Tinirau and Kae
In Māori mythology, Tinirau is a guardian of fish. He is a son of the god of the sea, his home at Motutapu is surrounded with pools for breeding fish. He has several pet whales. Hinauri, sister to the Māui brothers, had married Irawaru, transformed into a dog by Māui-tikitiki. In her grief Hinauri throws herself into the sea, she does not drown but is cast ashore at the home of Tinirau, where she attracts his attention by muddying the pools he uses as mirrors. She marries Tinirau and uses incantations to kill his other two wives, who had attacked her out of jealousy; when her child Tūhuruhuru is born, the ritual birth ceremony is performed by a priest. After this is done, Tinirau lends Kae his pet whale to take him home. In spite of strict instructions to the contrary, Kae forces the whale, Tutu-nui, into shallow water, where it dies, is roasted and eaten by Kae and his people; when he learns of this Tinirau is furious and sends Hinauri with a party of women to capture Kae, to be identified by his overlapping front teeth.
The sisters perform indecent dances to make him laugh. When he laughs, they see his crooked teeth; the women sing a magic song which puts Kae into a deep sleep, carry him back to Motutapu. When Kae wakes from his sleep he is in Tinirau's house. Tinirau taunts him for his treachery, kills him. Tūhuruhuru is killed by the tribe of Popohorokewa for the death of Kae. In turn, Tinirau calls on Whakatau to destroy the Popohorokewa, which he did by burning them all in the house called Tihi-o-manono. In a South Island account, mounted on Tutunui, meets Kae, in a canoe. Kae borrows Tutunui, Tinirau goes on his way to find Hine-te-iwaiwa, travelling on a large nautilus that he borrows from his friend Tautini; when Tinirau smells the south wind he knows. Tinirau - general Polynesian Kinilau - Hawaiʻi Tinilau and ʻAe - Samoa Sinilau and Kae - Tonga B. G. Biggs,'Maori Myths and Traditions' in A. H. McLintock, Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, 3 Volumes. 1966, II:447-454. George Grey, Polynesian Mythology, Illustrated edition, reprinted 1976.
1956. H. M. Mead, Neil Grove, Ngā Pēpeha a ngā Tīpuna, The Sayings of the Ancestors, 2001, ISBN 086473462X E. R. Tregear, Maori-Polynesian Comparative Dictionary, 1891
Māori mythology and Māori traditions are the two major categories into which the legends of the Māori of New Zealand may usefully be divided. The rituals and the world view of Māori society were based on an elaborate mythology, inherited from a Polynesian homeland and adapted and developed in the new setting. Few records survive of the extensive body of Māori mythology and tradition from the early years of European contact; the missionaries had the best opportunity to get the information, but failed to do so at first, in part because their knowledge of the language was imperfect. Most of the missionaries who did master the language were unsympathetic to Māori beliefs, regarding them as'puerile beliefs', or even'works of the devil'. Exceptions to this general rule were J. F. Wohlers of the South Island, Richard Taylor, who worked in the Taranaki and Wanganui River areas, William Colenso who lived at the Bay of Islands and in Hawke's Bay. "The writings of these men are among our best sources for the legends of the areas in which they worked".
In the 1840s Edward Shortland, Sir George Grey, other non-missionaries began to collect the myths and traditions. At that time many Māori were literate in their own language and the material collected was, in general, written by Māori themselves in the same style as they spoke; the new medium seems to have had minimal effect on the content of the stories. Genealogies and narratives were written out in full, just as if they were being recited or sung. Many of these early manuscripts have been published, as of 2012 scholars have access to a great body of material containing multiple versions of the great myth cycles known in the rest of Polynesia, as well as of the local traditions pertaining only to New Zealand. A great deal of the best material is found in two books, Nga Mahi a nga Tupuna, collected by Sir George Grey and translated as Polynesian Mythology; the three forms of expression prominent in Māori and Polynesian oral literature are genealogical recital and narrative prose. The reciting of genealogies was well developed in Māori oral literature, where it served several functions in the recounting of tradition.
