sunni Sahwa forces, who fought al-Qaeda in Iraq, though refused to join the Iraqi Army, until they were massively prosecuted by the al-Maliki government. "The policy of exclusion and marginalization of Sunnis and the arrest of thousands of them for illegal reasons provided a suitable ground for the return of al-Qaeda."Named "the inner circle’s new face", Nujaifi by was the highest-ranking Sunni politician of Iraq, Within the fragmented Iraqiyya national bloc, al-Nujaifi's al-Hadba party shaped the new moderately Sunni Muttahidoon coalition, advocating a Sunni federal region in Iraq to contest the 2013 governorate elections. Seen by many as a future presidential prospect, his new coalition however didn't succeed in playing a central role neither in the governorate elections nor in the 2014 parliamentary election.
After a weeklong deadlock situation, al-Nujaifi agreed not to seek another term as parliamentary speaker, if al-Maliki drops his premiership bid. As the prime minister cleared the path, Salim al-Jabouri from the Muttahidoon-allied Diyala is Our Identity coalition became the new parliamentary speaker. Al-Nujaifi was assigned the post of one of the three Vice Presidents of Iraq, along with the former prime
National Iraqi Alliance
The National Iraqi Alliance known as the Watani List, is an Iraqi electoral coalition that contested the Iraqi legislative election, 2010. The Alliance is composed of Shi'a Islamist parties; the alliance was created by the Supreme Council for Islamic Revolution in Iraq to contest in the January 2005 and December 2005 under the name United Iraqi Alliance, when it included all Iraq's major Shi'a parties. The United Iraqi Alliance won both those of elections however fell apart after several major parties left the alliance due to disputes with Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki and the Supreme Council; the component parties contested the 2009 provincial elections separately but that year started negotiations to revive the list. In August 2009 they announced the creation of the National Iraqi Alliance for the 2010 parliamentary election, this time without Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki's Islamic Dawa Party, which formed the State of Law Coalition; that year the two lists would re-unite again, forming the National Alliance.
The Alliance formed in the lead-up to the January 2005 elections from Shi’ite groups most the Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq, whose leader Abdul Aziz al-Hakim headed the list, Islamic Dawa Party. Other important members included the secular Iraqi National Congress led by Ahmed Chalabi and the independent nuclear physicist Hussain Shahristani, it included supporters of cleric Muqtada al-Sadr who preferred not to back his National Independent Cadres and Elites party, a number of independent Sunni representatives. The coalition was believed to have been supported by senior Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani, the most respected religious figure in Iraq. Although al-Sistani offered no official endorsement, many in Iraq understood the UIA to be the “al-Sistani list.” The twenty two parties included in the coalition, called List 228, were: Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq Badr Organisation Islamic Dawa Party Islamic Dawa Party—Iraq Organisation Islamic Virtue Party Hezbollah Movement in Iraq Hezbollah al-Iraq Islamic Action Organisation Sayyid Al-Shuhadaa Organisation Shaheed Al-Mihrab Organisation Iraqi National Congress Centrist Assembly Party Islamic Fayli Grouping in Iraq Fayli Kurd Islamic Union First Democratic National Party Assembly “Future of Iraq” Justice and Equality Grouping Islamic Master of the Martyrs Movement Islamic Union for Iraqi Turkomans Turkmen Fidelity MovementMany members of the Alliance had lived in exile in Iran, including Ibrahim al-Jaafari, Iraq’s Prime Minister from 2005 to 2006, who led the Islamic Dawa Party.
In 1980 thousands of al-Dawa supporters were imprisoned or executed after advocating replacing Saddam Hussein’s secular Ba'ath Party government with an Islamic government. The Iranian government supported their efforts and allowed members of Al-Da’wa to seek exile in Iran; the Alliance received 4.08 million votes in the election, which gave the bloc 140 seats on the 275-seat Council of Representatives of Iraq. The Alliance's nominees included 42 women; the Alliance formed a coalition Iraqi Transitional Government with the Democratic Patriotic Alliance of Kurdistan. Ibrahim al-Jaafari, leader of the Islamic Dawa Party, became th Prime Minister of Iraq and Jalal Talabani of the Kurdistani Alliance became the President of Iraq. In March 2005, the Iraqi Turkmen Front agreed to join the UIA’s caucus in the National Assembly. In return, Sistani pledged support for the recognition of Iraqi Turkmen as a national minority; the Iraqi National Congress left the alliance prior to the December 2005 elections, which brought the Sadrist Movement more into the Alliance.