Firstly it served to provide a kind of time scale which unified all Māori myth and history, from the distant past to the present. It linked living people to the legendary heroes. By quoting appropriate genealogical lines, a narrator emphasised his or her connection with the characters whose deeds were being described, that connection proved that the narrator had the right to speak of them. "In the cosmogonic genealogies, to be described genealogical recital is revealed as a true literary form. What appears at first sight to be a mere listing of names is in fact a cryptic account of the evolution of the universe"'. Māori poetry was always chanted. Rhyme or assonance were not devices used by the Māori; the lines are indicated by features of the music. The language of poetry tends to differ stylistically from prose. Typical features of poetic diction are the use of synonyms or contrastive opposites, the repetition of key words. "Archaic words are common, including many which have lost any specific meaning and acquired a religious mystique.
Abbreviated, sometimes cryptic utterances and the use of certain grammatical constructions not found in prose are common". Prose narrative forms the great bulk of Māori legendary material; some appears to have been sacred or esoteric, but many of the legends were well-known stories told as entertainment in the long nights of winter. "Nevertheless, they should not be regarded as fairy tales to be enjoyed only as stories. The Māui myth, for example, was important not only as entertainment but because it embodied the beliefs of the people concerning such things as the origin of fire, of death, of the land in which they lived; the ritual chants concerning firemaking, death, so on made reference to Māui and derived their power from such reference". Myths are set in the remote past and their content have to do with the supernatural, they present Māori ideas of people. The mythology accounts for natural phenomena, the weather, the stars and the moon, the fish of the sea, the birds of the forest, the forests themselves.
Much of the culturally institutioned behaviour of the people finds its sanctions in myth. "Perhaps the most distinctive feature of myth, as distinct from tradition, is its universality. Each of the major myths is known in some version not only throughout New Zealand but over much of Polynesia as well"; the Māori understanding of the development of the universe was expressed in genealogical form. These genealogies appear in many versions, in which several symbolic themes recur. "Evolution may be likened to a series of periods of darkness or voids, each numbered in sequence or qualified by some descriptive term. In some cases the periods of darkness are succeeded by periods of light. In other versions the evolution of the universe is likened to a tree, with its base, tap roots, branching roots, root hairs. Another theme likens evolution to the development of a child in the womb, as in the sequence “the seeking, the searching, the conception, the growth, the feeling, the thought, the mi
Cape Reinga / Te Rerenga Wairua is the northwesternmost tip of the Aupouri Peninsula, at the northern end of the North Island of New Zealand. Cape Reinga is more than 100 km north of the nearest small town of Kaitaia. State Highway 1 extends all the way to the cape, but until 2010 was unsealed gravel road for the last 19 km. Suitable vehicles can travel much of the way via Ninety Mile Beach and Kauaeparaoa Stream stream bed. The'Te Rerenga Wairua' component of the name in Māori language means the leaping-off place of spirits. The'Reinga' part of the name is the Māori language word meaning the underworld. Both refer to the Māori belief that the cape is the point where the spirits of the dead enter the underworld. Cape Reinga is on the tentative list of UNESCO waiting to receive World Heritage Site status; the cape is a favourite tourist attraction, with over 120,000 visitors a year and around 1,300 cars arriving per day during peak season. Visitor numbers are growing by about five percent a year, the increase is to become more now that the road to the cape is sealed.
Cape Reinga is considered the separation marker between the Tasman Sea to the west and the Pacific Ocean to the east. From the lighthouse it is possible to watch the tidal race, as the two seas clash to create unsettled waters just off the coast; the Māori refer to this as the meeting of Te Moana-a-Rehua,'the sea of Rehua' with Te Tai-o-Whitirea,'the sea of Whitirea', Rehua and Whitirea being a male and a female respectively. The cape is mistakenly thought of as being the northernmost point of the North Island, thus, of mainland New Zealand. However, North Cape's Surville Cliffs, 30 km east of Cape Reinga are 3 km further north. Another headland just to the west of Cape Reinga / Te Rerenga Wairua is Cape Maria van Diemen, named by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman during his journey in 1642 and thought of by him to be the northernmost point of the newly discovered country he named'Staten Landt'. According to mythology, the spirits of the dead travel to Cape Reinga on their journey to the afterlife to leap off the headland and climb the roots of the 800-year-old pohutukawa tree and descend to the underworld to return to their traditional homeland of Hawaiki, using the Te Ara Wairua, the'Spirits' pathway'.
At Cape Reinga they depart the mainland. They turn at the Three Kings Islands for one last look back towards the land continue on their journey; as a place name, Te Rēinga has a widespread distribution across most of East Polynesia. A spring in the hillside, Te Waiora-a-Tāne played an important role in Māori ceremonial burials, representing a spiritual cleansing of the spirits, with water of the same name used in burial rites all over New Zealand; this significance lasted until the local population converted to Christianity, the spring was capped with a reservoir, with little protest from the converted population of the area. However, the spring soon disappeared and only reappeared at the bottom of the cliff, making the reservoir useless. In 2007 protests by Māori and increased tourist numbers led the Department of Conservation to announce that the public carpark and toilet facilities, which intrude on traditionally sacred ground, would be moved further away from the cape and extended, at a cost of NZ$6.5 million.
The road to the cape, one of the last stretches of State Highway 1, was only sealed following three years of work and include extensive roadside revegetation with over 150,000 plants to prevent erosion. In March 2009, the works on the visitor facilities were completed. Cape Reinga has a mild climate with high precipitation and little difference between the seasons; the lighthouse at Cape Reinga was built in 1941 and first lit during May of that year, replacing a lighthouse located on nearby Motuopao Island, built 1879. In 1987, the lighthouse was automated and the lighthouse keepers were withdrawn; the previous 1000 watt light has since been replaced with a 50 watt flashing beacon. Cape Reinga Cape Reinga
Rangatira are the hereditary Māori leaders of hapū, were described by ethnologists such as Elsdon Best as chieftains. Ideally, rangatira were people of great practical wisdom who held authority on behalf of the tribe and maintained boundaries between a tribe's land and that of other tribes. Changes to land ownership laws in the 19th century the individualisation of land title, undermined the position of rangatira, as did the widespread loss of land under the colonial government; the word "rangatira' means "chief, noble" and derives from Proto-Central Eastern Polynesian *langatila. Cognate words are found in Moriori, Cook Islands Māori, Tuamotuan and Hawaiian. Three interpretations of rangatira consider it as a compound of the Māori words "ranga" and "tira". In the first case, "ranga" is devised as the "tira" a shark fin; the allegoric sandbar helps reduce erosion of the dune. The fin reflects both the appearance of the sandbar, more "its physical and intentional dominance as guardian". Rangatira reinforce communities, cease to exist without them, have a protective capacity.
Ethnographer John White gave a different viewpoint in one of his lectures on Māori customs. He said Māori had traditionally formed two kahui who came together to discuss whakapapa. "Each chief in the kahui had his place assigned to him, according to the amount of knowledge he possessed. This act of the leader was called ranga, or putting in order; the people, as they came to the temple in a body, were called company. A third interpretation fits well with this translation, interlinking concepts related to the identity of the ‘tira’. In the first instance, the conditional hospitality presented in the form of weaving created for the ‘tira’ of guests. In the second instance, the collective intentionality "enacted in the weaving" of the ‘tira’ of hosts. Together, these concepts highlight the value attached to the "personal relationship" between the leader and their group; this type of relationship is similar to the mahara atawhai offered in the Treaty of Waitangi’s preamble by Queen Victoria, reflecting the pre-nineteenth century "personal bond between the ruler and subject"
Māui (Māori mythology)
In Māori mythology, as in other Polynesian traditions, Māui is a culture hero and a trickster, famous for his exploits and cleverness. Māui is credited with catching a giant fish using a fishhook taken from his grandmother's jaw-bone. In some traditions, his waka became the South Island, known as Te Waka a Māui, his last trick, which led to his death, involved the Goddess Hine-nui-te-pō. While attempting to make mankind immortal, Māui changed into a worm and entered her vagina, intent on leaving through her mouth while she slept. However, he was crushed by the obsidian teeth in her vagina. Māui-tikitiki Māui-tikitiki-a-Taranga Māui-pōtiki. Maui te whare kino; the offspring of Tū increased and multiplied and did not know death until the generation of Māui-tikitiki. Māui is the son of the wife of Makeatutara, he has a miraculous birth – his mother threw her premature infant into the sea wrapped in a tress of hair from her topknot – hence Māui is known as Māui-tikitiki-a-Taranga. Ocean spirits wrap the child in seaweed.