Al-Sistani stated that he would not support any party in this election. The election saw an increased turnout because the Sunni Arab population decided not to boycott; the alliance won 5.0 million votes an increase of 23% in the number of votes but a reduction of 6.9% in the vote share. They gained 128 seats, 12 fewer than the previous election. Analysis of the seat allocation after the elections showed that the 109 district seats and 19 compensatory seats won by the UIA were split as follows: Other parties include: Centrist Coalition Party Turkman Islamic Union of Iraq Justice and Equality Assembly Iraqi Democratic Movement Movement of Hizbullah in Iraq Turkmen Loyalty Movement Saed Al Shuhada Islamic Movement Al Shabak Democratic Gathering Malhan Al Mkoter Reform And Building Meeting The Justice Community Iraq AhrarFollowing the election, the Islamic Virtue Party withdrew from the Alliance, saying they wanted to "prevent blocs forming on a sectarian basis"; this followed differences with Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki over control of the Oil Ministry in the Government of Iraq from 2006.
This was followed in September 2007 by the Sadrist Movement, who complained the Alliance was "dominated by some parties". The Alliance formed a coalition with the Kurdistani Alliance, the Sunni Arab-majority Iraqi Accord Front and the secularist Iraqi National List; the Alliance nominated Jaafari for another term as Prime Minister, but his appointment was blocked by the Alliance's coalition partners. Nouri al-Maliki, a deputy leader of the Islamic Dawa Party was agreed instead; the component parties of the United Iraqi Alliance contested the 2009 provincial elections separately and in August 2009 they announced a new coalition for the 2010 parliamentary election without Prime Minister Maliki's Islamic Dawa Party. The new alliance was called the National Iraqi Alliance; the chairma
The Fatah Alliance sometimes translated as the Conquest Alliance, is a political coalition in Iraq formed to contest the 2018 general election. The main components are groups involved in the Popular Mobilization Forces, a state-sponsored umbrella organization made up of Iraqi Shiite Muslims who fought alongside the Iraqi Army to defeat ISIL from 2014 to 2017, it is led by the leader of the Badr Organization. Reported components of the alliance include the Badr Organisation, Asa'ib Ahl al-Haq, Kata'ib Hezbollah and Kata'ib al-Imam Ali; the Badr Organisation, headed by Hadi Al-Amiri, was part of the ruling State of Law Coalition and announced their withdrawal in December 2017. Asa'ib Ahl al-Haq split from the Sadrist Movement in 2004, it has been one of the main Iraqi armed groups active in the Syrian Civil War. They have received funding and training from Iran's Quds Force and, like many Sadrists, are reported to have religious allegiance to the Iranian Grand Ayatollah Kazem al-Haeri, they formed a political wing, the Al-Sadiquon Bloc, to contest the 2014 general election, where they won one seat.
They were expected to win 37 seats in the parliament in 2018 elections, according to one opinion poll. Alliance towards Reforms Victory Alliance
Islamic Dawa Party – Iraq Organisation
The Islamic Dawa Party – Iraq Organisation is a political party in Iraq, a component of the United Iraqi Alliance. It split from the Islamic Dawa Party during the regime of Saddam Hussein when most of the leaders of Dawa were in exile, it was allocated 12 seats by the Alliance after the elections in December 2005. It is led by Hashim Al-Mosawy, its Secretary-General; the head of the parliamentary bloc of the party is Kasim Muhammad Taqi al-Sahlani. The Islamic Dawa Party was formed in 1957 in the Iraqi holy City of Najaf, their aim was to create a movement which would promote Islamic values and ethics, which would become an instrument for political activeness. This came at a time. Mohammad Baqir al-Sadr laid out the foundations for the party and its political ideology, based on Wilayat Al-Umma. Adawa Newspaper Al Masar TV
The Victory Alliance, is an Islamist Iraqi political alliance established by former Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi. The alliance was founded on 14 December 2017 by former Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi. Although a coalition was created between the Conquest Alliance and the Victory Alliance, on 15 January the Conquest Alliance withdrew because they would not have gained as many seats and some groups involved in the Victory Alliance were alleged to be involved in corruption. Alliance towards Reforms Fatah Alliance National Wisdom Movement State of Law Coalition Official Website