His divine ancestor, Tama-nui-te-rā takes the child and nourishes him to adolescence. Māui emerged from the sea and traveled to his mother's house, finding his four brothers, Māui-taha, Māui-roto, Māui-pae, Māui-waho. Māui's brothers are at first wary of the newcomer, but after he performed feats such as transforming himself into different kinds of birds, they acknowledged his power and admired him. At first, Taranga does not recognise Māui as her child; when he became old enough, he came to his relatives while they were gathered in the marae and being merry. Maui sat down behind his brothers. Soon his mother called the children and found a strange child, who proved to be her son, was taken in as one of the family; some of the brothers were jealous. In the days of peace remember the proverb,'When you are on friendly terms, settle your disputes in a friendly way, it is better for brothers, to be kind to other people. These are the ways by which men gain influence – by laboring for an abundance of food to feed others, by collecting property to give to others, by similar means by which you promote the good of others.
Thus Maui was received in his home. Māui's older brothers always refused to let him come fishing with them. One night, he wove for himself a flax fishing line and enchanted it with a karakia to give it strength, he stowed away in the hull of his brothers' waka. The next morning, when the waka was too far from land to return, he emerged from his hiding-place, his brothers would not lend him any bait, so he struck himself on the nose and baited the hook with his blood. Māui hauled a great fish, thus the North Island of New Zealand is known as Te Ika-a-Māui. When it emerged from the water, Māui left to find a tohunga to perform the appropriate ceremonies and prayers, leaving his brothers in charge. They, did not wait for Māui to return but began to cut up the fish, which writhed in agony, causing it to break up into mountains and valleys. If the brothers had listened to Māui, the island would have been a level plain, people would have been able to travel with ease on its surface. In Northern Māori traditions of New Zealand, Māui's waka became the South Island, with Banks Peninsula marking the place supporting his foot as he pulled up that heavy fish.
Besides the official name of Te Waipounamu, another Māori name for the South Island is Te Waka-a-Māui, the canoe of Māui. In southern traditions, the South Island is known instead as Te Waka o Aoraki and predates Māui's expedition. Māui sailed a canoe called Maahanui and after he had pulled up the North Island he left Maahanui on top of a mountain in the foothills behind what is now Ashburton; that mountain now bears the name Maahanui, the coastline between Banks Peninsula and the Waitaki River is called Te tai o Maahanui. Māui wanted to know where fire came from, so one night he went among the villages of his people and put all the fires out. Māui's mother Taranga, their rangatira, said that someone would have to ask Mahuika, the goddess of fire, for more. So Māui offered to find her. Mahuika lived in a cave in a burning mountain at the end of the earth, she gave Māui one of her burning fingernails to relight the fires, but Māui extinguished fingernail after fingernail until Mahuika became angry and sent fire to pursue Māui.
Māui transformed himself into a hawk to escape, but to no avail, for Mahuika set both land and sea on fire. Māui prayed to his great ancestors Tāwhirimātea, god of weather, Whaitiri-matakataka, goddess of thunder, who answered by pouring rain to extinguish the fire. Mahuika threw her last nail at Māui, but it missed him and flew into some trees including the māhoe and the kaikōmako. Māui brought back dry sticks of these trees to his village and showed his people how to rub the sticks together and make fire. Māui went fishing with the husband of his sister Hina. During the expedition, he became annoyed with Irawaru. In some, Māui was jealous of Irawaru's success at fishing.
The afterlife is the belief that the essential part of an individual's identity or the stream of consciousness continues after the death of the physical body. According to various ideas about the afterlife, the essential aspect of the individual that lives on after death may be some partial element, or the entire soul or spirit, of an individual, which carries with it and may confer personal identity or, on the contrary, may not, as in Indian nirvana. Belief in an afterlife is in contrast to the belief in oblivion after death. In some views, this continued existence takes place in a spiritual realm, in other popular views, the individual may be reborn into this world and begin the life cycle over again with no memory of what they have done in the past. In this latter view, such rebirths and deaths may take place over and over again continuously until the individual gains entry to a spiritual realm or Otherworld. Major views on the afterlife derive from religion and metaphysics; some belief systems, such as those in the Abrahamic tradition, hold that the dead go to a specific plane of existence after death, as determined by God, or other divine judgment, based on their actions or beliefs during life.
In contrast, in systems of reincarnation, such as those in the Indian religions, the nature of the continued existence is determined directly by the actions of the individual in the ended life, rather than through the decision of a different being. Theists believe some type of afterlife awaits people when they die. Members of some non-theistic religions tend to believe in an afterlife, but without reference to a deity; the Sadducees were an ancient Jewish sect that believed that there was a God but no afterlife. Many religions, whether they believe in the soul's existence in another world like Christianity and many pagan belief systems, or in reincarnation like many forms of Hinduism and Buddhism, believe that one's status in the afterlife is a reward or punishment for their conduct during life. Reincarnation is the philosophical or religious concept that an aspect of a living being starts a new life in a different physical body or form after each biological death, it is called rebirth or transmigration, is a part of the Saṃsāra doctrine of cyclic existence.
It is a central tenet of all major Indian religions, namely Buddhism, Hinduism and Sikhism. The idea of reincarnation is found in many ancient cultures, a belief in rebirth/metempsychosis was held by Greek historic figures, such as Pythagoras and Plato, it is a common belief of various ancient and modern religions such as Spiritism and Eckankar and is found as well in many tribal societies around the world, in places such as Australia, East Asia and South America. Although the majority of denominations within the Abrahamic religions of Judaism and Islam do not believe that individuals reincarnate, particular groups within these religions do refer to reincarnation; the historical relations between these sects and the beliefs about reincarnation that were characteristic of Neoplatonism, Hermeticism and Gnosticism of the Roman era as well as the Indian religions have been the subject of recent scholarly research. Unity Church and its founder Charles Fillmore teach reincarnation. Rosicrucians speak of a life review period occurring after death and before entering the afterlife's planes of existence, followed by a judgment, more akin to a final review or end report over one's life.
Heaven, the heavens, seven heavens, pure lands, Jannah, Valhalla, or the Summerland, is a common religious, cosmological, or transcendent place where beings such as gods, jinn, saints, or venerated ancestors are said to originate, be enthroned, or live. According to the beliefs of some religions, heavenly beings can descend to earth or incarnate, earthly beings can ascend to heaven in the afterlife, or in exceptional cases enter heaven alive. Heaven is described as a "higher place", the holiest place, a paradise, in contrast to hell or the underworld or the "low places", universally or conditionally accessible by earthly beings according to various standards of divinity, piety, faith or other virtues or right beliefs or the will of God; some believe in the possibility of a heaven on Earth in a world to come. In Indian religions, heaven is considered as Svarga loka. There are seven positive regions the soul can go to after seven negative regions. After completing its stay in the respective region, the soul is subjected to rebirth in different living forms according to its karma.
This cycle can be broken after a soul achieves Nirvana. Any place of existence, either of humans, souls or deities, outside the tangible world is referred to as otherworld. Hell, in many religious and folkloric traditions, is a place of torment and punishment in the afterlife. Religions with a linear divine history depict hell as an eternal destination, while religions with a cyclic history depict a hell as an intermediary period between incarnations; these traditions locate hell in another dimension or under the earth's surface and include entrances to hell from the land of the living. Other afterlife destinations include limbo. Traditions that do not conceive of the afterlife as a place of punishment or reward describe hell as an abode of the dead, the grave, a neutral place located under the surface of earth; the afterlife played an i
Kurī is the Māori name for the Polynesian dog. It was introduced to New Zealand by the Polynesian ancestors of the Māori during their migration from East Polynesia in the 13th century AD. According to Māori tradition, the demigod Māui transformed his brother-in-law Irawaru into the first dog. Kurī were bushy-tailed, with powerful shoulders, their coat colour spotted. Like other Polynesian dog breeds, they howled instead of barking – the Māori word for the howl was auau. Kurī were considered a delicacy. Cook sampled kurī on his 1769 voyage and declared it was as tasty as lamb. Kurī were used to hunt birds. In addition, Māori used their skins and fur to make dog-skin cloaks, weapon decorationsand poi. Kurī were seen everywhere in New Zealand during Cook's first voyage in 1769; the kurī became extinct in New Zealand some time after the arrival of European settlers. The remains of the last known specimens, a female and her pup, are now in the collection of the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa. Hawaiian Poi Dog – breed of Polynesian dogs native to Hawaii Tahitian Dog – breed of Polynesian dogs native to the Society Islands Marquesan Dog – breed of Polynesian dogs native to the Marquesas Islands